Imperial College London

ProfessorIainMcCulloch

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Visiting Professor
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 5669i.mcculloch

 
 
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Location

 

Molecular Sciences Research HubWhite City Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

569 results found

Hidalgo Castillo TC, Moser M, Cendra C, Nayak PD, Salleo A, McCulloch I, Inal Set al., 2022, Simultaneous Performance and Stability Improvement of a p-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistor through Additives, Chemistry of Materials, ISSN: 0897-4756

Journal article

Tan STM, Giovannitti A, Marks A, Moser M, Quill TJ, McCulloch I, Salleo A, Bonacchini GEet al., 2022, Conjugated Polymers for Microwave Applications: Untethered Sensing Platforms and Multifunctional Devices, ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Nugraha MI, Gedda M, Firdaus Y, Scaccabarozzi AD, Zhang W, Alshammari S, Anies F, Adilbekova B, Emwas A-H, McCulloch I, Heeney M, Tsetseris L, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2022, Addition of Diquat Enhances the Electron Mobility in Various Non-Fullerene Acceptor Molecules, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, ISSN: 1616-301X

Journal article

Tan STM, Lee G, Denti I, LeCroy G, Rozylowicz K, Marks A, Griggs S, McCulloch I, Giovannitti A, Salleo Aet al., 2022, Tuning Organic Electrochemical Transistor Threshold Voltage using Chemically Doped Polymer Gates, ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Koklu A, Wustoni S, Guo K, Silva R, Salvigni L, Hama A, Diaz-Galicia E, Moser M, Marks A, McCulloch I, Grünberg R, Arold ST, Inal Set al., 2022, Convection Driven Ultrarapid Protein Detection via Nanobody-Functionalized Organic Electrochemical Transistors., Adv Mater

Conventional biosensors rely on the diffusion-dominated transport of the target analyte to the sensor surface. Consequently, they require an incubation step that may take several hours to allow for the capture of analyte molecules by sensor biorecognition sites. This incubation step is a primary cause of long sample-to-result times. Here, alternating current electrothermal flow (ACET) is integrated in an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT)-based sensor to accelerate the device operation. ACET is applied to the gate electrode functionalized with nanobody-SpyCatcher fusion proteins. Using the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human saliva as an example target, it is shown that ACET enables protein recognition within only 2 min of sample exposure, supporting its use in clinical practice. The ACET integrated sensor exhibits better selectivity, higher sensitivity, and lower limit of detection than the equivalent sensor with diffusion-dominated operation. The performance of ACET integrated sensors is compared with two types of organic semiconductors in the channel and grounds for device-to-device variations are investigated. The results provide guidelines for the channel material choice in OECT-based biochemical sensors, and demonstrate that ACET integration substantially decreases the detection speed while increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of transistor-based sensors.

Journal article

Duan J, Zhu G, Wang L, Chen J, Cong S, Zhu X, Zhou Y, Li Z, McCulloch I, Yue Wet al., 2022, Highly Efficient Mixed Conduction in N-type Fused Small Molecule Semiconductors, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, ISSN: 1616-301X

Journal article

Keene ST, Michaels W, Melianas A, Quill TJ, Fuller EJ, Giovannitti A, McCulloch I, Talin AA, Tassone CJ, Qin J, Troisi A, Salleo Aet al., 2022, Efficient Electronic Tunneling Governs Transport in Conducting Polymer-Insulator Blends, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 144, Pages: 10368-10376, ISSN: 0002-7863

Journal article

Druet V, Nayak PD, Koklu A, Ohayon D, Hama A, Chen X, Moser M, McCulloch I, Inal Set al., 2022, Operation Mechanism of n-Type Organic Electronic Metabolite Sensors, ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 2199-160X

Journal article

Schafer EA, Wu R, Meli D, Tropp J, Moser M, McCulloch I, Paulsen BD, Rivnay Jet al., 2022, Sources and Mechanism of Degradation in p-Type Thiophene-Based Organic Electrochemical Transistors, ACS APPLIED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol: 4, Pages: 1391-1404

Journal article

Jacoutot P, Scaccabarozzi AD, Zhang T, Qiao Z, Anies F, Neophytou M, Bristow H, Kumar R, Moser M, Nega AD, Schiza A, Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A, Gregoriou VG, Anthopoulos TD, Heeney M, McCulloch I, Bakulin AA, Chochos CL, Gasparini Net al., 2022, Infrared organic photodetectors employing ultralow bandgap polymer and non-fullerene acceptors for biometric monitoring, Small, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1613-6810

