Imperial College London

DrIanMaconochie

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Professor of Practice (Paediatric Emergency Medicine)
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 3729i.maconochie

 
 
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Location

 

Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

341 results found

Tan CD, Vermont CL, Zachariasse JM, von Both U, Carrol ED, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Rudzāte A, Tsolia M, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HA, PERFORM consortium Personalised Risk assessment in febrile children to optimise Real-life Management across the European Unionet al., 2024, Which low urgent triaged febrile children are suitable for a fast track? An observational European study., Emerg Med J

BACKGROUND: The number of paediatric patients visiting the ED with non-urgent problems is increasing, leading to poor patient flow and ED crowding. Fast track aims to improve the efficiency of evaluation and discharge of low acuity patients. We aimed to identify which febrile children are suitable for a fast track based on presenting symptoms and management. METHODS: This study is part of the Management and Outcome of Fever in children in Europe study, which is an observational study including routine data of febrile children <18 years attending 12 European EDs. We included febrile, low urgent children (those assigned a triage acuity of either 'standard' or 'non-urgent' using the Manchester Triage System) and defined children as suitable for fast track when they have minimal resource use and are discharged home. Presenting symptoms consisted of neurological (n=237), respiratory (n=8476), gastrointestinal (n=1953) and others (n=3473, reference group). Multivariable logistic regression analyses regarding presenting symptoms and management (laboratory blood testing, imaging and admission) were performed with adjustment for covariates: patient characteristics, referral status, previous medical care, previous antibiotic use, visiting hours and ED setting. RESULTS: We included 14 139 children with a median age of 2.7 years (IQR 1.3-5.2). The majority had respiratory symptoms (60%), viral infections (50%) and consisted of self-referrals (69%). The neurological group received imaging more often (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9) and were admitted more frequently (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.7). The respiratory group had fewer laboratory blood tests performed (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7), were less frequently admitted (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7), but received imaging more often (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.0). Lastly, the gastrointestinal group had more laboratory blood tests performed (aOR 1.2. 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4) and were admitted more frequently (aOR 1.4, 95%

Journal article

Berg KM, Bray JE, Ng K-C, Liley HG, Greif R, Carlson JN, Morley PT, Drennan IR, Smyth M, Scholefield BR, Weiner GM, Cheng A, Djärv T, Abelairas-Gómez C, Acworth J, Andersen LW, Atkins DL, Berry DC, Bhanji F, Bierens J, Bittencourt Couto T, Borra V, Böttiger BW, Bradley RN, Breckwoldt J, Cassan P, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Chung SP, Considine J, Costa-Nobre DT, Couper K, Dainty KN, Dassanayake V, Davis PG, Dawson JA, de Almeida MF, De Caen AR, Deakin CD, Dicker B, Douma MJ, Eastwood K, El-Naggar W, Fabres JG, Fawke J, Fijacko N, Finn JC, Flores GE, Foglia EE, Folke F, Gilfoyle E, Goolsby CA, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian A-M, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Hirsch KG, Holmberg MJ, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Hsu CH, Ikeyama T, Isayama T, Johnson NJ, Kapadia VS, Kawakami MD, Kim H-S, Kleinman ME, Kloeck DA, Kudenchuk P, Kule A, Kurosawa H, Lagina AT, Lauridsen KG, Lavonas EJ, Lee HC, Lin Y, Lockey AS, Macneil F, Maconochie IK, Madar RJ, Malta Hansen C, Masterson S, Matsuyama T, McKinlay CJD, Meyran D, Monnelly V, Nadkarni V, Nakwa FL, Nation KJ, Nehme Z, Nemeth M, Neumar RW, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Norii T, Nuthall GA, Ohshimo S, Olasveengen TM, Ong Y-KG, Orkin AM, Parr MJ, Patocka C, Perkins GD, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Raitt J, Ramachandran S, Ramaswamy VV, Raymond TT, Reis AG, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Roehr CC, Rüdiger M, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Sawyer TL, Schexnayder SM, Schmölzer GM, Schnaubelt S, Semeraro F, Singletary EM, Skrifvars MB, Smith CM, Soar J, Stassen W, Sugiura T, Tijssen JA, Topjian AA, Trevisanuto D, Vaillancourt C, Wyckoff MH, Wyllie JP, Yang C-W, Yeung J, Zelop CM, Zideman DA, Nolan JP, Collaboratorset al., 2023, 2023 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations: Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Pediatric Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; and First Aid Task Forces., Circulation, Vol: 148, Pages: e187-e280

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation engages in a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid science. Draft Consensus on Science With Treatment Recommendations are posted online throughout the year, and this annual summary provides more concise versions of the final Consensus on Science With Treatment Recommendations from all task forces for the year. Topics addressed by systematic reviews this year include resuscitation of cardiac arrest from drowning, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for adults and children, calcium during cardiac arrest, double sequential defibrillation, neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest for adults and children, maintaining normal temperature after preterm birth, heart rate monitoring methods for diagnostics in neonates, detection of exhaled carbon dioxide in neonates, family presence during resuscitation of adults, and a stepwise approach to resuscitation skills training. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence, using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in the Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections. In addition, the task forces list priority knowledge gaps for further research. Additional topics are addressed with scoping reviews and evidence updates.

