Imperial College London

DR IOANNIS BAKOLIS

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Honorary Research Associate
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3277i.bakolis Website

 
 
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Location

 

531Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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73 results found

Zitko P, Bakolis I, Vitoratou S, Chua K-C, Margozzini P, Markkula N, Araya Ret al., 2021, Psychometric Evaluation of the Health State Description Questionnaire in Chile: A Proposal for a Latent Variable Approach for Valuating Health States., Value Health Reg Issues, Vol: 26, Pages: 142-149

BACKGROUND: A few instruments that identify and valuate health states are based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health States of the World Health Organization. One of them is the Health State Description (HSD) questionnaire first used in the World Health Survey (WHS) initiative (HSD-WHS), whose psychometric properties have not been evaluated in Chile. Additionally, the use of latent variables for the valuation process of health states has been scarcely investigated in the context of population health metrics. We aim to evaluate the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the HSD-WHS for Chile and describe a latent variable method for valuating health states associated with diseases. METHODS: We used data from the second Chilean National Health population-based survey from 2009 to 2010 (N = 5293). We explored the factorial structure of the HSD-WHS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the reliability, and the discriminant validity of the latent variable of disability. Disability weights for diseases were calculated using a linear regression model. RESULTS: We found an adequate goodness of fit for a second-order model with 9 factors corresponding to disability domains (Tucker-Lewis index = 0.99, comparative fit index = 0.99, root mean square error of approximation = 0.060), and good reliability estimates (standardized α = 0.91). The rescaled (between 0 and 100) latent variable of disability showed significant difference according to the explored variables. We estimated disability weights for the following: (1) depressive episode, 13.6 (12.1-15.2), (2) hypertension, 1.6 (0.0-3.3), and (3) diabetes, 5.0 (2.5-7.4). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the use of the HSD-WHS questionnaire in the Chilean population and a latent variable approach for valuating health states associated with diseases.

Journal article

Harwood H, Rhead R, Chui Z, Bakolis I, Connor L, Gazard B, Hall J, MacCrimmon S, Rimes KA, Woodhead C, Hatch SLet al., 2021, Variations by ethnicity in referral and treatment pathways for IAPT service users in South London., Psychol Med, Pages: 1-12

BACKGROUND: The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme aims to provide equitable access to therapy for common mental disorders. In the UK, inequalities by ethnicity exist in accessing and receiving mental health treatment. However, limited research examines IAPT pathways to understand whether and at which points such inequalities may arise. METHODS: This study examined variation by ethnicity in (i) source of referral to IAPT services, (ii) receipt of assessment session, (iii) receipt of at least one treatment session. Routine data were collected on service user characteristics, referral source, assessment and treatment receipt from 85 800 individuals referred to South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust IAPT services between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2016. Multinomial and logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between ethnicity and referral source, assessment and treatment receipt. Missing ethnicity data (18.5%) were imputed using census data and reported alongside a complete case analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the White British group, Black African, Asian and Mixed ethnic groups were less likely to self-refer to IAPT services. Black Caribbean, Black Other and White Other groups are more likely to be referred through community services. Almost all racial and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an assessment compared to the White British group, and of those who were assessed, all racial and ethnic minority groups were less likely to be treated. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and ethnic minority service users appear to experience barriers to IAPT care at different pathway stages. Services should address potential cultural, practical and structural barriers.

Journal article

Chui Z, Gazard B, MacCrimmon S, Harwood H, Downs J, Bakolis I, Polling C, Rhead R, Hatch SLet al., 2021, Inequalities in referral pathways for young people accessing secondary mental health services in south east London., Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, Vol: 30, Pages: 1113-1128

Differences in health service use between ethnic groups have been well documented, but little research has been conducted on inequalities in access to mental health services among young people. This study examines inequalities in pathways into care by ethnicity and migration status in 12-29 years old accessing health services in south east London. This study analyses anonymized electronic patient record data for patients aged 12-29 referred to a south east London mental health trust between 2008 and 2016 for an anxiety or non-psychotic depressive disorder (n = 18,931). Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between ethnicity, migration status, and both referral source and destination, stratified by age group. Young people in the Black African ethnic group were more likely to be referred from secondary health or social/criminal justice services compared to those in the White British ethnic group; the effect was most pronounced for those aged 16-17 years. Young people in the Black African ethnic group were also significantly more likely to be referred to inpatient and emergency services compared to those in the White British ethnic group. Black individuals living in south east London, particularly those who identify as Black African, are referred to mental health services via more adverse pathways than White individuals. Our findings suggest that inequalities in referral destination may be perpetuated by inequalities generated at the point of access.

