235 results found
Al Harbi R, McNeish IA, El-Bahrawy M, 2021, Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: an update on clinical features, molecular changes, and management., Int J Gynecol Cancer
Sex cord stromal-tumors are rare tumors of the ovary that include numerous tumor subtypes of variable histological features and biological behavior. Surgery is the main therapeutic modality for the management of these tumors, while chemotherapy and hormonal therapy may be used in some patients with progressive and recurrent tumors. Several studies investigated molecular changes in the different tumor types. Understanding molecular changes underlying the development and progression of sex cord-stromal tumors provides valuable information for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for these tumors. In this review, we provide an update on the clinical presentation, molecular changes, and management of sex cord-stromal tumors.
Glubb DM, Thompson DJ, Aben KKH, et al., 2021, Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Association Study of Endometrial Cancer and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Genetic Risk Regions Associated with Risk of Both Cancers., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, Vol: 30, Pages: 217-228
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e., inverse-variance meta-analysis, colocalization, and M-values) and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel subgenome-wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12, and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines and expression quantitative trait loci data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.
Morgan RD, McNeish IA, Cook AD, et al., 2020, Objective responses to first-line neoadjuvant carboplatin-paclitaxel regimens for ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma (ICON8): post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomised, phase 3 trial, The Lancet Oncology, ISSN: 1213-9432
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by delayed primary surgery (DPS) is an established strategy for women with newly diagnosed, advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Although this therapeutic approach has been validated in randomised, phase 3 trials, evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST), and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) has not been reported. We describe RECIST and Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) CA125 responses in patients receiving platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS in the ICON8 trial. METHODS: ICON8 was an international, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial done across 117 hospitals in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Korea, and Ireland. The trial included women aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, life expectancy of more than 12 weeks, and newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO; 1988) stage IC-IIA high-grade serous, clear cell, or any poorly differentiated or grade 3 histological subtype, or any FIGO (1988) stage IIB-IV epithelial cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive intravenous carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6) and intravenous paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 by body surface area) on day 1 of every 21-day cycle (control group; group 1); intravenous carboplatin (AUC5 or AUC6) on day 1 and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 2); or intravenous dose-fractionated carboplatin (AUC2) and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 3). The maximum number of cycles of chemotherapy permitted was six. Randomisation was done with a minimisation method, and patients were stratified accordi
McNeish I, Ennis D, 2020, FrenchFISH: Poisson models for quantifying DNA copy-number from fluorescence in situ hybridisation of tissue sections, Journal of Clinical Oncology: Clinical Cancer Informatics
Semertzidou A, Brosens JJ, McNeish I, et al., 2020, Organoid models in gynaecological oncology research, CANCER TREATMENT REVIEWS, Vol: 90, ISSN: 0305-7372
Lythgoe MP, Krell J, McNeish IA, et al., 2020, Safe administration of chemotherapy in mast cell activation syndrome, Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 1078-1552
IntroductionMast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS) is an immunogenic disorder typically presenting with episodic multi-organ symptoms, caused by the inappropriate and aberrant release of mast cell mediators. Symptoms may be severe, including anaphylaxis and often occur in response to specific triggers which include many drugs and potentially chemotherapeutic agents. The administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer significantly reduces the risk of reoccurrence in patients with high risk disease. Currently there is no evidence or case reports to guide the safe administration of chemotherapy in MCAS patients.Case reportWe present the case of a 59-year-old lady with stage 3 A grade 2 endometroid endometrial cancer who underwent successful surgical management. She then received 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy in the form of carboplatin and paclitaxel. This case describes a staged approach to chemotherapy administration and the utilisation of a carboplatin desensitization regimen to reduce the risk of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity sequalae.Management & outcome: Utilising an enhanced pre-medication strategy and a staged approach to chemotherapy administration, she was able to complete adjuvant treatment without any serious complications. At the date of censoring (May 2020) she has not shown any evidence of disease re-occurrence.Discussion & conclusion: Administering chemotherapy to patients with any mast cell disorder remains challenging. We hope that this case may provide the framework for safer chemotherapy administration for any patients at high risk of serious hypersensitivity sequalae in endometrial cancer and beyond.