Journal article

Ong GY, Kurosawa H, Ikeyama T, Park JD, Katanyuwong P, Reyes OCF, Wu ET, Hon KLE, Maconochie IK, Shepard LN, Nadkarni VM, Ng KCet al., 2023, Comparison of paediatric basic life support guidelines endorsed by member councils of Resuscitation Council of Asia, Resuscitation Plus, Vol: 16

Background: Paediatric cardiac arrest outcomes, especially for infants, remain poor. Due to different training, resource differences, and historical reasons, paediatric cardiac arrest algorithms for various Asia countries vary. While there has been a common basic life support algorithm for adults by the Resuscitation Council of Asia (RCA), there is no common RCA algorithm for paediatric life support. We aimed to review published paediatric life support guidelines from different Asian resuscitation councils. Methods: Pubmed and Google Scholar search were performed for published paediatric basic and advanced life support guidelines from January 2015 to June 2023. Paediatric representatives from the Resuscitation Council of Asia were sought and contacted to provide input from September 2022 till June 2023. Results: While most of the components of published paediatric life support algorithms of Asian countries are similar, there are notable variations in terms of age criteria for recommended use of adult basic life support algorithms in the paediatric population less than 18 years old, recommended paediatric chest compression depth targets, ventilation rates post-advanced airway intra-arrest, and first defibrillation dose for shockable rhythms in paediatric cardiac arrest. Conclusion: This was an overview and mapping of published Asian paediatric resuscitation algorithms. It highlights similarities across paediatric life support guidelines in Asian countries. There were some differences in components of paediatric life support which highlight important knowledge gaps in paediatric resuscitation science. The minor differences in the paediatric life support guidelines endorsed by the member councils may provide a framework for prioritising resuscitation research and highlight knowledge gaps in paediatric resuscitation.

Journal article

Nijman R, Cadman E, Maconochie I, 2023, The emerging art of doing less, Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Berg KM, Bray JE, Ng K-C, Liley HG, Greif R, Carlson JN, Morley PT, Drennan IR, Smyth M, Scholefield BR, Weiner GM, Cheng A, Djärv T, Abelairas-Gómez C, Acworth J, Andersen LW, Atkins DL, Berry DC, Bhanji F, Bierens J, Bittencourt Couto T, Borra V, Böttiger BW, Bradley RN, Breckwoldt J, Cassan P, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Chung SP, Considine J, Costa-Nobre DT, Couper K, Dainty KN, Dassanayake V, Davis PG, Dawson JA, Fernanda de Almeida M, De Caen AR, Deakin CD, Dicker B, Douma MJ, Eastwood K, El-Naggar W, Fabres JG, Fawke J, Fijacko N, Finn JC, Flores GE, Foglia EE, Folke F, Gilfoyle E, Goolsby CA, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian A-M, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Hirsch KG, Holmberg MJ, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Hsu CH, Ikeyama T, Isayama T, Johnson NJ, Kapadia VS, Daripa Kawakami M, Kim H-S, Kleinman ME, Kloeck DA, Kudenchuk P, Kule A, Kurosawa H, Lagina AT, Lauridsen KG, Lavonas EJ, Lee HC, Lin Y, Lockey AS, Macneil F, Maconochie IK, John Madar R, Malta Hansen C, Masterson S, Matsuyama T, McKinlay CJD, Meyran D, Monnelly V, Nadkarni V, Nakwa FL, Nation KJ, Nehme Z, Nemeth M, Neumar RW, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Norii T, Nuthall GA, Ohshimo S, Olasveengen TM, Gene Ong Y-K, Orkin AM, Parr MJ, Patocka C, Perkins GD, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Raitt J, Ramachandran S, Ramaswamy VV, Raymond TT, Reis AG, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Roehr CC, Rüdiger M, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Sawyer TL, Schexnayder SM, Schmölzer GM, Schnaubelt S, Semeraro F, Singletary EM, Skrifvars MB, Smith CM, Soar J, Stassen W, Sugiura T, Tijssen JA, Topjian AA, Trevisanuto D, Vaillancourt C, Wyckoff MH, Wyllie JP, Yang C-W, Yeung J, Zelop CM, Zideman DA, Nolan JP, ; and Collaboratorset al., 2023, 2023 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations: Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Pediatric Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; and First Aid Task Forces., Resuscitation

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation engages in a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid science. Draft Consensus on Science With Treatment Recommendations are posted online throughout the year, and this annual summary provides more concise versions of the final Consensus on Science With Treatment Recommendations from all task forces for the year. Topics addressed by systematic reviews this year include resuscitation of cardiac arrest from drowning, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for adults and children, calcium during cardiac arrest, double sequential defibrillation, neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest for adults and children, maintaining normal temperature after preterm birth, heart rate monitoring methods for diagnostics in neonates, detection of exhaled carbon dioxide in neonates, family presence during resuscitation of adults, and a stepwise approach to resuscitation skills training. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence, using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in the Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections. In addition, the task forces list priority knowledge gaps for further research. Additional topics are addressed with scoping reviews and evidence updates.

Journal article

Jackson HR, Zandstra J, Menikou S, Hamilton MS, McArdle AJ, Fischer R, Thorne AM, Huang H, Tanck MW, Jansen MH, De T, Agyeman PKA, Von Both U, Carrol ED, Emonts M, Eleftheriou I, Van der Flier M, Fink C, Gloerich J, De Groot R, Moll HA, Pokorn M, Pollard AJ, Schlapbach LJ, Tsolia MN, Usuf E, Wright VJ, Yeung S, Zavadska D, Zenz W, Coin LJM, Casals-Pascual C, Cunnington AJ, Martinon-Torres F, Herberg JA, de Jonge MI, Levin M, Kuijpers TW, Kaforou M, PERFORM consortiumet al., 2023, A multi-platform approach to identify a blood-based host protein signature for distinguishing between bacterial and viral infections in febrile children (PERFORM): a multi-cohort machine learning study, The Lancet: Digital Health, Vol: 5, Pages: e774-e785, ISSN: 2589-7500

