Imperial College London

DrIanMaconochie

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Professor of Practice (Paediatric Emergency Medicine)
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 3729i.maconochie

 
 
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Location

 

Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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316 results found

Gugelmin-Almeida D, Tobase L, Maconochie I, Polastri T, Rodrigues Gesteira EC, Williams Jet al., 2022, What can be learned from the literature about intervals and strategies for paediatric CPR retraining of healthcare professionals? A scoping review of literature., Resusc Plus, Vol: 12

Background: Effective training and retraining may be key to good quality paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (pCPR). PCPR skills decay within months after training, making the current retraining intervals ineffective. Establishing an effective retraining strategy is fundamental to improve quality of performance and potentially enhance patient outcomes. Objective: To investigate the intervals and strategies of formal paediatric resuscitation retraining provided to healthcare professionals, and the associated outcomes including patient outcomes, quality of performance, retention of knowledge and skills and rescuer's confidence. Methods: This review was drafted and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL Complete, ERIC and Web of Science were searched and studies addressing the PICOST question were selected. Results: The results indicate complex data due to significant heterogeneity among study findings in relation to study design, retraining strategies, outcome measures and length of intervention. Out of 4706 studies identified, 21 were included with most of them opting for monthly or more frequent retraining sessions. The length of intervention ranged from 2-minutes up to 3.5 hours, with most studies selecting shorter durations (<1h). All studies pointed to the importance of regular retraining sessions for acquisition and retention of pCPR skills. Conclusions: Brief and frequent pCPR retraining may result in more successful skill retention and consequent higher-quality performance. There is no strong evidence regarding the ideal retraining schedule however, with as little as two minutes of refresher training every month, there is the potential to increase pCPR performance and retain the skills for longer.

Journal article

Tan CD, van der Walle EEPL, Vermont CL, von Both U, Carrol ED, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Yeung S, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HAet al., 2022, Guideline adherence in febrile children below 3 months visiting European Emergency Departments: an observational multicenter study (Sept, 10.1007/s00431-022-04606-5, 2022), EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, ISSN: 0340-6199

Journal article

Tan CD, van der Walle EEPL, Vermont CL, von Both U, Carrol ED, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Yeung S, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HA, PERFORM consortium Personalised Risk assessment in febrile children to optimize Real-life Management across the European Unionet al., 2022, Guideline adherence in febrile children below 3 months visiting European Emergency Departments: an observational multicenter study, European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN: 0340-6199

Febrile children below 3 months have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections, which often leads to extensive diagnostics and treatment. There is practice variation in management due to differences in guidelines and their usage and adherence. We aimed to assess whether management in febrile children below 3 months attending European Emergency Departments (EDs) was according to the guidelines for fever. This study is part of the MOFICHE study, which is an observational multicenter study including routine data of febrile children (0-18 years) attending twelve EDs in eight European countries. In febrile children below 3 months (excluding bronchiolitis), we analyzed actual management compared to the guidelines for fever. Ten EDs applied the (adapted) NICE guideline, and two EDs applied local guidelines. Management included diagnostic tests, antibiotic treatment, and admission. We included 913 children with a median age of 1.7 months (IQR 1.0-2.3). Management per ED varied as follows: use of diagnostic tests 14-83%, antibiotic treatment 23-54%, admission 34-86%. Adherence to the guideline was 43% (374/868) for blood cultures, 29% (144/491) for lumbar punctures, 55% (270/492) for antibiotic prescriptions, and 67% (573/859) for admission. Full adherence to these four management components occurred in 15% (132/868, range 0-38%), partial adherence occurred in 56% (484/868, range 35-77%). CONCLUSION: There is large practice variation in management. The guideline adherence was limited, but highest for admission which implies a cautious approach. Future studies should focus on guideline revision including new biomarkers in order to optimize management in young febrile children. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Febrile children below 3 months have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections, which often leads to extensive diagnostics and treatment. • There is practice variation in management of young febrile children due to differences in guideline

Journal article

Roland D, Gardiner A, Razzaq D, Rose K, Bressan S, Honeyford K, Buonsenso D, Da Dalt L, De T, Farrugia R, Parri N, Oostenbrink R, Maconochie IK, Bognar Z, Moll HA, Titomanlio L, Nijman RGG, in association with the REPEM network Research in European Paediatric Emergency Medicine as part of the EPISODES Studyet al., 2022, Influence of epidemics and pandemics on paediatric ED use: a systematic review, Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN: 0003-9888

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of epidemics and pandemics on the utilisation of paediatric emergency care services to provide health policy advice. SETTING: Systematic review. DESIGN: Searches were conducted of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library for studies that reported on changes in paediatric emergency care utilisation during epidemics (as defined by the WHO). PATIENTS: Children under 18 years. INTERVENTIONS: National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in paediatric emergency care utilisation. RESULTS: 131 articles were included within this review, 80% of which assessed the impact of COVID-19. Studies analysing COVID-19, SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and Ebola found a reduction in paediatric emergency department (PED) visits, whereas studies reporting on H1N1, chikungunya virus and Escherichia coli outbreaks found an increase in PED visits. For COVID-19, there was a reduction of 63.86% (95% CI 60.40% to 67.31%) with a range of -16.5% to -89.4%. Synthesis of results suggests that the fear of the epidemic disease, from either contracting it or its potential adverse clinical outcomes, resulted in reductions and increases in PED utilisation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scale and direction of effect of PED use depend on both the epidemic disease, the public health measures enforced and how these influence decision-making. Policy makers must be aware how fear of virus among the general public may influence their response to public health advice. There is large inequity in reporting of epidemic impact on PED use which needs to be addressed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021242808.