McNeish I, Ennis D, Stronach E, 2020, Development and validation of the gene-expression Predictor of high-grade-serous Ovarian carcinoma molecular subTYPE (PrOTYPE), Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 26, Pages: 5411-5423, ISSN: 1078-0432
Purpose: Gene expression–based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features.Experimental Design: Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to NanoString data on 3,829 HGSOCs from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. We further developed, confirmed, and validated a reduced, minimal gene set predictor, with methods suitable for a single-patient setting.Results: Gene expression data were used to derive the predictor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtype (PrOTYPE) assay. We established a de facto standard as a consensus of two parallel approaches. PrOTYPE subtypes are significantly associated with age, stage, residual disease, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and outcome. The locked-down clinical grade PrOTYPE test includes a model with 55 genes that predicted gene expression subtype with >95% accuracy that was maintained in all analytic and biological validations.Conclusions: We validated the PrOTYPE assay following the Institute of Medicine guidelines for the development of omics-based tests. This fully defined and locked-down clinical grade assay will enable trial design with molecular subtype stratification and allow for objective assessment of the predictive value of HGSOC molecular subtypes in precision medicine applications.
Konecny GE, Oza AM, Tinker AV, et al., 2020, Population exposure-safety and exposure-efficacy analyses for rucaparib in patients (pts) with recurrent ovarian carcinoma (rOC) from Study 10 and ARIEL2, Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, Pages: 92-93, ISSN: 0090-8258
Marth C, Vulsteke C, Rubio MJR, et al., 2020, ENGOT-en9/LEAP-001: A phase III, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study of pembrolizumab plus lenvatinib versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin for newly diagnosed advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer, Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, Pages: 221-221, ISSN: 0090-8258
McNeish I, Morgan RD, Cook AD, et al., 2020, An exploratory analysis of objective responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: results from a randomised phase III trial evaluating first-line carboplatin-paclitaxel regimens for ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma (ICON8), The Lancet Oncology, ISSN: 1213-9432
BackgroundPlatinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by delayed primary surgery (DPS) is an established strategy for women with newly diagnosed, advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Although this therapeutic approach has been validated in randomised, phase III trials,evaluation of response to NACT using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST)and CA125 was not reported. We describeRECIST and Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG)CA125 responses in patients receiving platinum-based NACT followed by DPS in the phase III trial, ICON8.MethodsICON8 was an international, multicentre, randomised, phase III trial in which women ≥18 years old with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, life expectancy >12 weeks and newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO;1988) stage IC-IIA high-grade serous, clear cell or any poorly differentiated/grade 3 histological subtype or any FIGO (1988) stage IIB-IV epithelial cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube or primary peritoneum were randomised (1:1:1) to receive either intravenous (IV) carboplatin (AUC5/6)and IV paclitaxel (175mg/m2by body surface area [BSA])on day 1 of every 21-day cycle(control arm)or IV carboplatin (AUC5/6)on day 1 and IV paclitaxel (80mg/m2by BSA)on days 1, 8 and 15 of every 21-day cycle(dose-fractionated paclitaxelarm) or IV carboplatin (AUC2)and IV paclitaxel (80mg/m2by BSA)on days 1, 8 and 15 of every 21-day cycle(dose-fractionated carboplatin and paclitaxelarm). Randomisation occurred using a minimisation method and patients where stratified according to GCIG group, disease stage and timing and outcome of cytoreductive surgery. Neither patients nor clinicians were masked to their allocated group. The scheduling of surgery and use of NACTwere determined by local multidisciplinary case review. In this post-hoc 5exploratory analysis of ICON8, progression-free survival (PFS) was analysed using the landmark method and defined as
James EC, McNeish IA, Cook AD, et al., 2020, Progression-free survival in the ICON8 trial - Authors' reply, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 757-757, ISSN: 0140-6736
Millstein J, Budden T, Goode EL, et al., 2020, Prognostic gene expression signature for high-grade serous ovarian cancer, Annals of Oncology, Vol: 31, Pages: 1240-1250, ISSN: 0923-7534
BackgroundMedian overall survival (OS) for women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is approximately four years, yet survival varies widely between patients. There are no well-established, gene expression signatures associated with prognosis. The aim of this study was to develop a robust prognostic signature for overall survival in HGSOC patients.Patients and methodsExpression of 513 genes, selected from a meta-analysis of 1455 tumours and other candidates, were measured using NanoString technology from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue from 3,769 women with HGSOC from multiple studies. Elastic net regularization for survival analysis was applied to develop a prognostic model for 5-year OS, trained on 2702 tumours from fifteen studies and evaluated on an independent set of 1067 tumours from six studies.ResultsExpression levels of 276 genes were associated with OS [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05] in covariate-adjusted single gene analyses. The top five genes were TAP1, ZFHX4, CXCL9, FBN1, and PTGER3 (P < 0.001). The best performing prognostic signature included 101 genes enriched in pathways with treatment implications. Each gain of one standard deviation in the gene expression score (GES) conferred a greater than two-fold increase in risk of death [HR = 2.35 (2.02, 2.71); P < 0.001]. Median survival by GES quintile was 9.5 (8.3, --), 5.4 (4.6, 7.0), 3.8 (3.3, 4.6), 3.2 (2.9, 3.7) and 2.3 (2.1, 2.6) years.ConclusionThe OTTA-SPOT (Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium - Stratified Prognosis of Ovarian Tumours) gene expression signature may improve risk stratification in clinical trials by identifying patients who are least likely to achieve 5-year survival. The identified novel genes associated with the outcome may also yield opportunities for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches.