BACKGROUND: Differentiating between self-resolving viral infections and bacterial infections in children who are febrile is a common challenge, causing difficulties in identifying which individuals require antibiotics. Studying the host response to infection can provide useful insights and can lead to the identification of biomarkers of infection with diagnostic potential. This study aimed to identify host protein biomarkers for future development into an accurate, rapid point-of-care test that can distinguish between bacterial and viral infections, by recruiting children presenting to health-care settings with fever or a history of fever in the previous 72 h. METHODS: In this multi-cohort machine learning study, patient data were taken from EUCLIDS, the Swiss Pediatric Sepsis study, the GENDRES study, and the PERFORM study, which were all based in Europe. We generated three high-dimensional proteomic datasets (SomaScan and two via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, referred to as MS-A and MS-B) using targeted and untargeted platforms (SomaScan and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry). Protein biomarkers were then shortlisted using differential abundance analysis, feature selection using forward selection-partial least squares (FS-PLS; 100 iterations), along with a literature search. Identified proteins were tested with Luminex and ELISA and iterative FS-PLS was done again (25 iterations) on the Luminex results alone, and the Luminex and ELISA results together. A sparse protein signature for distinguishing between bacterial and viral infections was identified from the selected proteins. The performance of this signature was finally tested using Luminex assays and by calculating disease risk scores. FINDINGS: 376 children provided serum or plasma samples for use in the discovery of protein biomarkers. 79 serum samples were collected for the generation of the SomaScan dataset, 147 plasma samples for the MS-A dataset, and 150 plasma samples for the MS-

Journal article

Rothwell L, Vivek K, Nicholls D, Maconochie I, Dyer EMet al., 2023, Fifteen-minute consultation: Recognition and management of eating disorders presenting to the emergency department, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD-EDUCATION AND PRACTICE EDITION, Vol: 108, Pages: 330-334, ISSN: 1743-0585

Journal article

Tan CD, Vermont CL, Zachariasse JM, von Both U, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HA, Carrol ED, PERFORM consortium Personalised Risk assessment in febrile children tooptimize Real-life Management across the European Unionet al., 2023, Emergency medical services utilisation among febrile children attending emergency departments across Europe: an observational multicentre study, European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 182, Pages: 3939-3947, ISSN: 0340-6199

Children constitute 6-10% of all patients attending the emergency department (ED) by emergency medical services (EMS). However, discordant EMS use in children occurs in 37-61% with fever as an important risk factor. We aimed to describe EMS utilisation among febrile children attending European EDs. This study is part of an observational multicentre study assessing management and outcome in febrile children up to 18 years (MOFICHE) attending twelve EDs in eight European countries. Discordant EMS use was defined as the absence of markers of urgency including intermediate/high triage urgency, advanced diagnostics, treatment, and admission in children transferred by EMS. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for the association between (1) EMS use and markers of urgency, and (2) patient characteristics and discordant EMS use after adjusting all analyses for the covariates age, gender, visiting hours, presenting symptoms, and ED setting. A total of 5464 (15%, range 0.1-42%) children attended the ED by EMS. Markers of urgency were more frequently present in the EMS group compared with the non-EMS group. Discordant EMS use occurred in 1601 children (29%, range 1-59%). Age and gender were not associated with discordant EMS use, whereas neurological symptoms were associated with less discordant EMS use (aOR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.2), and attendance out of office hours was associated with more discordant EMS use (aOR 1.6, 95%CI 1.4-1.9). Settings with higher percentage of self-referrals to the ED had more discordant EMS use (p < 0.05).  Conclusion: There is large practice variation in EMS use in febrile children attending European EDs. Markers of urgency were more frequently present in children in the EMS group. However, discordant EMS use occurred in 29%. Further research is needed on non-medical factors influencing discordant EMS use in febrile children across Europe, so that pre-emptive strategies can be implemented. What is Known:

Journal article

Herberg J, Shah P, Voice M, Calvo-Bado L, Rivero Calle I, Morris S, Nijman R, Broderick C, De T, Eleftheriou I, Galassini R, Khanijau A, Kolberg L, Kolnik M, Rudzate A, Sagmeister M, Schweintzger N, Secka F, Thakker C, van der Velden F, Vermont C, Vincek K, Agyeman P, Cunnington A, de Groot R, Emonts M, Fidler K, Kuijpers T, Mommert-Tripon M, Brengel-Pesce K, Mallet F, Moll H, Paulus S, Pokorn M, Pollard A, Schlapbach L, Shen C-F, Tsolia M, Usuf E, Van Der Flier M, von Both U, Yeung S, Zavadska D, Zenz W, Wright V, Carrol E, Kaforou M, Martinon-Torres F, Fink C, Levin M, PERFORM consortiumet al., 2023, Relationship between molecular pathogen detection and clinical disease in febrile children across Europe: a multicentre, prospective observational study, The Lancet Regional Health. Europe, Vol: 32, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2666-7762