Journal article

Chong SL, Goh MSL, Ong GYK, Acworth J, Sultana R, Yao SHW, Ng KC, Scholefield B, Aickin R, Maconochie I, Atkins D, Couto TB, Guerguerian AM, Kleinman M, Kloeck D, Nadkarni V, Nuthall G, Reis A, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Schexnayder S, Tijssen J, Van de Voorde P, Morley Pet al., 2022, Do paediatric early warning systems reduce mortality and critical deterioration events among children? A systematic review and meta-analysis, Resuscitation Plus, Vol: 11

Aim: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question: Does the implementation of Paediatric Early Warning Systems (PEWS) in the hospital setting reduce mortality, cardiopulmonary arrests, unplanned codes and critical deterioration events among children, as compared to usual care without PEWS? Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Web of Science. We included studies published between January 2006 and April 2022 on children <18 years old performed in inpatient units and emergency departments, and compared patient populations with PEWS to those without PEWS. We excluded studies without a comparator, case control studies, systematic reviews, and studies published in non-English languages. We employed a random effects meta-analysis and synthesised the risk and rate ratios from individual studies. We used the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) to appraise the risk of bias. Results: Among 911 articles screened, 15 were included for descriptive analysis. Fourteen of the 15 studies were pre- versus post-implementation studies and one was a multi-centre cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). Among 10 studies (580,604 hospital admissions) analysed for mortality, we found an increased risk (pooled RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01–1.38, p = 0.036) in the group without PEWS compared to the group with PEWS. The sensitivity analysis performed without the RCT (436,065 hospital admissions) showed a non-significant relationship (pooled RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.40, p = 0.087). Among four studies (168,544 hospital admissions) analysed for unplanned code events, there was an increased risk in the group without PEWS (pooled RR 1.73, 95%CI 1.01–2.96, p = 0.046) There were no differences in the rate of cardiopulmonary arrests or critical deterioration events between groups. Our findings were limited by

Journal article

Nation K, Considine J, Mildenhall L, Maconochie Iet al., 2022, Richard P. Aickin-Inspirational leader and advocate for children, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 178, Pages: 85-86, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Nijman RG, Honeyford K, Farrugia R, Rose K, Bognar Z, Buonsenso D, Da Dalt L, De T, Maconochie IK, Parri N, Roland D, Alfven T, Aupiais C, Barrett M, Basmaci R, Borensztajn D, Castanhinha S, Vasilico C, Durnin S, Fitzpatrick P, Fodor L, Gomez B, Greber-Platzer S, Guedj R, Hartshorn S, Hey F, Jankauskaite L, Kohlfuerst D, Kolnik M, Lyttle MD, Mação P, Mascarenhas MI, Messahel S, Özkan EA, Pučuka Z, Reis S, Rybak A, Ryd Rinder M, Teksam O, Turan C, Thors VS, Velasco R, Bressan S, Moll HA, Oostenbrink R, Titomanlio L, in association with the REPEM network Research in European Pediatric Emergency Medicine as part of the EPISODES study groupet al., 2022, Presentations of children to emergency departments across Europe and the COVID-19 pandemic: A multinational observational study, PLoS Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1549-1277

BACKGROUND: During the initial phase of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced numbers of acutely ill or injured children presented to emergency departments (EDs). Concerns were raised about the potential for delayed and more severe presentations and an increase in diagnoses such as diabetic ketoacidosis and mental health issues. This multinational observational study aimed to study the number of children presenting to EDs across Europe during the early COVID-19 pandemic and factors influencing this and to investigate changes in severity of illness and diagnoses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Routine health data were extracted retrospectively from electronic patient records of children aged 18 years and under, presenting to 38 EDs in 16 European countries for the period January 2018 to May 2020, using predefined and standardized data domains. Observed and predicted numbers of ED attendances were calculated for the period February 2020 to May 2020. Poisson models and incidence rate ratios (IRRs), using predicted counts for each site as offset to adjust for case-mix differences, were used to compare age groups, diagnoses, and outcomes. Reductions in pediatric ED attendances, hospital admissions, and high triage urgencies were seen in all participating sites. ED attendances were relatively higher in countries with lower SARS-CoV-2 prevalence (IRR 2.26, 95% CI 1.90 to 2.70, p < 0.001) and in children aged <12 months (12 to <24 months IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.89; 2 to <5 years IRR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.82; 5 to <12 years IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.70; 12 to 18 years IRR 0.72, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.74; versus age <12 months as reference group, p < 0.001). The lowering of pediatric intensive care admissions was not as great as that of general admissions (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.45, p < 0.001). Lower triage urgencies were reduced more than higher triage urgencies (urgent triage IRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.12; emergent and very urgent triag