Recent efforts in the field of organic photodetectors (OPD) have been focused on extending broadband detection into the near-infrared (NIR) region. Here, two blends of an ultralow bandgap push–pull polymer TQ-T combined with state-of-the-art non-fullerene acceptors, IEICO-4F and Y6, are compared to obtain OPDs for sensing in the NIR beyond 1100 nm, which is the cut off for benchmark Si photodiodes. It is observed that the TQ-T:IEICO-4F device has a superior IR responsivity (0.03 AW-1 at 1200 nm and −2 V bias) and can detect infrared light up to 1800 nm, while the TQ-T:Y6 blend shows a lower responsivity of 0.01 AW-1. Device physics analyses are tied with spectroscopic and morphological studies to link the superior performance of TQ-T:IEICO-4F OPD to its faster charge separation as well as more favorable donor–acceptor domains mixing. In the polymer blend with Y6, the formation of large agglomerates that exceed the exciton diffusion length, which leads to high charge recombination, is observed. An application of these devices as biometric sensors for real-time heart rate monitoring via photoplethysmography, utilizing infrared light, is demonstrated.

Journal article

Liao H, Chen J, Lan L, Yu Y, Zhu G, Duan J, Zhu X, Dai H, Xiao M, Li Z, Yue W, McCulloch Iet al., 2022, Efficient n-Type Small-Molecule Mixed Ion-Electron Conductors and Application in Hydrogen Peroxide Sensors, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 14, Pages: 16477-16486, ISSN: 1944-8244

Journal article

Kosco J, Gonzalez Carrero S, Howells CT, Fei T, Dong Y, Sougrat R, Harrison GT, Firdaus Y, Sheelamanthula R, Purushothaman B, Moruzzi F, Xu W, Zhao L, Basu A, De Wolf S, Anthopoulos TD, Durrant JR, McCulloch Iet al., 2022, Generation of long-lived charges in organic semiconductor heterojunction nanoparticles for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, Nature Energy, Vol: 7, Pages: 340-351, ISSN: 2058-7546

Organic semiconductor photocatalysts for the production of solar fuels are attractive as they can be synthetically tuned to absorb visible light while simultaneously retaining suitable energy levels to drive a range of processes. However, a greater understanding of the photophysics that determines the function of organic semiconductor heterojunction nanoparticles is needed to optimize performance. Here, we show that such materials can intrinsically generate remarkably long-lived reactive charges, enabling them to efficiently drive sacrificial hydrogen evolution. Our optimized hetereojunction photocatalysts comprise the conjugated polymer PM6 matched with Y6 or PCBM electron acceptors, and achieve external quantum efficiencies of 1.0% to 5.0% at 400 to 900 nm and 8.7% to 2.6% at 400 to 700 nm, respectively. Employing transient and operando spectroscopies, we find that the heterojunction structure in these nanoparticles greatly enhances the generation of long-lived charges (millisecond to second timescale) even in the absence of electron/hole scavengers or Pt. Such long-lived reactive charges open potential applications in water-splitting Z-schemes and in driving kinetically slow and technologically desirable oxidations.

Journal article

Gladisch J, Oikonomou VK, Moser M, Griggs S, McCulloch I, Berggren M, Stavrinidou Eet al., 2022, An Electroactive Filter with Tunable Porosity Based on Glycolated Polythiophene, SMALL SCIENCE, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2688-4046

Journal article

Marks A, Chen X, Wu R, Rashid RB, Jin W, Paulsen BD, Moser M, Ji X, Griggs S, Meli D, Wu X, Bristow H, Strzalka J, Gasparini N, Costantini G, Fabiano S, Rivnay J, McCulloch Iet al., 2022, Synthetic Nuances to Maximize n-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistor and Thermoelectric Performance in Fused Lactam Polymers, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 144, Pages: 4642-4656, ISSN: 0002-7863

Journal article

Malliaras G, McCulloch I, 2022, Introduction: Organic Bioelectronics, CHEMICAL REVIEWS, Vol: 122, Pages: 4323-4324, ISSN: 0009-2665

Journal article

Dimov IB, Moser M, Malliaras GG, McCulloch Iet al., 2022, Semiconducting Polymers for Neural Applications, CHEMICAL REVIEWS, Vol: 122, Pages: 4356-4396, ISSN: 0009-2665

Journal article

Jacobs IE, D'Avino G, Lemaur V, Lin Y, Huang Y, Chen C, Harrelson TF, Wood W, Spalek LJ, Mustafa T, O'Keefe CA, Ren X, Simatos D, Tjhe D, Statz M, Strzalka JW, Lee J-K, McCulloch I, Fratini S, Beljonne D, Sirringhaus Het al., 2022, Structural and Dynamic Disorder, Not Ionic Trapping, Controls Charge Transport in Highly Doped Conducting Polymers, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 144, Pages: 3005-3019, ISSN: 0002-7863