The PERFORM study aimed to understand causes of febrile childhood illness by comparing molecular pathogen detection with current clinical practice. Methods. Febrile children and controls were recruited on presentation to hospital in 9 European countries 2016-2020. Each child was assigned a standardized diagnostic category based on retrospective review of local clinical and microbiological data. Subsequently, centralised molecular tests (CMTs) for 19 respiratory and 27 blood pathogens were performed.Findings. Of 4,611 febrile children, 643 (14%) were classified as definite bacterial infection (DB), 491 (11%) as definite viral infection (DV), and 3,477 (75%) had uncertain aetiology. 1,061 controls without infection were recruited. CMTs detected blood bacteria more frequently in DB than DV cases for N.meningitidis (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 1.92 – 5.99), S.pneumoniae (OR: 3.89, 95% CI: 2.07 – 7.59), Group A streptococcus (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.13 – 6.09) and E.coli (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.02 – 6.71). Respiratory viruses were more common in febrile children than controls, but only influenza A (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11 – 0.46), Influenza B (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02 – 0.37) and RSV (OR 0.16, 95% CI: 0.06 – 0.36) were less common in DB than DV cases. Of 16 blood viruses, enterovirus (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.72) and EBV (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 – 0.90) were detected less often in DB than DV cases. Combined local diagnostics and CMTs respectively detected blood viruses and respiratory viruses in 360 (56%) and 161 (25%) of DB cases, and virus detection ruled-out bacterial infection poorly, with predictive values of 0.64 and 0.68 respectively. Interpretation. Most febrile children cannot be conclusively defined as having bacterial or viral infection when molecular tests supplement conventional approaches. Viruses are detected in most patients with bacterial infections, and the clinical value of individual pathogen detection in determining treatment is

Journal article

Schnaubelt S, Garg R, Atiq H, Baig N, Bernardino M, Bigham B, Dickson S, Geduld H, Al-Hilali Z, Karki S, Lahri S, Maconochie I, Montealegre F, Mustafa MT, Niermeyer S, Odakha JA, Perlman JM, Monsieurs KG, Greif Ret al., 2023, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in low-resource settings: a statement by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, supported by the AFEM, EUSEM, IFEM, and IFRC, LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol: 11, Pages: E1444-E1453, ISSN: 2214-109X

Journal article

Willems E, Gloerich J, Suppers A, van der Flier M, van den Heuvel LP, van de Kar N, Philipsen RHLA, van Dael M, Kaforou M, Wright VJ, Herberg JA, Torres FM, Levin M, de Groot R, van Gool AJ, Lefeber DJ, Wessels HJCT, de Jonge MI, PERFORM consortiumet al., 2023, Impact of infection on proteome-wide glycosylation revealed by distinct signatures for bacterial and viral pathogens, iScience, Vol: 26, ISSN: 2589-0042

Mechanisms of infection and pathogenesis have predominantly been studied based on differential gene or protein expression. Less is known about posttranslational modifications, which are essential for protein functional diversity. We applied an innovative glycoproteomics method to study the systemic proteome-wide glycosylation in response to infection. The protein site-specific glycosylation was characterized in plasma derived from well-defined controls and patients. We found 3862 unique features, of which we identified 463 distinct intact glycopeptides, that could be mapped to more than 30 different proteins. Statistical analyses were used to derive a glycopeptide signature that enabled significant differentiation between patients with a bacterial or viral infection. Furthermore, supported by a machine learning algorithm, we demonstrated the ability to identify the causative pathogens based on the distinctive host blood plasma glycopeptide signatures. These results illustrate that glycoproteomics holds enormous potential as an innovative approach to improve the interpretation of relevant biological changes in response to infection.

Journal article

Guerlich K, Patro-Golab B, Barnacle A, Baumann U, Eicken AG, Fraser A, Gruszfeld DA, Haas NH, Jonker A, Kammermeier M, Kenny D, Kolacek S, Lapatto R, Maconochie I, Mader S, McGauran G, Melvin T, Muensterer O, Piscoi P, Romano AK, Saxena AT, Schneider DA, Turner M, Vande Walle J, Koletzko B, European APet al., 2023, European expert recommendations on clinical investigation and evaluation of high-risk medical devices for children, ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN: 0803-5253

Journal article

Nijman RG, Tan CD, Hagedoorn NN, Nieboer D, Herberg JA, Balode A, von Both U, Carrol ED, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Kohlmaier B, Lim E, Martinón-Torres F, Pokorn M, Strle F, Tsolia M, Yeung S, Zachariasse JM, Zavadska D, Zenz W, Levin M, Vermont CL, Moll HA, Maconochie IK, PERFORM consortiumet al., 2023, Are children with prolonged fever at a higher risk for serious illness? A prospective observational study, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 108, Pages: 632-639, ISSN: 0003-9888

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of children with fever ≥5 days presenting to emergency departments (EDs). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: 12 European EDs. PATIENTS: Consecutive febrile children <18 years between January 2017 and April 2018. INTERVENTIONS: Children with fever ≥5 days and their risks for serious bacterial infection (SBI) were compared with children with fever <5 days, including diagnostic accuracy of non-specific symptoms, warning signs and C-reactive protein (CRP; mg/L). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SBI and other non-infectious serious illness. RESULTS: 3778/35 705 (10.6%) of febrile children had fever ≥5 days. Incidence of SBI in children with fever ≥5 days was higher than in those with fever <5 days (8.4% vs 5.7%). Triage urgency, life-saving interventions and intensive care admissions were similar for fever ≥5 days and <5 days. Several warning signs had good rule in value for SBI with specificities >0.90, but were observed infrequently (range: 0.4%-17%). Absence of warning signs was not sufficiently reliable to rule out SBI (sensitivity 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.95), negative likelihood ratio (LR) 0.34 (0.22-0.54)). CRP <20 mg/L was useful for ruling out SBI (negative LR 0.16 (0.11-0.24)). There were 66 cases (1.7%) of non-infectious serious illnesses, including 21 cases of Kawasaki disease (0.6%), 28 inflammatory conditions (0.7%) and 4 malignancies. CONCLUSION: Children with prolonged fever have a higher risk of SBI, warranting a careful clinical assessment and diagnostic workup. Warning signs of SBI occurred infrequently but, if present, increased the likelihood of SBI. Although rare, clinicians should consider important non-infectious causes of prolonged fever.