Journal article

Tan CD, El Ouasghiri S, von Both U, Carrol ED, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Vermont CL, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HA, Zachariasse JM, PERFORM consortium Personalised Risk assessment in febrile children to optimise Real-life Management across the European Unionet al., 2022, Sex differences in febrile children with respiratory symptoms attending European emergency departments: An observational multicenter study., PLoS One, Vol: 17, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1932-6203

OBJECTIVE: To assess sex differences in presentation and management of febrile children with respiratory symptoms attending European Emergency Departments. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational study in twelve Emergency Departments in eight European countries. PATIENTS: Previously healthy children aged 0-<18 years with fever (≥ 38°C) at the Emergency Department or in the consecutive three days before Emergency Department visit and respiratory symptoms were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcomes were patient characteristics and management defined as diagnostic tests, treatment and admission. Descriptive statistics were used for patient characteristics and management stratified by sex. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for the association between sex and management with adjustment for age, disease severity and Emergency Department. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed in children with upper and lower respiratory tract infections and in children below five years. RESULTS: We included 19,781 febrile children with respiratory symptoms. The majority were boys (54%), aged 1-5 years (58%) and triaged as low urgent (67%). Girls presented less frequently with tachypnea (15% vs 16%, p = 0.002) and increased work of breathing (8% vs 12%, p<0.001) compared with boys. Girls received less inhalation medication than boys (aOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.90), but received antibiotic treatment more frequently than boys (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.15), which is associated with a higher prevalence of urinary tract infections. Amongst children with a lower respiratory tract infection and children below five years girls received less inhalation medication than boys (aOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.89; aOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences concerning presentation and management are present in previously healthy febrile children with respiratory symptoms presenting to the Emergency Department. Future research should focus on whethe

Journal article

Borensztajn DM, Hagedoorn NN, Carrol ED, von Both U, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, van der Velden FJS, Vermont C, Zavadska D, Zenz W, Zachariasse JM, Moll HAet al., 2022, Febrile children with comorbidities at the emergency department - a multicentre observational study, European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 181, Pages: 3491-3500, ISSN: 0340-6199

We aimed to describe characteristics and management of children with comorbidities attending European emergency departments (EDs) with fever. MOFICHE (Management and Outcome of Fever in children in Europe) is a prospective multicentre study (12 European EDs, 8 countries). Febrile children with comorbidities were compared to those without in terms of patient characteristics, markers of disease severity, management, and diagnosis. Comorbidity was defined as a chronic underlying condition that is expected to last > 1 year. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis, displaying adjusted odds ratios (aOR), adjusting for patient characteristics. We included 38,110 patients, of whom 5906 (16%) had comorbidities. Most common comorbidities were pulmonary, neurologic, or prematurity. Patients with comorbidities more often were ill appearing (20 versus 16%, p < 0.001), had an ED-Paediatric Early Warning Score of > 15 (22 versus 12%, p < 0.001), or a C-reactive protein > 60 mg/l (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.3–1.6)). They more often required life-saving interventions (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2–3.3), were treated with intravenous antibiotics (aOR 2.3, 95%CI 2.1–2.5), and were admitted to the ward (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 2.1–2.4) or paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) (aOR 5.5, 95% CI 3.8–7.9). They were more often diagnosed with serious bacterial infections (aOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.7–2.0), including sepsis/meningitis (aOR 4.6, 95%CI 3.2–6.7). Children most at risk for sepsis/meningitis were children with malignancy/immunodeficiency (aOR 14.5, 8.5–24.8), while children with psychomotor delay/neurological disease were most at risk for life-saving interventions (aOR 5.3, 4.1–6.9) or PICU admission (aOR 9.7, 6.1–15.5).

Journal article

Rothwell L, Vivek K, Nicholls D, Maconochie I, Dyer EMet al., 2022, Fifteen-minute consultation: Recognition and management of eating disorders presenting to the emergency department, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD-EDUCATION AND PRACTICE EDITION, ISSN: 1743-0585

Journal article

Koldeweij C, Appelbaum N, Rodriguez Gonzalvez C, Nijman J, Nijman R, Sinha R, Maconochie I, Clarke Jet al., 2022, Mind the gap: Mapping variation between national and local clinical practice guidelines for acute paediatric asthma from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, PLoS One, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1932-6203

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) aim to standardize clinical care. Increasingly, hospitals rely on locally produced guidelines alongside national guidance. This study examines variation between national and local CPGs, using the example of acute paediatric asthma guidance from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. METHODS: Fifteen British and Dutch local CPGs were collected with the matching national guidance for the management of acute asthma in children under 18 years old. The drug sequences, routes and methods of administration recommended for patients with severe asthma and the tone of recommendation across both types of CPGs were schematically represented. Deviations from national guidance were measured. Variation in recommended doses of intravenous salbutamol was examined. CPG quality was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II. RESULTS: British and Dutch national CPGs differed in the recommended drug choices, sequences, routes and methods of administration for severe asthma. Dutch national guidance was more rigidly defined. Local British CPGs diverged from national guidance for 23% of their recommended interventions compared to 8% for Dutch local CPGs. Five British local guidelines and two Dutch local guidelines differed from national guidance for multiple treatment steps. Variation in second-line recommendations was greater than for first-line recommendations across local CPGs from both countries. Recommended starting doses for salbutamol infusions varied by more than tenfold. The quality of the sampled local CPGs was low across all AGREE II domains. CONCLUSIONS: Local CPGs for the management of severe acute paediatric asthma featured substantial variation and frequently diverged from national guidance. Although limited to one condition, this study suggests that unmeasured variation across local CPGs may contribute to variation of care more broadly, with possible effects on healthcare quality.

