Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Research Postgraduate







Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus





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Yan H, Limbu S, Wang X, Nightingale J, Hamilton I, Wade J, Kwon S, Lee K, Kim J-Set al., 2019, Efficient charge carrier injection and balance achieved by low electrochemical doping in solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes, Advanced Functional Materials, Vol: 29, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1616-301X

Charge carrier injection and transport in polymer light‐emitting diodes (PLEDs) is strongly limited by the energy level offset at organic/(in)organic interfaces and the mismatch in electron and hole mobilities. Herein, these limitations are overcome via electrochemical doping of a light‐emitting polymer. Less than 1 wt% of doping agent is enough to effectively tune charge injection and balance and hence significantly improve PLED performance. For thick single‐layer (1.2 µm) PLEDs, dramatic reductions in current and luminance turn‐on voltages (VJ = 11.6 V from 20.0 V and VL = 12.7 V from 19.8 V with/without doping) accompanied by reduced efficiency roll‐off are observed. For thinner (<100 nm) PLEDs, electrochemical doping removes a thickness dependence on VJ and VL, enabling homogeneous electroluminescence emission in large‐area doped devices. Such efficient charge injection and balance properties achieved in doped PLEDs are attributed to a strong electrochemical interaction between the polymer and the doping agents, which is probed by in situ electric‐field‐dependent Raman spectroscopy combined with further electrical and energetic analysis. This approach to control charge injection and balance in solution‐processed PLEDs by low electrochemical doping provides a simple yet feasible strategy for developing high‐quality and efficient lighting applications that are fully compatible with printing technologies.

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