Journal article

Lamb D, Greenberg N, Hotopf M, Raine R, Razavi R, Bhundia R, Scott H, Carr E, Gafoor R, Bakolis I, Hegarty S, Souliou E, Rafferty AM, Rhead R, Weston D, Gnangapragasam S, Marlow S, Wessely S, Stevelink Set al., 2021, NHS CHECK: protocol for a cohort study investigating the psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers., BMJ Open, Vol: 11

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound effects on the working lives of healthcare workers (HCWs), but the extent to which their well-being and mental health have been affected remains unclear. This longitudinal cohort study aims to recruit a cohort of National Health Service (NHS) HCWs, conducting surveys at regular intervals to provide evidence about the prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders, and investigate associated factors such as occupational contexts and support interventions available. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All staff, students and volunteers working in the 18 participating NHS Trusts in England will be sent emails inviting them to complete a survey at baseline, with email invitations for the follow-up surveys sent 6 months and 12 months later. Opening in late April 2020, the baseline survey collects data on demographics, occupational/organisational factors, experiences of COVID-19, validated measures of symptoms of poor mental health (eg, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder), and constructs such as resilience and moral injury. These surveys will be complemented by in-depth psychiatric interviews with a sample of HCWs. Qualitative interviews will also be conducted, to gain deeper understanding of the support programmes used or desired by staff, and facilitators and barriers to accessing such programmes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the study was granted by the Health Research Authority (reference: 20/HRA/210, IRAS: 282686) and local Trust Research and Development approval. Cohort data are collected via Qualtrics online survey software, pseudonymised and held on secure university servers. Participants are aware that they can withdraw from the study at any time, and there is signposting to support services if participants feel they need it. Only those consenting to be contacted about further research will be invited to participate in further components. Findings will be rapidly shared with NHS Trusts, and via

Journal article

Salisbury TT, Kohrt BA, Bakolis I, Jordans MJ, Hull L, Luitel NP, McCrone P, Sevdalis N, Pokhrel P, Carswell K, Ojagbemi A, Green EP, Chowdhary N, Kola L, Lempp H, Dua T, Milenova M, Gureje O, Thornicroft Get al., 2021, Adaptation of the World Health Organization Electronic Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide App for Mobile Devices in Nepal and Nigeria: Protocol for a Feasibility Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial, JMIR RESEARCH PROTOCOLS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1929-0748

Journal article

White MC, Peven K, Clancy O, Okonkwo I, Bakolis I, Russ S, Leather AJM, Sevdalis Net al., 2021, Implementation Strategies and the Uptake of the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis., Ann Surg, Vol: 273, Pages: e196-e205

OBJECTIVES: To identify the implementation strategies used in World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) uptake in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); examine any association of implementation strategies with implementation effectiveness; and to assess the clinical impact. BACKGROUND: The SSC is associated with improved surgical outcomes but effective implementation strategies are poorly understood. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from June 2008 to February 2019 and included primary studies on SSC use in LMICs. Coprimary objectives were identification of implementation strategies used and evaluation of associations between strategies and implementation effectiveness. To assess the clinical impact of the SSC, we estimated overall pooled relative risks for mortality and morbidity. The study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018100034). RESULTS: We screened 1562 citations and included 47 papers. Median number of discrete implementation strategies used per study was 4 (IQR: 1-14, range 0-28). No strategies were identified in 12 studies. SSC implementation occurred with high penetration (81%, SD 20%) and fidelity (85%, SD 13%), but we did not detect an association between implementation strategies and implementation outcomes. SSC use was associated with a reduction in mortality (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.67-0.89), all complications (RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.71) and infectious complications (RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.37-0.52). CONCLUSIONS: The SSC is used with high fidelity and penetration is associated with improved clinical outcomes in LMICs. Implementation appears well supported by a small number of tailored strategies. Further application of implementation science methodology is required among the global surgical community.