Journal article

Tyson M, Trenear R, Skellett S, Maconochie I, Mullen Net al., 2022, Survey About Second-Line Agents for Pediatric Convulsive Status Epilepticus., Pediatr Emerg Care

BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common neurological emergency in children. It is a frequent cause of admission to pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. Management of CSE is a step-wise approach: first-line antiseizure agents (typically benzodiazepines) followed by a second-line agent before deeper anesthesia usually accompanied by intubation and ventilation. Current guidelines in the United Kingdom specify phenytoin as the second-line agent of choice for CSE. Two recent large international randomized controlled trials compared the efficacy of phenytoin with that of another second-line agent levetiracetam. Both studies found levetiracetam to be noninferior to phenytoin. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of clinicians across 67 emergency departments that treat children and 29 pediatric intensive care units in the United Kingdom and Ireland to assess their current and preferred second-line agents for treating pediatric CSE in light of recently published evidence. The survey was distributed via the Pediatric Emergency Research in United Kingdom and Ireland network and the Pediatric Critical Care Society. RESULTS: We found that although most clinicians use phenytoin, as per current guidelines, they seek greater flexibility in choice of second-line agent, with levetiracetam being the preferred alternative to phenytoin. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate use of levetiracetam for treatment of CSE in pediatrics, it should be included as a second-line agent in addition to phenytoin in the next update of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and other United Kingdom clinical guidelines.

Journal article

Nijman RG, Bressan S, Brandenberger J, Kaur D, Keitel K, Maconochie IK, Oostenbrink R, Parri N, Shavit I, Teksam O, Velasco R, van de Voorde P, Da Dalt L, Guchtenaere AD, Hadjipanayis AA, Ross Russell R, del Torso S, Bognar Z, Titomanlio Let al., 2022, Update on the coordinated efforts of looking after the health care needs of children and young people fleeing the conflict zone of Ukraine presenting to European emergency departments—a joint statement of the European society for emergency paediatrics and the European academy of paediatrics, Frontiers in Pediatrics, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2296-2360

This joint statement by the European Society for Emergency Paediatrics and European Academy of Paediatrics aims to highlight recommendations for dealing with refugee children and young people fleeing the Ukrainian war when presenting to emergency departments (EDs) across Europe. Children and young people might present, sometimes unaccompanied, with either ongoing complex health needs or illnesses, mental health issues, and injuries related to the war itself and the flight from it. Obstacles to providing urgent and emergency care include lack of clinical guidelines, language barriers, and lack of insight in previous medical history. Children with complex health needs are at high risk for complications and their continued access to specialist healthcare should be prioritized in resettlements programs. Ukraine has one of the lowest vaccination coverages in the Europe, and outbreaks of cholera, measles, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, and COVID-19 should be anticipated. In Ukraine, rates of multidrug resistant tuberculosis are high, making screening for this important. Urgent and emergency care facilities should also prepare for dealing with children with war-related injuries and mental health issues. Ukrainian refugee children and young people should be included in local educational systems and social activities at the earliest opportunity.

Journal article

Nakubulwa MA, Greenfield G, Pizzo E, Magusin A, Maconochie I, Blair M, Bell D, Majeed A, Sathyamoorthy G, Woodcock Tet al., 2022, To what extent do callers follow the advice given by a non-emergency medical helpline (NHS 111): A retrospective cohort study, PLoS One, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1932-6203

National Health Service (NHS) 111 helpline was set up to improve access to urgent care in England, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of first-contact health services. Following trusted, authoritative advice is crucial for improved clinical outcomes. We examine patient and call-related characteristics associated with compliance with advice given in NHS 111 calls. The importance of health interactions that are not face-to-face has recently been highlighted by COVID-19 pandemic. In this retrospective cohort study, NHS 111 call records were linked to urgent and emergency care services data. We analysed data of 3,864,362 calls made between October 2013 and September 2017 relating to 1,964,726 callers across London. A multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between compliance with advice given and patient and call characteristics. Caller’s action is ‘compliant with advice given if first subsequent service interaction following contact with NHS 111 is consistent with advice given. We found that most calls were made by women (58%), adults aged 30–59 years (33%) and people in the white ethnic category (36%). The most common advice was for caller to contact their General Practitioner (GP) or other local services (18.2%) with varying times scales. Overall, callers followed advice given in 49% of calls. Compliance with triage advice was more likely in calls for children aged <16 years, women, those from Asian/Asian British ethnicity, and calls made out of hours. The highest compliance was among callers advised to self-care without the need to contact any other healthcare service. This is one of the largest studies to describe pathway adherence following telephone advice and associated clinical and demographic features. These results could inform attempts to improve caller compliance with advice given by NHS 111, and as the NHS moves to more hybrid way of working, the lessons from this study are key to the development of remote heal