Journal article

Koldeweij C, Clarke J, Rodriguez Gonzalvez C, Nijman J, Maconochie I, Appelbaum Net al., 2023, MAPPING VARIATION BETWEEN NATIONAL AND LOCAL CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR ACUTE PAEDIATRIC ASTHMA FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE NETHERLANDS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A12-A12, ISSN: 0003-9888

Conference paper

Koldeweij C, Clarke J, Gonzalvez CR, Nijman J, Maconochie I, Appelbaum Net al., 2023, MAPPING VARIATION BETWEEN NATIONAL AND LOCAL CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR ACUTE PAEDIATRIC ASTHMA FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE NETHERLANDS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A12-A12, ISSN: 0003-9888

Conference paper

Morfopoulou S, Buddle S, Torres Montaguth OE, Atkinson L, Guerra-Assunção JA, Moradi Marjaneh M, Zennezini Chiozzi R, Storey N, Campos L, Hutchinson JC, Counsell JR, Pollara G, Roy S, Venturini C, Antinao Diaz JF, Siam A, Tappouni LJ, Asgarian Z, Ng J, Hanlon KS, Lennon A, McArdle A, Czap A, Rosenheim J, Andrade C, Anderson G, Lee JCD, Williams R, Williams CA, Tutill H, Bayzid N, Martin Bernal LM, Macpherson H, Montgomery K-A, Moore C, Templeton K, Neill C, Holden M, Gunson R, Shepherd SJ, Shah P, Cooray S, Voice M, Steele M, Fink C, Whittaker TE, Santilli G, Gissen P, Kaufer BB, Reich J, Andreani J, Simmonds P, Alrabiah DK, Castellano S, Chikowore P, Odam M, Rampling T, Houlihan C, Hoschler K, Talts T, Celma C, Gonzalez S, Gallagher E, Simmons R, Watson C, Mandal S, Zambon M, Chand M, Hatcher J, De S, Baillie K, Semple MG, DIAMONDS Consortium, PERFORM Consortium, ISARIC4C Investigators, Martin J, Ushiro-Lumb I, Noursadeghi M, Deheragoda M, Hadzic N, Grammatikopoulos T, Brown R, Kelgeri C, Thalassinos K, Waddington SN, Jacques TS, Thomson E, Levin M, Brown JR, Breuer Jet al., 2023, Genomic investigations of unexplained acute hepatitis in children, Nature, Vol: 617, Pages: 564-573, ISSN: 0028-0836

Since its first identification in Scotland, over 1,000 cases of unexplained paediatric hepatitis in children have been reported worldwide, including 278 cases in the UK1. Here we report an investigation of 38 cases, 66 age-matched immunocompetent controls and 21 immunocompromised comparator participants, using a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical methods. We detected high levels of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) DNA in the liver, blood, plasma or stool from 27 of 28 cases. We found low levels of adenovirus (HAdV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in 23 of 31 and 16 of 23, respectively, of the cases tested. By contrast, AAV2 was infrequently detected and at low titre in the blood or the liver from control children with HAdV, even when profoundly immunosuppressed. AAV2, HAdV and HHV-6 phylogeny excluded the emergence of novel strains in cases. Histological analyses of explanted livers showed enrichment for T cells and B lineage cells. Proteomic comparison of liver tissue from cases and healthy controls identified increased expression of HLA class 2, immunoglobulin variable regions and complement proteins. HAdV and AAV2 proteins were not detected in the livers. Instead, we identified AAV2 DNA complexes reflecting both HAdV-mediated and HHV-6B-mediated replication. We hypothesize that high levels of abnormal AAV2 replication products aided by HAdV and, in severe cases, HHV-6B may have triggered immune-mediated hepatic disease in genetically and immunologically predisposed children.

Journal article

Nishiyama C, Kiguchi T, Okubo M, Alihodzic H, Al-Araji R, Baldi E, Beganton F, Booth S, Bray J, Christensen E, Cresta R, Finn J, Grasner J-T, Jouven X, Kern KB, Maconochie I, Masterson S, McNally B, Nolan JP, Ong MEH, Perkins GD, Park JH, Ristau P, Savastano S, Shahidah N, Do Shin S, Soar J, Tjelmeland I, Quinn M, Wnent J, Wyckoff MH, Iwami Tet al., 2023, Three-year trends in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest across the world: Second report from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), RESUSCITATION, Vol: 186, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Tyson M, Trenear R, Skellett S, Maconochie I, Mullen Net al., 2023, Survey About Second-Line Agents for Pediatric Convulsive Status Epilepticus, PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE, Vol: 39, Pages: 247-252, ISSN: 0749-5161

Journal article

Kohlmaier B, Leitner M, Hagedoorn NN, Borensztajn DM, von Both U, Carrol ED, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, MartinonTorres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, RiveroCalle I, Tan CD, Maria T, Vermont CL, Zachariasse JM, Zavadska D, Moll HA, Zenz Wet al., 2023, European study confirms the combination of fever and petechial rash as an important warning sign for childhood sepsis and meningitis, Acta Paediatrica, ISSN: 0803-5253

Journal article

Wittmann S, Jorgensen R, Oostenbrink R, Moll H, Herberg J, Levin M, Maconochie I, Nijman Ret al., 2023, Heart rate and respiratory rate in predicting risk of serious bacterial infection in febrile children given antipyretics: prospective observational study, European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 182, Pages: 2205-2214, ISSN: 0340-6199