Journal article

Williams J, Fairbairn E, McGrath R, Bakolis I, Healey A, Akpan U, Mdudu I, Gaughran F, Sadler E, Khadjesari Z, Lillywhite K, Sevdalis Net al., 2021, A feasibility hybrid II randomised controlled trial of volunteer 'Health Champions' supporting people with serious mental illness manage their physical health: study protocol., Pilot Feasibility Stud, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2055-5784

BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia often also have physical health illnesses and interventions are needed to address the resultant multimorbidity and reduced life expectancy. Research has shown that volunteers can support people with SMI. This protocol describes a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention involving volunteer 'Health Champions' supporting people with SMI to manage and improve their physical health. METHODS: This is a feasibility hybrid II randomised effectiveness-implementation controlled trial. The intervention involves training volunteers to be 'Health Champions' to support individual people with SMI using mental health services. This face-to-face or remote support will take place weekly and last for up to 9 months following initial introduction. This study will recruit 120 participants to compare Health Champions to treatment as usual for people with SMI using secondary community mental health services in South London, UK. We will measure the clinical and cost effectiveness including quality of life. We will measure the implementation outcomes of acceptability, feasibility, appropriateness, fidelity, barriers and enablers, unintended consequences, adoption and sustainability. DISCUSSION: There is a need for interventions to support people with SMI with their physical health. If this feasibility trial is successful, a definitive trial will follow to fully evaluate the clinical, cost and implementation effectiveness of Health Champions supporting people with SMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, registration no: NCT04124744 .

Journal article

Bakolis I, Stewart R, Baldwin D, Beenstock J, Bibby P, Broadbent M, Cardinal R, Chen S, Chinnasamy K, Cipriani A, Douglas S, Horner P, Jackson CA, John A, Joyce DW, Lee SC, Lewis J, McIntosh A, Nixon N, Osborn D, Phiri P, Rathod S, Smith T, Sokal R, Waller R, Landau Set al., 2021, Changes in daily mental health service use and mortality at the commencement and lifting of COVID-19 'lockdown' policy in 10 UK sites: a regression discontinuity in time design., BMJ Open, Vol: 11

OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in daily mental health (MH) service use and mortality in response to the introduction and the lifting of the COVID-19 'lockdown' policy in Spring 2020. DESIGN: A regression discontinuity in time (RDiT) analysis of daily service-level activity. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Mental healthcare data were extracted from 10 UK providers. OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily (weekly for one site) deaths from all causes, referrals and discharges, inpatient care (admissions, discharges, caseloads) and community services (face-to-face (f2f)/non-f2f contacts, caseloads): Adult, older adult and child/adolescent mental health; early intervention in psychosis; home treatment teams and liaison/Accident and Emergency (A&E). Data were extracted from 1 Jan 2019 to 31 May 2020 for all sites, supplemented to 31 July 2020 for four sites. Changes around the commencement and lifting of COVID-19 'lockdown' policy (23 March and 10 May, respectively) were estimated using a RDiT design with a difference-in-difference approach generating incidence rate ratios (IRRs), meta-analysed across sites. RESULTS: Pooled estimates for the lockdown transition showed increased daily deaths (IRR 2.31, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.87), reduced referrals (IRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.70) and reduced inpatient admissions (IRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.83) and caseloads (IRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.91) compared with the pre lockdown period. All community services saw shifts from f2f to non-f2f contacts, but varied in caseload changes. Lift of lockdown was associated with reduced deaths (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66), increased referrals (IRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.60) and increased inpatient admissions (IRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42) and caseloads (IRR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.12) compared with the lockdown period. Site-wide activity, inpatient care and community services did not return to pre lockdown levels after lift of lockdown, while number of deaths did. Between-site heterogeneity most often indicated