Journal article

Lan L, Chen J, Wang Y, Li P, Yu Y, Zhu G, Li Z, Lei T, Yue W, McCulloch Iet al., 2022, Facilely Accessible Porous Conjugated Polymers toward High-Performance and Flexible Organic Electrochemical Transistors, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol: 34, Pages: 1666-1676, ISSN: 0897-4756

Journal article

Savva A, Hama A, Herrera-López G, Gasparini N, Migliaccio L, Kawan M, Steiner N, McCulloch I, Baran D, Fiumelli H, Magistretti P, Głowacki ED, Inal Set al., 2022, Photo-Electrochemical Stimulation of Neurons with Organic Donor-Acceptor Heterojunctions

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Recent advancements in light-responsive materials enabled the development of devices to artificially activate tissue with light, and show great potential for use in different types of therapy. Photo-stimulation based on organic semiconductors has recently attracted interest due to their unique set of properties such as biocompatibility, better mechanical match with human tissue, and strong absorption of light in the visible spectrum. Here we show the development of solution processed organic heterojunctions that are able to control the activity of primary neurons <jats:italic>in vitro</jats:italic> with light. The p-type polymer semiconductor PDCBT and the n-type polymer semiconductor ITIC (also known as non-fullerene acceptor) are simply spin coated on glass substrates forming a bilayer p-n junction with high photo-sensitivity in aqueous electrolytes. Photo-electrochemical measurements reveal that high photo-voltage and photo-current is produced, as a result of a charge transfer between the polymers and oxygen in the electrolyte. The biocompatibility of the proposed materials is addressed with live/dead assays on both primary mouse cortical neurons and human cell lines that are cultured on their surface. We have found that light of low intensity (i.e. 40 mW/cm<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>) is absorbed, and converted into a cue that triggers action potential on primary cortical neurons directly cultured on glass/PDCBT/ITIC interfaces as proven by patch clamp measurements. The activation of neurons is most likely due to photochemical reactions at the polymer/electrolyte interface that result in hydrogen peroxide, which might lead to modulation of specific ion channels on neurons membrane. Photo-thermal effects are excluded with controlled patch clamp measurements on neurons cultured on plain glass and on photoresist thin films. The profound advantages of low intensity light stimulation, simpl

Journal article

Abdel Aziz I, Gladisch J, Moser M, Griggs S, Berggren M, McCulloch I, Stavrinidou Eet al., 2022, Fundamentals of electrochemical doping in polythiophene polymers, nanoGe Spring Meeting 2022, Publisher: Fundació Scito

Conference paper

Surgailis J, Druet V, Griggs S, Maria I, Chen H, Moser M, Marks A, McCulloch I, Inal Set al., 2022, Understanding the effect of polymer hydration on n-type organic mixed semiconductor transistors, Organic Bioelectronics Conference 2022, Publisher: Fundació Scito

Conference paper

Kim Y, Kim G, Ding B, Jeong D, Lee I, Park S, Kim BJ, McCulloch I, Heeney M, Yoon M-Het al., 2022, High-current-density organic electrochemical diodes enabled by asymmetric active layer design, Advanced Materials, ISSN: 0935-9648

Owing to their outstanding electrical/electrochemical performance, operational stability, mechanical flexibility, and decent biocompatibility, organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors have shown great potential as implantable electrodes for neural recording/stimulation and as active channels for signal switching/amplifying transistors. Nonetheless, no studies exist on a general design rule for high-performance electrochemical diodes, which are essential for highly functional circuit architectures. In this work, generalizable electrochemical diodes with a very high current density over 30 kA cm−2 are designed by introducing an asymmetric active layer based on organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors. The underlying mechanism on polarity-sensitive balanced ionic doping/dedoping is elucidated by numerical device analysis and in operando spectroelectrochemical potential mapping, while the general material requirements for electrochemical diode operation are deduced using various types of conjugated polymers. In parallel, analog signal rectification and digital logic processing circuits are successfully demonstrated to show the broad impact of circuits incorporating organic electrochemical diodes. It is expected that organic electrochemical diodes will play vital roles in realizing multifunctional soft bioelectronic circuitry in combination with organic electrochemical transistors.