Journal article

Deluca P, Coulton S, Alam MF, Boniface S, Donoghue K, Gilvarry E, Kaner E, Lynch E, Maconochie I, McArdle P, McGovern R, Newbury-Birch D, Patton R, Pellat-Higgins T, Phillips C, Phillips T, Pockett RD, Russell IT, Strang J, Drummond Cet al., 2022, Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of face-to-face and electronic brief interventions versus screening alone to reduce alcohol consumption among high-risk adolescents presenting to emergency departments: three-arm pragmatic randomized trial (SIPS Junior high risk trial), ADDICTION, Vol: 117, Pages: 2200-2214, ISSN: 0965-2140

Journal article

Nijman RG, Honeyford K, Farrugia R, Rose K, Bognar Z, Buonsenso D, Da Dalt L, De T, Maconochie IK, Parri N, Roland D, Alfven T, Aupiais C, Barrett M, Basmaci R, Borensztajn D, Castanhinha S, Corrine V, Durnin S, Fitzpatrick P, Fodor L, Gomez B, Greber-Platzer S, Guedj R, Hartshorn S, Hey F, Jankauskaite L, Kohlfuerst D, Kolnik M, Lyttle MD, Mação P, Mascarenhas MI, Messahel S, Özkan EA, Pučuka Z, Reis S, Rybak A, Rinder MR, Teksam O, Turan C, Thors VS, Velasco R, Bressan S, Moll HA, Oostenbrink R, Titomanlio Let al., 2022, Patterns of presentations of children to emergency departments across Europe and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: retrospective observational multinational study

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and infection prevention measures on children visiting emergency departments across Europe.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Routine health data were extracted retrospectively from electronic patient records of children aged &lt;16 years, presenting to 38 emergency departments (ED) in 16 European countries for the period January 2018 – May 2020, using predefined and standardized data domains. Observed and predicted numbers of ED attendances were calculated for the period February 2020 to May 2020. Poisson models and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were used to compare age groups, diagnoses and outcomes.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Findings</jats:title><jats:p>Reductions in pediatric ED attendances, hospital admissions and high triage urgencies were seen in all participating sites. ED attendances were relatively higher in countries with lower SARS-CoV-2 prevalence (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2·62, 95% CI 2·19 to 3·13) and in children aged &gt;12 months (12-&lt;24 months IRR 0·89, 95% CI 0·86 to 0·92; 2-&lt;5years IRR 0·84, 95% CI 0·82 to 0·87; 5-&lt;12 years IRR 0·74, 95% CI 0·72 to 0·76; 12-&lt;16 years IRR 0·74, 95% CI 0·71 to 0·77; vs. age &lt;12 months as reference group). The impact on pediatric intensive care admissions (IRR 1·30, 95% CI 1·16 to 1·45) was not as great as the impact on general admissions. Lower triage urgencies were reduced more than higher triage urgencies (urgent triage IRR 1·10, 95% CI 1·08 to 1·12; emergent and very urgent triage IRR 1·53, 95% CI 1·49 to 1·57

Journal article

Ropers F, Bossuyt P, Maconochie I, Smit FJ, Alves C, Greber-Platzer S, Moll HA, Zachariasse Jet al., 2022, Practice variation across five European paediatric emergency departments: a prospective observational study, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives To compare paediatric healthcare practice variation among five European emergency departments (EDs) by analysing variability in decisions about diagnostic testing, treatment and admission.Design and population Consecutive paediatric visits in five European EDs in four countries (Austria, Netherlands, Portugal, UK) were prospectively collected during a study period of 9–36 months (2012–2015).Primary outcome measures Practice variation was studied for the following management measures: lab testing, imaging, administration of intravenous medication and patient disposition after assessment at the ED.Analysis Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for general patient characteristics and markers of disease severity. To assess whether ED was significantly associated with management, the goodness-of-fit of regression models based on all variables with and without ED as explanatory variable was compared. Management measures were analysed across different categories of presenting complaints.Results Data from 111 922 children were included, with a median age of 4 years (IQR 1.7–9.4). There were large differences in frequencies of Manchester Triage System (MTS) urgency and selected MTS presentational flow charts. ED was a significant covariate for management measures. The variability in management among EDs was fairly consistent across different presenting complaints after adjustment for confounders. Adjusted OR (aOR) for laboratory testing were consistently higher in one hospital while aOR for imaging were consistently higher in another hospital. Iv administration of medication and fluids and admission was significantly more likely in two other hospitals, compared with others, for most presenting complaints.Conclusions Distinctive hospital-specific patterns in variability of management could be observed in these five paediatric EDs, which were consistent across different groups of clinical presentations. This could indicate fundamenta

Journal article

Maconochie I, Thompson N, 2022, Dispatcher-assisted CPR for cardiac arrest in children - Conventional versus compression-only CPR, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 172, Pages: 115-116, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Zachariasse JM, Espina PR, Borensztajn DM, Nieboer D, Maconochie IK, Steyerberg EW, van der Lei J, Greber-Platzer S, Moll HAet al., 2022, Improving triage for children with comorbidity using the ED-PEWS: an observational study, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, Vol: 107, Pages: 229-233, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Stilwell PA, Fissler S, Burkitt S, Smith B, Stuttard G, Kenny S, Evans D, Maconochie Iet al., 2022, NHS 111 Clinical Assessment Services: paediatric consultations, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, Vol: 107, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Ong GY-K, Ang AJF, Chen ZJ, Chan YH, Tang PH, Fong ESS, Tan JY, Aurangzeb ASO, Pek JH, Maconochie I, Ng KC, Nadkarni Vet al., 2022, Should paediatric chest compression depth targets consider body habitus? - A chest computed tomography imaging study, RESUSCITATION PLUS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2666-5204