Journal article

Dutta R, Gkotsis G, Velupillai S, Bakolis I, Stewart Ret al., 2021, Temporal and diurnal variation in social media posts to a suicide support forum., BMC Psychiatry, Vol: 21

BACKGROUND: Rates of suicide attempts and deaths are highest on Mondays and these occur more frequently in the morning or early afternoon, suggesting weekly temporal and diurnal variation in suicidal behaviour. It is unknown whether there are similar time trends on social media, of posts relevant to suicide. We aimed to determine temporal and diurnal variation in posting patterns on the Reddit forum SuicideWatch, an online community for individuals who might be at risk of, or who know someone at risk of suicide. METHODS: We used time series analysis to compare date and time stamps of 90,518 SuicideWatch posts from 1st December 2008 to 31st August 2015 to (i) 6,616,431 posts on the most commonly subscribed general subreddit, AskReddit and (ii) 66,934 of these AskReddit posts, which were posted by the SuicideWatch authors. RESULTS: Mondays showed the highest proportion of posts on SuicideWatch. Clear diurnal variation was observed, with a peak in the early morning (2:00-5:00 h), and a subsequent decrease to a trough in late morning/early afternoon (11:00-14:00 h). Conversely, the highest volume of posts in the control data was between 20:00-23:00 h. CONCLUSIONS: Posts on SuicideWatch occurred most frequently on Mondays: the day most associated with suicide risk. The early morning peak in SuicideWatch posts precedes the time of day during which suicide attempts and deaths most commonly occur. Further research of these weekly and diurnal rhythms should help target populations with support and suicide prevention interventions when needed most.

Journal article

Polling C, Bakolis I, Hotopf M, Hatch SLet al., 2021, Variation in rates of self-harm hospital admission and re-admission by ethnicity in London: a population cohort study, SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, ISSN: 0933-7954

Journal article

Knowles G, Gayer-Anderson C, Beards S, Blakey R, Davis S, Lowis K, Stanyon D, Ofori A, Turner A, Working Group S, Pinfold V, Bakolis I, Reininghaus U, Harding S, Morgan Cet al., 2021, Mental distress among young people in inner cities: the Resilience, Ethnicity and AdolesCent Mental Health (REACH) study., J Epidemiol Community Health

BACKGROUND: Recent estimates suggest around 14% of 11-16 years in England have a mental health problem. However, we know very little about the extent and nature of mental health problems among diverse groups in densely populated inner cities, where contexts and experiences may differ from the national average. AIMS: To estimate the extent and nature of mental health problems in inner city London, overall and by social group, using data from our school-based accelerated cohort study of adolescent mental health, Resilience, Ethnicity and AdolesCent Mental Health. METHODS: Self-report data on mental health (general mental health, depression, anxiety, self-harm) were analysed (n, 4353; 11-14 years, 85% minority ethnic groups). Mixed models were used to estimate weighted prevalences and adjusted risks of each type of problem, overall and by gender, cohort, ethnic group and free school meals (FSM) status. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of mental health problems was 18.6% (95% CI 16.4% to 20.8%). Each type of mental health problem was more common among girls compared with boys (adjusted risk ratios: mental health problems, 1.33, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48; depression, 1.52, 1.30 to 1.73; anxiety, 2.09, 1.58 to 2.59, self-harm, 1.40, 1.06 to 1.75). Gender differences were more pronounced in older cohorts compared with the youngest. Mental health problems (1.28, 1.05 to 1.51) and self-harm (1.29, 1.02 to 1.56)-but not depression or anxiety-were more common among those receiving (vs not receiving) FSM. There were many similarities, with some variations, by ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent mental health problems and self-harm are common in inner city London. Gender differences in mental health problems may emerge during early adolescence.