Blagden SP, Cook AD, Poole C, et al., 2020, Weekly platinum-based chemotherapy versus 3-weekly platinum-based chemotherapy for newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON8): quality-of-life results of a phase 3, randomised, controlled trial, The Lancet Oncology, Vol: 21, Pages: 969-977, ISSN: 1213-9432
BACKGROUND: The ICON8 study reported no significant improvement in progression-free survival (a primary endpoint) with weekly chemotherapy compared with standard 3-weekly treatment among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. All ICON8 patients were eligible to take part in the accompanying health-related quality-of-life study, which measured the effect of treatment on self-reported wellbeing, reported here. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3, three-arm, Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) trial done at 117 hospital sites in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Korea, and Republic of Ireland, women (aged at least 18 years) with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IC-IV ovarian cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were randomly assigned (1:1:1) centrally using minimisation to group 1 (intravenous carboplatin area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6 and 175 mg/m2 intravenous paclitaxel every 3 weeks), group 2 (carboplatin AUC5 or AUC6 every 3 weeks and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly), or group 3 (carboplatin AUC2 weekly and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly). Randomisation was stratified by GCIG group, disease stage, and outcome and timing of surgery. Patients and clinicians were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients underwent immediate or delayed primary surgery according to clinicians' choice. Patients were asked to complete European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OV28 questionnaires at enrolment, before each chemotherapy cycle, then 6-weekly up to 9 months, 3-monthly up to 2 years, and 6-monthly up to 5 years. Quality of life was a prespecified secondary outcome of the ICON8 study. Within the quality-of-life study, the co-primary endpoints were QLQ-C30 global health score at 9 months (cross-sectional analysis) and mean QLQ-C30 global health score from randomisation to 9 months (longitudinal analysis)
Greggi S, Falcone F, Scaffa C, et al., 2020, Evaluation of surgical resection in advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer: laparoscopic assessment. A European Network of Gynaecological Oncology Trial (ENGOT) group survey, International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, Vol: 30, Pages: 819-824, ISSN: 1048-891X
OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopy is one of the diagnostic tools available for the complex clinical decision-making process in advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma. This article presents the results of a survey conducted within the European Network of Gynaecological Oncology Trial (ENGOT) group aimed at reviewing the current patterns of practice at gynecologic oncology centers with regard to the evaluation of resection in advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma. METHODS: A 24-item questionnaire was sent to the chair of the 20 cooperative groups that are currently part of the ENGOT group, and forwarded to the members within each group. RESULTS: A total of 142 questionnaires were returned. Only 39 respondents (27.5%) reported using some form of clinical (not operative) score for the evaluation of resection. The frequency of use of diagnostic laparoscopy to assess disease status and feasibility of resection was as follows: never, 21 centers (15%); only in select cases, 83 centers (58.5%); and routinely, 36 centers (25.4%). When laparoscopy was performed, 64% of users declared they made the decision to proceed with maximal effort cytoreductive surgery based on their personal/staff opinion, and 36% based on a laparoscopic score. To the question of whether laparoscopy should be considered the gold standard in the evaluation of resection, 71 respondents (50%) answered no, 66 respondents (46.5%) answered yes, whereas 5 respondents (3.5%) did not provide an answer. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that laparoscopy was routinely performed to assess feasibility of cytoreduction in only 25.4% of centers in Europe. However, it was commonly used to select patients and in a minority of centers it was never used . When laparoscopy was adopted, the treatment strategy was based on laparoscopic scores only in a minority of centers.