Clinical algorithms used in the assessment of febrile children in the Paediatric Emergency Departments are commonly based on threshold values for vital signs, which in children with fever are often outside the normal range. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic value of heart and respiratory rate for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children after temperature lowering following administration of antipyretics. A prospective cohort of children presenting with fever between June 2014 and March 2015 at the Paediatric Emergency Department of a large teaching hospital in London, UK, was performed. Seven hundred forty children aged 1 month–16 years presenting with a fever and ≥ 1 warning signs of SBI given antipyretics were included. Tachycardia or tachypnoea were defined by different threshold values: (a) APLS threshold values, (b) age-specific and temperature-adjusted centiles charts and (c) relative difference in z-score. SBI was defined by a composite reference standard (cultures from a sterile site, microbiology and virology results, radiological abnormalities, expert panel). Persistent tachypnoea after body temperature lowering was an important predictor of SBI (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.30). This effect was only observed for pneumonia but not other SBIs. Threshold values for tachypnoea > 97th centile at repeat measurement achieved high specificity (0.95 (0.93, 0.96)) and positive likelihood ratios (LR + 3.25 (1.73, 6.11)) and may be useful for ruling in SBI, specifically pneumonia. Persistent tachycardia was not an independent predictor of SBI and had limited value as a diagnostic test.

Journal article

Wyckoff MH, Greif R, Morley PT, Ng K-C, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Soar J, Cheng A, Drennan IR, Liley HG, Scholefield BR, Smyth MA, Welsford M, Zideman DA, Acworth J, Aickin R, Andersen LW, Atkins D, Berry DC, Bhanji F, Bierens J, Borra V, Böttiger BW, Bradley RN, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Callaway CW, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castrén M, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Phil Chung S, Considine J, Costa-Nobre DT, Couper K, Couto TB, Dainty KN, Davis PG, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Djärv T, Donnino MW, Douma MJ, Duff JP, Dunne CL, Eastwood K, El-Naggar W, Fabres JG, Fawke J, Finn J, Foglia EE, Folke F, Gilfoyle E, Goolsby CA, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian A-M, Guinsburg R, Hirsch KG, Holmberg MJ, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Hsu CH, Ikeyama T, Isayama T, Johnson NJ, Kapadia VS, Kawakami MD, Kim H-S, Kleinman M, Kloeck DA, Kudenchuk PJ, Lagina AT, Lauridsen KG, Lavonas EJ, Lee HC, Lin YJ, Lockey AS, Maconochie IK, Madar J, Malta Hansen C, Masterson S, Matsuyama T, McKinlay CJD, Meyran D, Morgan P, Morrison LJ, Nadkarni V, Nakwa FL, Nation KJ, Nehme Z, Nemeth M, Neumar RW, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Norii T, Nuthall GA, O'Neill BJ, Gene Ong Y-K, Orkin AM, Paiva EF, Parr MJ, Patocka C, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Reis AG, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Roehr CC, Rüdiger M, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Sawyer TL, Schexnayder SM, Schmölzer GM, Schnaubelt S, Semeraro F, Skrifvars MB, Smith CM, Sugiura T, Tijssen JA, Trevisanuto D, Van de Voorde P, Wang T-L, Weiner GM, Wyllie JP, Yang C-W, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Berg KMet al., 2023, 2022 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations: Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Pediatric Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; and First Aid Task Forces., Pediatrics, Vol: 151

This is the sixth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. This summary addresses the most recently published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Task Force science experts. Topics covered by systematic reviews include cardiopulmonary resuscitation during transport; approach to resuscitation after drowning; passive ventilation; minimizing pauses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation; temperature management after cardiac arrest; use of diagnostic point-of-care ultrasound during cardiac arrest; use of vasopressin and corticosteroids during cardiac arrest; coronary angiography after cardiac arrest; public-access defibrillation devices for children; pediatric early warning systems; maintaining normal temperature immediately after birth; suctioning of amniotic fluid at birth; tactile stimulation for resuscitation immediately after birth; use of continuous positive airway pressure for respiratory distress at term birth; respiratory and heart rate monitoring in the delivery room; supraglottic airway use in neonates; prearrest prediction of in-hospital cardiac arrest mortality; basic life support training for likely rescuers of high-risk populations; effect of resuscitation team training; blended learning for life support training; training and recertification for resuscitation instructors; and recovery position for maintenance of breathing and prevention of cardiac arrest. Members from 6 task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria and generated consensus treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in the Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections, and priority knowledge gaps for futu

Journal article

van der Velden FJS, de Vries G, Martin A, Lim E, von Both U, Kolberg L, Carrol ED, Khanijau A, Herberg JA, De T, Galassini R, Kuijpers TW, Martinón-Torres F, Rivero-Calle I, Vermont CL, Hagedoorn NN, Pokorn M, Pollard AJ, Schlapbach LJ, Tsolia M, Elefhteriou I, Yeung S, Zavadska D, Fink C, Voice M, Zenz W, Kohlmaier B, Agyeman PKA, Usuf E, Secka F, de Groot R, Levin M, van der Flier M, Emonts M, PERFORM consortiumet al., 2023, Correction to: Febrile illness in high-risk children: a prospective, international observational study., European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 182, Pages: 555-556, ISSN: 0340-6199