Journal article

Williams J, Fairbairn E, McGrath R, Clark A, Healey A, Bakolis I, Gaughran F, Sadler E, Khadjesari Z, Sevdalis N, IMPHS groupet al., 2021, Development and rapid evaluation of services to support the physical health of people using psychiatric inpatient units during the COVID-19 pandemic: study protocol., Implement Sci Commun, Vol: 2

BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with a serious mental illness have worse physical health and lower life expectancy than the general population. Integration of mental and physical health services is seen as one service development that could better support this. This protocol describes the evaluation of the provision of a Virtual Physical Health Clinic (VPHC) and Consultant Connect (CC) services to one UK-based mental health Trust. METHODS: Prospective, formative, pragmatic evaluation using both quantitative and qualitative techniques and driven by implementation science theoretical frameworks. The VPHC and CC are described along with the methodology being used to rapidly evaluate their implementation, effectiveness and potential economic impact in order to inform future roll out. We will assess the implementation process through quantitative data on uptake and reach and through self-reported data to be collected from interviews and the use of validated implementation outcome assessment measures. We will assess implementation strategies using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) strategies as a framework. We will assess the health economic impact of both services using established health economic methods including cost comparison scenarios and health service utilisation analyses. DISCUSSION: Supporting the physical health management of people in psychiatric inpatient units is important in improving the physical health of this population. Integration of mental and physical health can help this to happen effectively. This initiative provides one of the first service evaluation protocols of its kind to be reported in the UK at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal article

Estevao C, Fancourt D, Dazzan P, Chaudhuri KR, Sevdalis N, Woods A, Crane N, Bind R, Sawyer K, Rebecchini L, Hazelgrove K, Manoharan M, Burton A, Dye H, Osborn T, Jarrett L, Ward N, Jones F, Podlewska A, Premoli I, Derbyshire-Fox F, Hartley A, Soukup T, Davis R, Bakolis I, Healey A, Pariante CMet al., 2021, Scaling-up Health-Arts Programmes: the largest study in the world bringing arts-based mental health interventions into a national health service, BJPSYCH BULLETIN, Vol: 45, Pages: 32-39, ISSN: 2056-4694

Journal article

Newbury JB, Stewart R, Fisher HL, Beevers S, Dajnak D, Broadbent M, Pritchard M, Shiode N, Heslin M, Hammoud R, Hotopf M, Hatch SL, Mudway IS, Bakolis Iet al., 2021, Association between air pollution exposure and mental health service use among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders: Retrospective cohort study, British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN: 0007-1250

Background Growing evidence suggests that air pollution exposure may adversely affect the brain and increase risk for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. However, little is known about the potential role of air pollution in severity and relapse following illness onset. Aims To examine the longitudinal association between residential air pollution exposure and mental health service use (an indicator of illness severity and relapse) among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders. Method We identified individuals aged ≥15 years who had first contact with the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust for psychotic and mood disorders in 2008-2012 (n = 13 887). High-resolution (20 × 20 m) estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in ambient air were linked to residential addresses. In-patient days and community mental health service (CMHS) events were recorded over 1-year and 7-year follow-up periods. Results Following covariate adjustment, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx and PM2.5 were associated with 18% (95% CI 5-34%), 18% (95% CI 5-34%) and 11% (95% CI 3-19%) increased risk for in-patient days after 1 year. Similarly, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with 32% (95% CI 25-38%), 31% (95% CI 24-37%), 7% (95% CI 4-11%) and 9% (95% CI 5-14%) increased risk for CMHS events after 1 year. Associations persisted after 7 years. Conclusions Residential air pollution exposure is associated with increased mental health service use among people recently diagnosed with psychotic and mood disorders. Assuming causality, interventions to reduce air pollution exposure could improve mental health prognoses and reduce healthcare costs.

Journal article

Quirke E, Klymchuk V, Suvalo O, Bakolis I, Thornicroft Get al., 2021, Mental health stigma in Ukraine: cross-sectional survey., Glob Ment Health (Camb), Vol: 8, ISSN: 2054-4251