Tookman L, Krell J, Nkolobe B, et al., 2020, Practical guidance for the management of side effects during rucaparib therapy in a multidisciplinary UK setting, Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1758-8340
The use of targeted therapeutics known as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the management of ovarian cancer is currently transforming clinical practice. The PARP inhibitor rucaparib is indicated in the UK, European Union and the United States for use in the treatment and maintenance settings for patients with relapsed ovarian cancer. Here, we discuss some of the real-world challenges and side effects that we have encountered while prescribing rucaparib, and we provide practical guidance on how the individual members of our multidisciplinary team (MDT), including a clinician, chemotherapy nurse practitioner, and clinical pharmacist, collaborate to manage these side effects. If recognized early, the side effects experienced by patients during rucaparib therapy, which include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, liver enzyme elevations, and anemia, can be easily managed. For example, providing patients with prophylactic antiemetics can help them avoid nausea, and early detection of decreases in hemoglobin levels allows for proactive interventions to alleviate anemia. The MDT should work together with the patient to identify potential side effects early and manage them effectively. The aim of this proactive approach is to maintain patients on rucaparib for optimal clinical benefit, while minimizing the potential negative impact of side effects on patient quality of life.
Swisher EM, Kristeleit RS, Oza AM, et al., 2020, Characterization of patients (pts) with long-term responses to rucaparib in recurrent ovarian cancer (OC)., Publisher: AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, ISSN: 0732-183X
McNeish I, 2020, Tumors defective in homologous recombination rely on oxidative metabolism: Relevance to treatments with PARP inhibitors, EMBO Molecular Medicine, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 1757-4676
Mitochondrial metabolism and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the acquisition of DNA mutations and genomic instability in cancer. How genomic instability influences the metabolic capacity of cancer cells is nevertheless poorly understood. Here, we show that homologous recombination‐defective (HRD) cancers rely on oxidative metabolism to supply NAD+ and ATP for poly(ADP‐ribose) polymerase (PARP)‐dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Studies in breast and ovarian cancer HRD models depict a metabolic shift that includes enhanced expression of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway and its key components and a decline in the glycolytic Warburg phenotype. Hence, HRD cells are more sensitive to metformin and NAD+ concentration changes. On the other hand, shifting from an OXPHOS to a highly glycolytic metabolism interferes with the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) in these HRD cells. This feature is associated with a weak response to PARP inhibition in patient‐derived xenografts, emerging as a new mechanism to determine PARPi sensitivity. This study shows a mechanistic link between two major cancer hallmarks, which in turn suggests novel possibilities for specifically treating HRD cancers with OXPHOS inhibitors.
Lau TS, Chan LK-Y, Man GC-W, et al., 2020, Paclitaxel induces immunogenic cell death in ovarian cancer via TLR4/IKK2/SNARE-dependent exocytosis, Cancer Immunology Research, Vol: 8, Pages: 1099-1111, ISSN: 2326-6066
Emerging evidence shows that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs are reliant on their capability to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD), thus transforming dying tumor cells into antitumor vaccines. We wanted to uncover potential therapeutic strategies that target ovarian cancer by having a better understanding of the standard-of-care chemotherapy treatment. Here, we showed in ovarian cancer that paclitaxel induced ICD-associated DAMPs (i.e. damage-associated molecular patterns, such as CALR exposure, ATP secretion and HMGB1 release) in vitro and elicited significant antitumor responses in tumor vaccination assays in vivo. Paclitaxel-induced TLR4 signaling was essential to the release of DAMPs, which lead to the activation of NF-κB-mediated CCL2 transcription and IKK2-mediated SNARE-dependent vesicle exocytosis, thus exposing CALR on the cell surface. Paclitaxel induced ER stress, which triggered PERK activation and eIF2α phosphorylation independent of TLR4. Paclitaxel chemotherapy induced T cell infiltration in ovarian tumors of the responsive patients; CALR expression in primary ovarian tumors also correlated with patients' survival and patient response to chemotherapy. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of paclitaxel relied upon the activation of antitumor immunity through ICD via TLR4 and highlighted the importance of CALR expression in cancer cells as an indicator of response to paclitaxel chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.