Journal article

Lenglart L, Ouldali N, Honeyford K, Bognar Z, Bressan S, Buonsenso D, Da Dalt L, De T, Farrugia R, Maconochie IK, Moll HA, Oostenbrink R, Parri N, Roland D, Rose K, Akyüz Özkan E, Angoulvant F, Aupiais C, Barber C, Barrett M, Basmaci R, Castanhinha S, Chiaretti A, Durnin S, Fitzpatrick P, Fodor L, Gomez B, Greber-Platzer S, Guedj R, Hey F, Jankauskaite L, Kohlfuerst D, Mascarenhas I, Musolino AM, Pučuka Z, Reis S, Rybak A, Salamon P, Schaffert M, Shahar-Nissan K, Supino MC, Teksam O, Turan C, Velasco R, Nijman RG, Titomanlio L, EPISODES Study Groupet al., 2023, Respective roles of non-pharmaceutical interventions in bronchiolitis outbreaks: an interrupted time-series analysis based on a multinational surveillance system, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 61, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0903-1936

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a major source of morbimortality among young children worldwide. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented to reduce the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may have had an important impact on bronchiolitis outbreaks, as well as major societal consequences. Discriminating between their respective impacts would help define optimal public health strategies against bronchiolitis. We aimed to assess the respective impact of each NPI on bronchiolitis outbreaks in 14 European countries. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series analysis based on a multicentre international study. All children diagnosed with bronchiolitis presenting to the paediatric emergency department of one of 27 centres from January 2018 to March 2021 were included. We assessed the association between each NPI and change in the bronchiolitis trend over time by seasonally adjusted multivariable quasi-Poisson regression modelling. RESULTS: In total, 42 916 children were included. We observed an overall cumulative 78% (95% CI -100- -54%; p<0.0001) reduction in bronchiolitis cases following NPI implementation. The decrease varied between countries from -97% (95% CI -100- -47%; p=0.0005) to -36% (95% CI -79-7%; p=0.105). Full lockdown (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.21 (95% CI 0.14-0.30); p<0.001), secondary school closure (IRR 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.52); p<0.0001), wearing a mask indoors (IRR 0.49 (95% CI 0.25-0.94); p=0.034) and teleworking (IRR 0.55 (95% CI 0.31-0.97); p=0.038) were independently associated with reducing bronchiolitis. CONCLUSIONS: Several NPIs were associated with a reduction of bronchiolitis outbreaks, including full lockdown, school closure, teleworking and facial masking. Some of these public health interventions may be considered to further reduce the global burden of bronchiolitis.

Journal article

Wyckoff MH, Greif R, Morley PT, Ng K-C, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Soar J, Cheng A, Drennan IR, Liley HG, Scholefield BR, Smyth MA, Welsford M, Zideman DA, Acworth J, Aickin R, Andersen LW, Atkins D, Berry DC, Bhanji F, Bierens J, Borra V, Boettiger BW, Bradley RN, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Callaway CW, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castren M, Chang W-T, Charlton NP, Chung SP, Considine J, Costa-Nobre DT, Couper K, Couto TB, Dainty KN, Davis PG, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Djarv T, Donnino MW, Douma MJ, Duff JP, Dunne CL, Eastwood K, El-Naggar W, Fabres JG, Fawke J, Finn J, Foglia EE, Folke F, Gilfoyle E, Goolsby CA, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian A-M, Guinsburg R, Hirsch KG, Holmberg MJ, Hosono S, Hsieh M-J, Hsu CH, Ikeyama T, Isayama T, Johnson NJ, Kapadia VS, Kawakami MD, Kim H-S, Kleinman M, Kloeck DA, Kudenchuk PJ, Lagina AT, Lauridsen KG, Lavonas EJ, Lee HC, Lin YJ, Lockey AS, Maconochie IK, Madar RJ, Hansen CM, Masterson S, Matsuyama T, McKinlay CJD, Meyran D, Morgan P, Morrison LJ, Nadkarni V, Nakwa FL, Nation KJ, Nehme Z, Nemeth M, Neumar RW, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Norii T, Nuthall GA, O'Neill BJ, Ong Y-KG, Orkin AM, Paiva EF, Parr MJ, Patocka C, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Reis AG, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Roehr CC, Ruediger M, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Sawyer TL, Schexnayder SM, Schmolzer GM, Schnaubelt S, Semeraro F, Skrifvars MB, Smith CM, Sugiura T, Tijssen JA, Trevisanuto D, Van de Voorde P, Wang T-L, Weiner GM, Wyllie JP, Yang C-W, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Berg KMet al., 2022, 2022 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations: Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Pediatric Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; and First Aid Task Forces, RESUSCITATION, Vol: 181, Pages: 208-288, ISSN: 0300-9572

Journal article

Ong GY-K, Ang AJF, Chen ZJ, Chan YH, Tang PH, Fong ESS, Tan JY, Aurangzeb ASO, Pek JH, Maconochie I, Ng KC, Nadkarni Vet al., 2022, Corrigendum to "Should paediatric chest compression depth targets consider body habitus? - A chest computed tomography imaging study" [Resuscitation Plus 9 (2022) 100202]., Resusc Plus, Vol: 12

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.resplu.2022.100202.].

Journal article

Gugelmin-Almeida D, Tobase L, Maconochie I, Polastri T, Gesteira ECR, Williams Jet al., 2022, What can be learned from the literature about intervals and strategies for paediatric CPR retraining of healthcare professionals? A scoping review of literature, RESUSCITATION PLUS, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2666-5204

Journal article

Tan CD, van der Walle EEPL, Vermont CL, von Both U, Carrol ED, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Yeung S, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HAet al., 2022, Correction to: Guideline adherence in febrile children below 3 months visiting European Emergency Departments: an observational multicenter study, European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 181, Pages: 4211-4214, ISSN: 0340-6199