Background and study objectives: This study aimed to assess among Ukrainian adults: (1) knowledge of mental disorders; (2) attitudes towards people with mental health disorders, and to the delivery of mental health treatment within the community; and (3) behaviours towards people with mental disorders. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of Ukrainian adults aged 18-60 was conducted. Stigma-related mental health knowledge was measured using the mental health knowledge schedule. Attitude towards people with mental health disorders was assessed using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness scale. The Reported and Intended Behaviour scale was used to assess past and future intended behaviour towards people with mental health disorders. Results: Associations between gender, age, and educational level and the knowledge and attitudes measures were identified. There was evidence of a positive association between being male and positive intended behaviours towards people with mental health disorders [mean difference (MD) = 0.509, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.021-0.998]. Older age was negatively associated with positive intended behaviours towards people with mental health disorders (MD = -0.017, 95% CI 0.0733 to -0.001). Higher education was positively associated with stigma-related mental health knowledge (MD = 0.438, 95% CI 0.090-0.786), and negatively associated with authoritarian (MD = 0.755, 95% CI 0.295-1.215) attitudes towards people with mental health problems. Conclusion: Overall, the findings indicate a degree of awareness of, and compassion towards, people with mental illness among Ukrainian adults, although this differed according to gender, region, and education level. Results indicate a need for the adoption and scaling-up of anti-stigma interventions that have been demonstrated to be effective.

Journal article

Rhead RD, Chui Z, Bakolis I, Gazard B, Harwood H, MacCrimmon S, Woodhead C, Hatch SLet al., 2020, Impact of workplace discrimination and harassment among National Health Service staff working in London trusts: results from the TIDES study, BJPSYCH OPEN, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2056-4724

Journal article

Bakolis I, Hammoud R, Stewart R, Beevers S, Dajnak D, MacCrimmon S, Broadbent M, Pritchard M, Shiode N, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Hotopf M, Hatch SL, Mudway ISet al., 2020, Mental health consequences of urban air pollution: prospective population-based longitudinal survey, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: the international journal for research in social and genetic epidemiology and mental health services, Vol: 2020, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0933-7954

PURPOSE: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recently ranked air pollution as the major environmental cause of premature death. However, the significant potential health and societal costs of poor mental health in relation to air quality are not represented in the WHO report due to limited evidence. We aimed to test the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with poor mental health. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal population-based mental health survey was conducted of 1698 adults living in 1075 households in South East London, from 2008 to 2013. High-resolution quarterly average air pollution concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10) and < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were linked to the home addresses of the study participants. Associations with mental health were analysed with the use of multilevel generalised linear models, after adjusting for large number of confounders, including the individuals' socioeconomic position and exposure to road-traffic noise. RESULTS: We found robust evidence for interquartile range increases in PM2.5, NOx and NO2 to be associated with 18-39% increased odds of common mental disorders, 19-30% increased odds of poor physical symptoms and 33% of psychotic experiences only for PM10. These longitudinal associations were more pronounced in the subset of non-movers for NO2 and NOx. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that traffic-related air pollution is adversely affecting mental health. Whilst causation cannot be proved, this work suggests substantial morbidity from mental disorders could be avoided with improved air quality.

Journal article

Ronaldson A, Arias de la Torre J, Gaughran F, Bakolis I, Hatch SL, Hotopf M, Dregan Aet al., 2020, Prospective associations between vitamin D and depression in middle-aged adults: findings from the UK Biobank cohort., Psychol Med, Pages: 1-9

BACKGROUND: A possible role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of depression is currently speculative, with more rigorous research needed to assess this association in large adult populations. The current study assesses prospective associations between vitamin D status and depression in middle-aged adults enrolled in the UK Biobank. METHODS: We assessed prospective associations between vitamin D status at the baseline assessment (2006-2010) and depression measured at the follow-up assessment (2016) in 139 128 adults registered with the UK Biobank. RESULTS: Amongst participants with no depression at baseline (n = 127 244), logistic regression revealed that those with vitamin D insufficiency [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.22] and those with vitamin D deficiency (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.36) were more likely to develop new-onset depression at follow-up compared with those with optimal vitamin D levels after adjustment for a wide range of relevant covariates. Similar prospective associations were reported for those with depression at baseline (n = 11 884) (insufficiency: aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23; deficiency: aOR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: The prospective associations found between vitamin D status and depression suggest that both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be risk factors for the development of new-onset depression in middle-aged adults. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency (and to a lesser extent insufficiency) might be a predictor of sustained depressive symptoms in those who are already depressed. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is very common, meaning that these findings have significant implications for public health.