Journal article

Wyckoff MH, Singletary EM, Soar J, Olasveengen TM, Greif R, Liley HG, Zideman D, Bhanji F, Andersen LW, Avis SR, Aziz K, Bendall JC, Berry DC, Borra V, Böttiger BW, Bradley R, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castrén M, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Cheng A, Chung SP, Considine J, Costa-Nobre DT, Couper K, Dainty KN, Davis PG, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, de Paiva EF, Deakin CD, Djärv T, Douma MJ, Drennan IR, Duff JP, Eastwood KJ, El-Naggar W, Epstein JL, Escalante R, Fabres JG, Fawke J, Finn JC, Foglia EE, Folke F, Freeman K, Gilfoyle E, Goolsby CA, Grove A, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Hazinski MF, Heriot GS, Hirsch KG, Holmberg MJ, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Hung KKC, Hsu CH, Ikeyama T, Isayama T, Kapadia VS, Kawakami MD, Kim H-S, Kloeck DA, Kudenchuk PJ, Lagina AT, Lauridsen KG, Lavonas EJ, Lockey AS, Malta Hansen C, Markenson D, Matsuyama T, McKinlay CJD, Mehrabian A, Merchant RM, Meyran D, Morley PT, Morrison LJ, Nation KJ, Nemeth M, Neumar RW, Nicholson T, Niermeyer S, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, O'Neil BJ, Orkin AM, Osemeke O, Parr MJ, Patocka C, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Roehr CC, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Sawyer T, Schmölzer GM, Schnaubelt S, Semeraro F, Skrifvars MB, Smith CM, Smyth MA, Soll RF, Sugiura T, Taylor-Phillips S, Trevisanuto D, Vaillancourt C, Wang T-L, Weiner GM, Welsford M, Wigginton J, Wyllie JP, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Berg KM, Collaboratorset al., 2022, 2021 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations: Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; First Aid Task Forces; and the COVID-19 Working Group., Circulation, Vol: 145, Pages: e645-e721

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations; a more comprehensive review was done in 2020. This latest summary addresses the most recently published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force science experts. Topics covered by systematic reviews in this summary include resuscitation topics of video-based dispatch systems; head-up cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early coronary angiography after return of spontaneous circulation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prone patient; cord management at birth for preterm and term infants; devices for administering positive-pressure ventilation at birth; family presence during neonatal resuscitation; self-directed, digitally based basic life support education and training in adults and children; coronavirus disease 2019 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest; and first aid topics, including cooling with water for thermal burns, oral rehydration for exertional dehydration, pediatric tourniquet use, and methods of tick removal. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations or good practice statements. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections. In addition, the task forces listed priority knowledge gaps for further research.

Journal article

Stilwell PA, Stuttard G, Scott-Jupp R, Boyle A, Kenny S, Maconochie Iet al., 2022, Paediatric NHS 111 Clinical Assessment Services pilot: an observational study., Arch Dis Child, Vol: 107

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and impact of having paediatric clinicians working in the Clinical Assessment Services (CAS) within NHS 111, a national telephone advice service. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Six NHS 111 providers across England with CAS where volunteer paediatric clinicians (doctors and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs)) worked between May and December 2020. A data reporting framework was used to compare the outcomes of calls taken by paediatric vs non-paediatric clinicians. PATIENTS: Under 16-year-olds prompting calls to NHS 111 over the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The disposition (final outcome of calls) taken by paediatric versus non-paediatric clinicians, paediatric clinicians' and patient experience. RESULTS: 70 paediatric clinicians (66 doctors and 4 ANPs) worked flexible shifts in six NHS 111 providers' CAS over the study period: 2535 calls for under 16-year-olds were taken by paediatric clinicians and 137 008 by non-paediatric clinicians. Overall, disposition rates differed significantly between the calls taken by paediatric versus (vs) non-paediatric clinicians: 69% vs 43% were advised on self-care only, 13% vs 18% to attend emergency departments (EDs), 13% vs 29% to attend primary care, 1% vs 4% to receive an urgent ambulance call out and 4% vs 6% referred to another health service, respectively. When compared with recent (all age) national whole data sets, the feedback from calls taken by paediatricians noted a greater proportion of patients/carers reporting that their problem was fully resolved (92% vs 27%). CONCLUSIONS: Introducing paediatric specialists into NHS 111 CAS is likely to increase self-care dispositions, and reduce onward referrals to primary care, ED and ambulances. Future work will evaluate the impact of a national paediatric clinical assessment service to which specific case types are streamed.