Journal article

Tan CD, van der Walle EEPL, Vermont CL, von Both U, Carrol ED, Eleftheriou I, Emonts M, van der Flier M, de Groot R, Herberg J, Kohlmaier B, Levin M, Lim E, Maconochie IK, Martinon-Torres F, Nijman RG, Pokorn M, Rivero-Calle I, Tsolia M, Yeung S, Zenz W, Zavadska D, Moll HA, PERFORM consortium Personalised Risk assessment in febrile children to optimize Real-life Management across the European Unionet al., 2022, Guideline adherence in febrile children below 3 months visiting European Emergency Departments: an observational multicenter study, European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 181, Pages: 4199-4209, ISSN: 0340-6199

Febrile children below 3 months have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections, which often leads to extensive diagnostics and treatment. There is practice variation in management due to differences in guidelines and their usage and adherence. We aimed to assess whether management in febrile children below 3 months attending European Emergency Departments (EDs) was according to the guidelines for fever. This study is part of the MOFICHE study, which is an observational multicenter study including routine data of febrile children (0-18 years) attending twelve EDs in eight European countries. In febrile children below 3 months (excluding bronchiolitis), we analyzed actual management compared to the guidelines for fever. Ten EDs applied the (adapted) NICE guideline, and two EDs applied local guidelines. Management included diagnostic tests, antibiotic treatment, and admission. We included 913 children with a median age of 1.7 months (IQR 1.0-2.3). Management per ED varied as follows: use of diagnostic tests 14-83%, antibiotic treatment 23-54%, admission 34-86%. Adherence to the guideline was 43% (374/868) for blood cultures, 29% (144/491) for lumbar punctures, 55% (270/492) for antibiotic prescriptions, and 67% (573/859) for admission. Full adherence to these four management components occurred in 15% (132/868, range 0-38%), partial adherence occurred in 56% (484/868, range 35-77%). CONCLUSION: There is large practice variation in management. The guideline adherence was limited, but highest for admission which implies a cautious approach. Future studies should focus on guideline revision including new biomarkers in order to optimize management in young febrile children. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Febrile children below 3 months have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections, which often leads to extensive diagnostics and treatment. • There is practice variation in management of young febrile children due to differences in guideline

Journal article

Roland D, Gardiner A, Razzaq D, Rose K, Bressan S, Honeyford K, Buonsenso D, Da Dalt L, De T, Farrugia R, Parri N, Oostenbrink R, Maconochie IK, Bognar Z, Moll HA, Titomanlio L, Nijman RGG, in association with the REPEM network Research in European Paediatric Emergency Medicine as part of the EPISODES Studyet al., 2022, Influence of epidemics and pandemics on paediatric ED use: a systematic review, Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN: 0003-9888

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of epidemics and pandemics on the utilisation of paediatric emergency care services to provide health policy advice. SETTING: Systematic review. DESIGN: Searches were conducted of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library for studies that reported on changes in paediatric emergency care utilisation during epidemics (as defined by the WHO). PATIENTS: Children under 18 years. INTERVENTIONS: National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in paediatric emergency care utilisation. RESULTS: 131 articles were included within this review, 80% of which assessed the impact of COVID-19. Studies analysing COVID-19, SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and Ebola found a reduction in paediatric emergency department (PED) visits, whereas studies reporting on H1N1, chikungunya virus and Escherichia coli outbreaks found an increase in PED visits. For COVID-19, there was a reduction of 63.86% (95% CI 60.40% to 67.31%) with a range of -16.5% to -89.4%. Synthesis of results suggests that the fear of the epidemic disease, from either contracting it or its potential adverse clinical outcomes, resulted in reductions and increases in PED utilisation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scale and direction of effect of PED use depend on both the epidemic disease, the public health measures enforced and how these influence decision-making. Policy makers must be aware how fear of virus among the general public may influence their response to public health advice. There is large inequity in reporting of epidemic impact on PED use which needs to be addressed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021242808.

Journal article

Chong SL, Goh MSL, Ong GYK, Acworth J, Sultana R, Yao SHW, Ng KC, Scholefield B, Aickin R, Maconochie I, Atkins D, Couto TB, Guerguerian AM, Kleinman M, Kloeck D, Nadkarni V, Nuthall G, Reis A, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Schexnayder S, Tijssen J, Van de Voorde P, Morley Pet al., 2022, Do paediatric early warning systems reduce mortality and critical deterioration events among children? A systematic review and meta-analysis, Resuscitation Plus, Vol: 11

Aim: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question: Does the implementation of Paediatric Early Warning Systems (PEWS) in the hospital setting reduce mortality, cardiopulmonary arrests, unplanned codes and critical deterioration events among children, as compared to usual care without PEWS? Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Web of Science. We included studies published between January 2006 and April 2022 on children <18 years old performed in inpatient units and emergency departments, and compared patient populations with PEWS to those without PEWS. We excluded studies without a comparator, case control studies, systematic reviews, and studies published in non-English languages. We employed a random effects meta-analysis and synthesised the risk and rate ratios from individual studies. We used the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) to appraise the risk of bias. Results: Among 911 articles screened, 15 were included for descriptive analysis. Fourteen of the 15 studies were pre- versus post-implementation studies and one was a multi-centre cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). Among 10 studies (580,604 hospital admissions) analysed for mortality, we found an increased risk (pooled RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01–1.38, p = 0.036) in the group without PEWS compared to the group with PEWS. The sensitivity analysis performed without the RCT (436,065 hospital admissions) showed a non-significant relationship (pooled RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.40, p = 0.087). Among four studies (168,544 hospital admissions) analysed for unplanned code events, there was an increased risk in the group without PEWS (pooled RR 1.73, 95%CI 1.01–2.96, p = 0.046) There were no differences in the rate of cardiopulmonary arrests or critical deterioration events between groups. Our findings were limited by

Journal article

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