Journal article

Odland ML, Bockarie T, Wurie H, Ansumana R, Lamin J, Nugent R, Bakolis I, Witham M, Davies Jet al., 2020, Prevalence and access to care for cardiovascular risk factors in older people in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional survey., BMJ Open, Vol: 10

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) is increasing, especially in low-income countries. In Sierra Leone, there is limited empirical data on the prevalence of CVDRFs, and there are no previous studies on the access to care for these conditions. METHODS: This study in rural and urban Sierra Leone collected demographic, anthropometric measurements and clinical data from randomly sampled individuals over 40 years old using a household survey. We describe the prevalence of the following risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, overweight or obesity, smoking and having at least one of these risk factors. Cascades of care were constructed for diabetes and hypertension using % of the population with the disease who had previously been tested ('screened'), knew of their condition ('diagnosed'), were on treatment ('treated') or were controlled to target ('controlled'). Multivariable regression was used to test associations between prevalence of CVDRFs and progress through the cascade for hypertension with demographic and socioeconomic variables. In those with recognised disease who did not seek care, reasons for not accessing care were recorded. RESULTS: Of 2071 people, 49.6% (95% CI 49.3% to 50.0%) of the population had hypertension, 3.5% (3.4% to 3.6%) had diabetes, 6.7% (6.5% to 7.0%) had dyslipidaemia, 25.6% (25.4% to 25.9%) smoked and 26.5% (26.3% to 26.8%) were overweight/obese; a total of 77.1% (76.6% to 77.5%) had at least one CVDRF. People in urban areas were more likely to have diabetes and be overweight than those living in rural areas. Moreover, being female, more educated or wealthier increased the risk of having all CVDRFs except for smoking. There is a substantial loss of patients at each step of the care cascade for both diabetes and hypertension, with less than 10% of the total population with the conditions being screened, diagnosed, treated and controlled. The most common reasons for not seeking care were lack

Journal article

Dregan A, Rayner L, Davis KAS, Bakolis I, de la Torre JA, Das-Munshi J, Hatch SL, Stewart R, Hotopf Met al., 2020, Associations Between Depression, Arterial Stiffness, and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults in the UK Biobank Population Study: A Mediation Analysis, JAMA PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 77, Pages: 598-606, ISSN: 2168-622X

Journal article

Miller KE, Arnous M, Tossyeh F, Chen A, Bakolis I, Koppenol-Gonzalez GV, Nahas N, Jordans MJDet al., 2020, Protocol for a randomized control trial of the caregiver support intervention with Syrian refugees in Lebanon, TRIALS, Vol: 21

Journal article

Rao R, Bakolis I, Das-Munshi J, Poulter D, Votruba N, Thornicroft Get al., 2020, Alcohol consumption of UK members of parliament: cross-sectional survey, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Kolliakou A, Bakolis I, Chandran D, Derczynski L, Werbeloff N, Osborn DPJ, Bontcheva K, Stewart Ret al., 2020, Mental health-related conversations on social media and crisis episodes: a time-series regression analysis, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Soukup T, Hull L, Smith EL, Healey A, Bakolis I, Amiel SA, Sevdalis N, Kendall M, Warren L, Ruszala V, Stephenson M, Durrant Aet al., 2019, Effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 2 trial evaluating two psychoeducational programmes for severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: implementation study protocol, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Polling C, Bakolis I, Hotopf M, Hatch SLet al., 2019, Differences in hospital admissions practices following self-harm and their influence on population-level comparisons of self-harm rates in South London: an observational study., BMJ Open, Vol: 9

