32 results found
Irwin R, Surapaneni A, Smith D, et al., 2017, Verification of an alternative sludge treatment process for pathogen reduction at two wastewater treatment plants in Victoria, Australia, Journal of Water and Health, Vol: 15, Pages: 626-637, ISSN: 1477-8920
At South East Water wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in Victoria, Australia, biosolids are stockpiled for three years in compliance with the State guidelines to achieve the highest pathogen reduction grade (T1), suitable for unrestricted use in agriculture and landscaping. However, extended stockpiling is costly, may increase odour nuisance and greenhouse gas emissions, and reduces the fertiliser value of the biosolids. A verification programme of sampling and analysis for enteric pathogens was conducted at two WwTPs where sludge is treated by aerobic and anaerobic digestion, air drying (in drying pans or solar drying sheds) and stockpiling, to enumerate and, if present, monitor the decay of a range of enteric pathogens and parasites. The sludge treatment processes at both WwTPs achieved T1 grade biosolids with respect to prescribed pathogenic bacterial numbers (<1 Salmonella spp. 50 g−1 dry solids (DS) and <100 Escherichia coli g−1 DS) and >3 log10 enteric virus reduction after a storage period of one year. No Ascaris eggs were detected in the influent to the WwTPs, confirming previous studies that the presence of helminth infections in Victoria is extremely low and that Ascaris is not applicable as a control criterion for the microbiological quality of biosolids in the region.
Rigby H, Clarke BO, Pritchard DL, et al., 2016, A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 541, Pages: 1310-1338, ISSN: 0048-9697
Rigby H, Dowding A, Fernandes A, et al., 2015, Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture, Agriculture, Vol: 5, Pages: 1289-1328, ISSN: 2077-0472
A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO), concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.
Rigby HL, Acker S, Dowding A, et al., 2015, The physico-chemical properties and concentrations of organic contaminants in waste materials recycled in agriculture, Tinos2015 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management
Rigby HL, Acker S, Dowding A, et al., 2015, Investigation of the Potential Transfer and Uptake of Contaminants into Food Arising from the use of Biosolids and other Recycled Wastes in Agriculture, SludgeTech
Rigby H, Smith SR, 2014, The nitrogen fertiliser value and other agronomic benefits of industrial biowastes, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol: 98, Pages: 137-154, ISSN: 1385-1314
An estimated 7 million t of industrial biowastes are landspread annually in the UK. Quantitative research into their fertiliser replacement value and agronomic benefit is required to increase their use in agriculture, recycle valuable nutrients, and contribute to the reduction of biodegradable waste sent to landfill. A programme of systematically designed field experiments was established to quantify the agronomic value of a range of industrial biowastes, including examples from the vegetable, meat and dairy processing industries and digested biowastes from industrial aerobic and anaerobic digestion plants. Dewatered anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD) was included as a reference material. Yield and N offtake responses of perennial ryegrass, at five rates of application of each biowaste type were used to calculate the N equivalency relative to mineral N fertiliser. Liquid thermophilic aerobic digestate (LTAD) of food waste was an effective source of available N, with an N equivalency of 59–76 %. Liquid mesophilic anaerobic co-digestates of livestock slurry and food waste (LcoMAD) had N equivalencies between 68 and 85 %. Vegetable processing waste and brewing waste (yeast) had N equivalency values of 45 and 89 %, respectively. Regarding other nutrient elements, the biowastes were generally a source of P, vegetable wastes were significant sources of K, and DMAD and the dewatered anaerobically digested organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW) were effective sources of S. Certain waste types were not effective sources of N for crop growth (e.g. potato processing wastes, kieselguhr) and require further investigation at greater rates of application to determine their agronomic benefit.
Rigby H, Smith SR, 2013, Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils, WASTE MANAGEMENT, Vol: 33, Pages: 2641-2652, ISSN: 0956-053X
Rigby HL, Pritchard D, Stephens R, 2013, Nitrogen transformations in paper mill sludge and paper mill sludge-amended soil – Literature review and laboratory investigation. Curtin University Project Number RES-ES-MRI-DP-51882-2. Report to Norske Skog, (Australasia) Pty Ltd.
Rigby H, Pritchard D, Collins D, et al., 2013, The use of alum sludge to improve cereal production on a nutrient-deficient soil, ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 34, Pages: 1359-1368, ISSN: 0959-3330
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2012, New markets for digestate from anaerobic digestion, SORP Conference: Developing Highly Profitable and Sustainable Products from Organic Resources
Clarke B, Rigby HL, Pritchard D, 2012, Literature Compendium of Sustainable Biosolids Management: Round 2. Summary Report to Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership, July 2012.
Rigby HL, 2011, New markets for digestate from anaerobic digestion. Report to WRAP, August 2011 project code ISS001-001. http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/New_Markets_for_AD_WRAP_format_Final_v2.c6779ccd.11341.pdf.