Journal article

Hagedoorn NN, Zachariasse JM, Borensztajn D, Adriaansens E, von Both U, Carrol ED, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg JA, Kohlmaier B, Lim E, Maconochie I, Martinón-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Zavadska D, Zenz W, Levin M, Vermont C, Moll HA, PERFORM consortiumet al., 2022, Shock Index in the early assessment of febrile children at the emergency department: a prospective multicentre study, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 107, Pages: 116-122, ISSN: 0003-9888

OBJECTIVE: (1) To derive reference values for the Shock Index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) based on a large emergency department (ED) population of febrile children and (2) to determine the diagnostic value of the Shock Index for serious illness in febrile children. DESIGN/SETTING: Observational study in 11 European EDs (2017-2018). PATIENTS: Febrile children with measured blood pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serious bacterial infection (SBI), invasive bacterial infection (IBI), immediate life-saving interventions (ILSIs) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The association between high Shock Index (>95th centile) and each outcome was determined by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, referral, comorbidity and temperature. Additionally, we calculated sensitivity, specificity and negative/positive likelihood ratios (LRs). RESULTS: Of 5622 children, 461 (8.2%) had SBI, 46 (0.8%) had IBI, 203 (3.6%) were treated with ILSI and 69 (1.2%) were ICU admitted. High Shock Index was associated with SBI (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.9)), ILSI (aOR 2.5 (95% CI 2.0 to 2.9)), ICU admission (aOR 2.2 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.9)) but not with IBI (aOR: 1.5 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.4)). For the different outcomes, sensitivity for high Shock Index ranged from 0.10 to 0.15, specificity ranged from 0.95 to 0.95, negative LRs ranged from 0.90 to 0.95 and positive LRs ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. CONCLUSIONS: High Shock Index is associated with serious illness in febrile children. However, its rule-out value is insufficient which suggests that the Shock Index is not valuable as a screening tool for all febrile children at the ED.

Journal article

Tan CD, Hagedoorn NN, Dewez JE, Borensztajn DM, von Both U, Carrol ED, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Strle F, Tsolia M, Vermont CL, Yeung S, Zachariasse JM, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HA, Consortium Pet al., 2022, Rapid Viral Testing and Antibiotic Prescription in Febrile Children With Respiratory Symptoms Visiting Emergency Departments in Europe, PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL, Vol: 41, Pages: 39-44, ISSN: 0891-3668

Journal article

Borensztajn D, Hagedoorn NN, Carrol E, von Both U, Dewez JE, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie I, Martinon Torres F, Nijman R, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Vermont C, Zavadska D, Zenz W, Zachariasse J, Moll HAet al., 2022, Characteristics and management of adolescents attending the ED with fever: a prospective multicentre study, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective Most studies on febrile children have focused on infants and young children with serious bacterial infection (SBI). Although population studies have described an increased risk of sepsis in adolescents, little is known about febrile adolescents attending the emergency department (ED). We aimed to describe patient characteristics and management of febrile adolescents attending the ED.Design and setting The MOFICHE/PERFORM study (Management and Outcome of Febrile Children in Europe/Personalised Risk assessment in Febrile illness to Optimise Real-life Management across the European Union), a prospective multicentre study, took place at 12 European EDs. Descriptive and multivariable regression analyses were performed, comparing febrile adolescents (12–18 years) with younger children in terms of patient characteristics, markers of disease severity (vital signs, clinical alarming signs), management (diagnostic tests, therapy, admission) and diagnosis (focus, viral/bacterial infection).Results 37 420 encounters were included, of which 2577 (6.9%) were adolescents. Adolescents were more often triaged as highly urgent (38.9% vs 34.5%) and described as ill appearing (23.1% vs 15.6%) than younger children. Increased work of breathing and a non-blanching rash were present less often in adolescents, while neurological signs were present more often (1% vs 0%). C reactive protein tests were performed more frequently in adolescents and were more often abnormal (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9). Adolescents were more often diagnosed with SBI (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.0) and sepsis/meningitis (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.0) and were more frequently admitted (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4) and treated with intravenous antibiotics (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0).Conclusions Although younger children presented to the ED more frequently, adolescents were more often diagnosed with SBI and sepsis/meningitis. Our data emphasise the importance of awareness of severe infections

Journal article

Rose K, Bressan S, Honeyford K, Bognar Z, Buonsenso D, Da Dalt L, De T, Farrugia R, Parri N, Oostenbrink R, Roland D, Maconochie I, Moll HA, Titomanlio L, Nijman Ret al., 2021, Responses of Paediatric Emergency Departments to the first wave of the CoVID-19 pandemic in Europe: a cross sectional survey study, BMJ Paediatrics Open, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2399-9772

Objective: Understanding how paediatric emergency departments (PED) across Europe adapted their health care pathways in response to COVID-19 will help guide responses to ongoing waves of COVID-19 and potential future pandemics. This study aimed to evaluate service reconfiguration across European PEDs during the initial COVID-19 wave.Design: This cross-sectional survey included 39 PEDs in 17 countries. The online questionnaire captured 1) study site characteristics, 2) departmental changes, 3) pathways for children with acute illness pre and during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic (January - May 2020). Number of changes to health services, as a percentage of total possible changes encompassed by the survey, was compared to peak national SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates, and for both mixed and standalone paediatric centres. Results:Overall 97% (n=38) of centres remained open as usual during the pandemic. The capacity of 18/28 (68%) short-stay units decreased; in contrast 2 units (7%) increased their capacity. In 12 (31%) PEDs they reported acting as receiving centres for diverted children during the pandemic.There was minimal change to the availability of paediatric consultant telephone advice services, consultant supervision of juniors or presence of responsible specialists within the PEDs. There was no relationship between percentage of possible change at each site and the peak national SARS-CoV-2 incidence rate. Mixed paediatric and adult hospitals made 8% of possible changes and standalone paediatric centres made 6% of possible changes (p=0.12).ConclusionOverall, there was limited change to the organisation or delivery of services across surveyed PEDs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal article