OBJECTIVES: To compare the proportions of emergency department (ED) attendances following self-harm that result in admission between hospitals, examine whether differences are explained by severity of harm and examine the impact on spatial variation in self-harm rates of using ED attendance data versus admissions data. SETTING: A dataset of ED attendances and admissions with self-harm to four hospitals in South East London, 2009-2016 was created using linked electronic patient record data and administrative Hospital Episode Statistics. DESIGN: Proportions admitted following ED attendance and length of stay were compared. Variation and spatial patterning of age and sex standardised, spatially smoothed, self-harm rates by small area using attendance and admission data were compared and the association with distance travelled to hospital tested. RESULTS: There were 20 750 ED attendances with self-harm, 7614 (37%) resulted in admission. Proportion admitted varied substantially between hospitals with a risk ratio of 2.45 (95% CI 2.30 to 2.61) comparing most and least likely to admit. This was not altered by adjustment for patient demographics, deprivation and type of self-harm. Hospitals which admitted more had a higher proportion of admissions lasting less than 24 hours (54% of all admissions at highest admitting hospital vs 35% at lowest). A previously demonstrated pattern of lower rates of self-harm admission closer to the city centre was reduced when ED attendance rates were used to represent self-harm. This was not altered when distance travelled to hospital was adjusted for. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals vary substantially in likelihood of admission after ED presentation with self-harm and this is likely due to the differences in hospital practices rather than in the patient population or severity of self-harm seen. Public health policy that directs resources based on self-harm admissions data could exacerbate existing health inequalities in inner-city areas

Journal article

Bakolis I, Thornicroft G, Vitoratou S, Ruesch N, Bonetto C, Lasalvia A, Evans-Lacko Set al., 2019, Development and validation of the DISCUS scale: A reliable short measure for assessing experienced discrimination in people with mental health problems on a global level, SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH, Vol: 212, Pages: 213-220, ISSN: 0920-9964

Journal article

Hull L, Goulding L, Khadjesari Z, Davis R, Healey A, Bakolis I, Sevdalis Net al., 2019, Designing high-quality implementation research: development, application, feasibility and preliminary evaluation of the implementation science research development (ImpRes) tool and guide, IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1748-5908

Journal article

Poulter D, Votruba N, Bakolis I, Debell F, Das-Munshi J, Thornicroft Get al., 2019, Mental health of UK Members of Parliament in the House of Commons: a cross-sectional survey, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Amiel SA, Choudhary P, Jacob P, Smith EL, De Zoysa N, Gonder-Frederick L, Kendall M, Heller S, Brooks A, Toschi E, Kariyawasam D, Potts L, Healy A, Rogers H, Sevdalis N, Stadler M, Qayyum M, Bakolis I, Goldsmith Ket al., 2019, Hypoglycaemia Awareness Restoration Programme for People with Type 1 Diabetes and Problematic Hypoglycaemia Persisting Despite Optimised Self-care (HARPdoc): protocol for a group randomised controlled trial of a novel intervention addressing cognitions., BMJ Open, Vol: 9

INTRODUCTION: Severe hypoglycaemia (SH), when blood glucose falls too low to support brain function, is the most feared acute complication of insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). 10% of people with T1DM contribute nearly 70% of all episodes, with impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) a major risk factor. People with IAH may be refractory to conventional approaches to reduce SH, with evidence for cognitive barriers to hypoglycaemia avoidance. This paper describes the protocol for the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Restoration Programme for People with Type 1 Diabetes and Problematic Hypoglycaemia Persisting Despite Optimised Self-care (HARPdoc) study, a trial to assess the impact on hypoglycaemia experience of a novel intervention that addresses cognitive barriers to hypoglycaemia avoidance, compared with an existing control intervention, recommended by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised parallel two-arm trial of two group therapies: HARPdoc versus Blood Glucose Awareness Training, among 96 adults with T1DM and problematic hypoglycaemia, despite attendance at education with or without technology use, in four centres providing specialist T1DM services. The primary outcome will be the SH rate at 12 and/or 24 months after randomisation to either course. Secondary outcomes include rates of SH requiring parenteral therapy, involving unconsciousness or needing emergency services; hypoglycaemia awareness status, overall diabetes control and quality of life measures. An implementation study to evaluate how the interventions are delivered and how implementation impacts on clinical effectiveness is planned as a parallel study, with its own protocol. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was approved by the London Dulwich Research Ethics Committee, the Health Research Authority, National Health Service R&D and the Institutional Review Board of the Joslin Diabetes Center in the USA. Study findings will be di

Journal article

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