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2011, A Laboratory Investigation to Determine Aluminium Speciation and Potential for Leaching following Aluminium Clean Water By-Product Addition to Soil. Report to Yorkshire Water, September 2011.
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2011, A Laboratory Incubation Study to Determine Phosphorus Availability following Aluminium Clean Water By-Product Addition to Soil. Report to Yorkshire Water, October 2011.
Rigby HL, Clarke B, 2011, Land application of biosolids: nitrogen and phosphorus management. Literature survey for Smart Water, June 2010.
Pritchard DL, Penney N, McLaughlin MJ, et al., 2010, Land application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Australia: risks to the environment and food crops, Water Science and Technology, Vol: 62, Pages: 48-57, ISSN: 0273-1223
<jats:p>Australia is a large exporter of agricultural products, with producers responsible for a range of quality assurance programs to ensure that food crops are free from various contaminants of detriment to human health. Large volumes of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), although low by world standards, are increasingly being recycled to land, primarily to replace plant nutrients and to improve soil properties; they are used in agriculture, forestry, and composted. The Australian National Biosolids Research Program (NBRP) has linked researchers to a collective goal to investigate nutrients and benchmark safe concentrations of metals nationally using a common methodology, with various other research programs conducted in a number of states specific to regional problems and priorities. The use of biosolids in Australia is strictly regulated by state guidelines, some of which are under review following recent research outcomes. Communication and research between the water industry, regulators and researchers specific to the regulation of biosolids is further enhanced by the Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP). This paper summarises the major issues and constraints related to biosolids use in Australia using specific case examples from Western Australia, a member of the Australian NBRP, and highlights several research projects conducted over the last decade to ensure that biosolids are used beneficially and safely in the environment. Attention is given to research relating to plant nutrient uptake, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus (including that of reduced phosphorus uptake in alum sludge-amended soil); the risk of heavy metal uptake by plants, specifically cadmium, copper and zinc; the risk of pathogen contamination in soil and grain products; change to soil pH (particularly following lime-amended biosolids); and the monitoring of faecal contamination by biosolids in waterbodies using DNA techniques. Examples of products that are cur
Pritchard DL, Collins D, Rigby HL, 2010, Research Studies on the impact of the agricultural application of lime-amended biosolids. Final Report to the Water Corporation, April 2010. Contract CN-07-1374.
Rigby HL, Pritchard DL, Collins D, et al., 2010, Improving Guidelines for the Plant Available Nitrogen Value of Biosolids from Wastewater Treatment., Journal of Residuals Science and Technology, Vol: 7, Pages: 13-19
Rigby HL, Pritchard DL, 2010, Agronomic issues with alum sludge., Australian Water Association (AWA) Biosolids Specialty IV Conference
Rigby HL, Pritchard DL, Collins D, 2010, Research studies on the impact of the agricultural application of alum sludge. Final Report to the Water Corporation, January 2010. Contract CN-07-13674.
Rigby H, Perez-Viana F, Cass J, et al., 2009, The influence of soil and biosolids type, and microbial immobilisation on nitrogen availability in biosolids-amended agricultural soils - implications for fertiliser recommendations, SOIL USE AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 25, Pages: 395-408, ISSN: 0266-0032
Rigby HL, Pritchard DL, Collins D, et al., 2009, The nitrogen fertiliser replacement value of biosolids from wastewater treatment., Proceedings of the DAFWA Agribusiness Crop Updates
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2009, Agronomic benefit of industrial biowastes (WR0214). Final report for Defra. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, UK. Available online: http://bit.ly/1ajA2ZO.
Rigby HL, 2009, Phosphorus bioavailability in alum biosolids used in agriculture, CIWEM/Aqua Enviro 14th European Biosolids and Organic Residuals Conference
Rigby HL, Pritchard DL, Collins D, et al., 2009, Improving guidelines for the plant available nitrogen value of biosolids from wastewater treatment, 12th IWA-Sludge Conference- Sustainable Management of Water and Wastewater Sludges, Harbin, China
Rigby HL, 2008, Nitrogen transformations in contrasting agricultural soils amended with conventional and enhanced-treated biosolids, AWA Biosolids Specialty IV Conference
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2008, Nitrogen transformations in contrasting agricultural soils amended with conventional and enhanced-treated biosolids., IOBB Technologies and Strategic Management of Sustainable Biosystems Conference
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2007, Investigations into the fertiliser value of industrial biowastes, British Society of Soil Science ‘Soils: Fit for Purpose?’ Conference
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2007, The fertiliser value of industrial biowastes, Tackling Waste 2007, A Waste and Resource Management Network (WARMNET) Conference
Rigby HL, Smith SR, 2006, Field investigations to quantify the agronomic benefit of industrial biowastes, CIWEM/Aqua Enviro 11th European Biosolids and Organic Residuals Conference
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