Mintegi S, Maconochie IK, Waisman Y, Titomanlio L, Benito J, Laribi S, Moll Het al., 2021, Pediatric Preparedness of European Emergency Departments A Multicenter International Survey, PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, Vol: 37, Pages: E1150-E1153, ISSN: 0749-5161

Journal article

Wyckoff MH, Singletary EM, Soar J, Olasveengen TM, Greif R, Liley HG, Zideman D, Bhanji F, Andersen LW, Avis SR, Aziz K, Bendall JC, Berry DC, Borra V, Böttiger BW, Bradley R, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castrén M, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Cheng A, Chung SP, Considine J, Costa-Nobre DT, Couper K, Dainty KN, Davis PG, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, de Paiva EF, Deakin CD, Djärv T, Douma MJ, Drennan IR, Duff JP, Eastwood KJ, El-Naggar W, Epstein JL, Escalante R, Fabres JG, Fawke J, Finn JC, Foglia EE, Folke F, Freeman K, Gilfoyle E, Goolsby CA, Grove A, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Hazinski MF, Heriot GS, Hirsch KG, Holmberg MJ, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Hung KKC, Hsu CH, Ikeyama T, Isayama T, Kapadia VS, Kawakami MD, Kim H-S, Kloeck DA, Kudenchuk PJ, Lagina AT, Lauridsen KG, Lavonas EJ, Lockey AS, Malta Hansen C, Markenson D, Matsuyama T, McKinlay CJD, Mehrabian A, Merchant RM, Meyran D, Morley PT, Morrison LJ, Nation KJ, Nemeth M, Neumar RW, Nicholson T, Niermeyer S, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, O'Neil BJ, Orkin AM, Osemeke O, Parr MJ, Patocka C, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Roehr CC, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Sawyer T, Schmölzer GM, Schnaubelt S, Semeraro F, Skrifvars MB, Smith CM, Smyth MA, Soll RF, Sugiura T, Taylor-Phillips S, Trevisanuto D, Vaillancourt C, Wang T-L, Weiner GM, Welsford M, Wigginton J, Wyllie JP, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Berg KM, COVID-19 Working Groupet al., 2021, 2021 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations: summary from the basic life support; advanced life support; neonatal life support; education, implementation, and teams; first aid task forces; and the COVID-19 working group., Resuscitation, Vol: 169, Pages: 229-311, ISSN: 0300-9572

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations; a more comprehensive review was done in 2020. This latest summary addresses the most recently published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force science experts. Topics covered by systematic reviews in this summary include resuscitation topics of video-based dispatch systems; head-up cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early coronary angiography after return of spontaneous circulation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prone patient; cord management at birth for preterm and term infants; devices for administering positive-pressure ventilation at birth; family presence during neonatal resuscitation; self-directed, digitally based basic life support education and training in adults and children; coronavirus disease 2019 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest; and first aid topics, including cooling with water for thermal burns, oral rehydration for exertional dehydration, pediatric tourniquet use, and methods of tick removal. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations or good practice statements. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections. In addition, the task forces listed priority knowledge gaps for further research.

Journal article

Jones MD, Clarke J, Feather C, Franklin BD, Sinha R, Maconochie I, Darzi A, Appelbaum Net al., 2021, Use of pediatric injectable medicines guidelines and associated medication administration errors: a human reliability analysis, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol: 55, Pages: 1333-1340, ISSN: 1060-0280

Background:In a recent human reliability analysis (HRA) of simulated pediatric resuscitations, ineffective retrieval of preparation and administration instructions from online injectable medicines guidelines was a key factor contributing to medication administration errors (MAEs).Objective:The aim of the present study was to use a specific HRA to understand where intravenous medicines guidelines are vulnerable to misinterpretation, focusing on deviations from expected practice (discrepancies) that contributed to large-magnitude and/or clinically significant MAEs.Methods:Video recordings from the original study were reanalyzed to identify discrepancies in the steps required to find and extract information from the NHS Injectable Medicines Guide (IMG) website. These data were combined with MAE data from the same original study.Results:In total, 44 discrepancies during use of the IMG were observed across 180 medication administrations. Of these discrepancies, 21 (48%) were associated with an MAE, 16 of which (36% of 44 discrepancies) made a major contribution to that error. There were more discrepancies (31 in total, 70%) during the steps required to access the correct drug webpage than there were in the steps required to read this information (13 in total, 30%). Discrepancies when using injectable medicines guidelines made a major contribution to 6 (27%) of 22 clinically significant and 4 (15%) of 27 large-magnitude MAEs.Conclusion and Relevance:Discrepancies during the use of an online injectable medicines guideline were often associated with subsequent MAEs, including those with potentially significant consequences. This highlights the need to test the usability of guidelines before clinical use.

Journal article

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