Journal article

Wang Y, Zeglio E, Wang L, Cong S, Zhu G, Liao H, Duan J, Zhou Y, Li Z, Mawad D, Herland A, Yue W, McCulloch Iet al., 2022, Green Synthesis of Lactone-Based Conjugated Polymers for n-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistors, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 32, ISSN: 1616-301X

Journal article

Moser M, Wang Y, Hidalgo TC, Liao H, Yu Y, Chen J, Duan J, Moruzzi F, Griggs S, Marks A, Gasparini N, Wadsworth A, Inal S, McCulloch I, Yue Wet al., 2021, Propylene and butylene glycol: new alternatives to ethylene glycol in conjugated polymers for bioelectronic applications, MATERIALS HORIZONS, Vol: 9, Pages: 973-980, ISSN: 2051-6347

Journal article

Alsufyani M, Stoeckel M-A, Chen X, Thorley K, Hallani RK, Puttisong Y, Ji X, Meli D, Paulsen BD, Strzalka J, Regeta K, Combe C, Chen H, Tian J, Rivnay J, Fabiano S, McCulloch Iet al., 2021, Lactone Backbone Density in Rigid Electron-Deficient Semiconducting Polymers Enabling High n-type Organic Thermoelectric Performance, ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, Vol: 61, ISSN: 1433-7851

Journal article

Yu D, Wang Y, Chen J, Liu S, Deng S, Liu C, McCulloch I, Yue W, Cheng Det al., 2021, Co-delivery of NIR-II semiconducting polymer and pH-sensitive doxorubicin-conjugated prodrug for photothermal/chemotherapy, ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, Vol: 137, Pages: 238-251, ISSN: 1742-7061

Journal article

Krauhausen I, Koutsouras DA, Melianas A, Keene ST, Lieberth K, Ledanseur H, Sheelamanthula R, Giovannitti A, Torricelli F, Mcculloch I, Blom PWM, Salleo A, van de Burgt Y, Gkoupidenis Pet al., 2021, Organic neuromorphic electronics for sensorimotor integration and learning in robotics, SCIENCE ADVANCES, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2375-2548

Journal article

Karuthedath S, Gorenflot J, Firdaus Y, Chaturvedi N, De Castro CSP, Harrison GT, Khan JI, Markina A, Balawi AH, Pena TAD, Liu W, Liang R-Z, Sharma A, Paleti SHK, Zhang W, Lin Y, Alarousu E, Lopatin S, Anjum DH, Beaujuge PM, De Wolf S, McCulloch I, Anthopoulos TD, Baran D, Andrienko D, Laquai Fet al., 2021, Intrinsic efficiency limits in low-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor organic solar cells (vol 20, pg 378, 2021), NATURE MATERIALS, Vol: 21, Pages: 378-378, ISSN: 1476-1122

Journal article

Kosco J, Gonzalez-Carrero S, Howells CT, Zhang W, Moser M, Sheelamanthula R, Zhao L, Willner B, Hidalgo TC, Faber H, Purushothaman B, Sachs M, Cha H, Sougrat R, Anthopoulos TD, Inal S, Durrant JR, McCulloch Iet al., 2021, Oligoethylene glycol side chains increase charge generation in organic semiconductor nanoparticles for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, Advanced Materials, Vol: 34, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0935-9648

Organic semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) composed of an electron donor/acceptor (D/A) semiconductor blend have recently emerged as an efficient class of hydrogen-evolution photocatalysts. It is demonstrated that using conjugated polymers functionalized with (oligo)ethylene glycol side chains in NP photocatalysts can greatly enhance their H2-evolution efficiency compared to their nonglycolated analogues. The strategy is broadly applicable to a range of structurally diverse conjugated polymers. Transient spectroscopic studies show that glycolation facilitates charge generation even in the absence of a D/A heterojunction, and further suppresses both geminate and nongeminate charge recombination in D/A NPs. This results in a high yield of photogenerated charges with lifetimes long enough to efficiently drive ascorbic acid oxidation, which is correlated with greatly enhanced H2-evolution rates in the glycolated NPs. Glycolation increases the relative permittivity of the semiconductors and facilitates water uptake. Together, these effects may increase the high-frequency relative permittivity inside the NPs sufficiently, to cause the observed suppression of exciton and charge recombination responsible for the high photocatalytic activities of the glycolated NPs.

Journal article

Guo Y, Yang X, Wang L, Duan J, Zhou Y, Nielsen CB, Yu Y, Yang J, Guo Y, Li Z, Yue W, Liu Y, McCulloch Iet al., 2021, Aldol Polymerization to Construct Half-Fused Semiconducting Polymers, MACROMOLECULES, Vol: 54, Pages: 10312-10320, ISSN: 0024-9297

Journal article

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