McNeish I, 2020, Quality of Life with weekly platinum-based chemotherapy in newly diagnosed Ovarian Cancer: the ICON8 phase III randomised controlled clinical trial, The Lancet Oncology, ISSN: 1213-9432
Background: The ICON8 study compared standard 3-weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel (arm 1) to 3-weekly carboplatin and weekly dose-dense paclitaxel (arm 2) or weekly dose-dense carboplatin and paclitaxel (arm 3) in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced or high-risk early stage ovarian cancer. All patients were invited into the accompanying health-related quality of life (QOL) study, designed to compare the impact of the treatment arms on their self-reported wellbeing. Methods: Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to study arms 1, 2 or 3. They underwent immediate or delayed primary surgery (IPS or DPS) according to clinicians’ choice. Patients were asked to complete EORTC-QLQ-C30 and OV28 questionnaires at enrolment, before each chemotherapy cycle, every 6 weeks to 9 months, every 3 months to 2 years and then every 6 months for up to 5 years. QOL was a pre-specified secondary outcome of the ICON8 study. Within the QOL study, co-primary endpoints were global QOL score at 9 months (cross-sectional analysis) and average global QOL score from randomisation to 9 months (longitudinal analysis). Secondary endpoints were four QOL subscores: fatigue, neuropathy, social and emotional functioning. Findings: 17,515 QOL questionnaires were completed by 1,540 patients. There was no significant difference in global QOL at 9 months between the study arms (arm 2 vs 1, diff=2.3, 95% CI (-0.4 to 4.9), p=0.095; arm 3 vs 1, diff=-0.8, 95%CI (-3.8 to 2.2), p=0.613). However, using longitudinal analysis, there was marginally poorer global QOL for those receiving weekly paclitaxel (arms 2 and 3) from randomisation to 9 months (arm 2 vs 1, diff=-1.8, 95%CI (-3.6 to -0.1), p=0.043; arm 3 vs 1, -2.9, 95%CI (-4.7 to -1.1), p=0.002). Peripheral neuropathy was of later onset in arms 2 and 3 but was more severe and persisted for at least nine months. QOL differences were less marked in patients who underwent DPS. Interpretation: Although there was no evidence of a difference between treatment arm
Leung EYL, Ennis D, Kennedy PR, et al., 2020, NK cells augment oncolytic adenovirus cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer, Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, Vol: 16, Pages: 289-301, ISSN: 2372-7705
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can trigger profound innate and adaptive immune responses, which have the potential both to potentiate and reduce the activity of OVs. Natural killer (NK) cells can mediate potent anti-viral and anti-tumoral responses, but there are no data on the role of NK cells in oncolytic adenovirus activity. Here, we have used two different oncolytic adenoviruses—the Ad5 E1A CR2-deletion mutant dl922-947 (group C) and the chimeric Ad3/Ad11p mutant enadenotucirev (group B)—to investigate the effect of NK cells on overall anti-cancer efficacy in ovarian cancer. Because human adenoviruses do not replicate in murine cells, we utilized primary human NK cells from peripheral blood and ovarian cancer ascites. Our results show that dl922-947 and enadenotucirev do not infect NK cells, but induce contact-dependent activation and anti-cancer cytotoxicity against adenovirus-infected ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, manipulation of NK receptors DNAM-1 (DNAX accessory molecule-1) and TIGIT (T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) significantly influences NK cytotoxicity against adenovirus-infected cells. Together, these results indicate that NK cells act to increase the activity of oncolytic adenovirus in ovarian cancer and suggest that strategies to augment NK activity further via the blockade of inhibitory NK receptor TIGIT could enhance therapeutic potential of OVs.
Rumford M, Lythgoe M, McNeish I, et al., 2020, Oncologist-led BRCA ‘mainstreaming’ in the ovarian cancer clinic: A study of 255 patients and its impact on their management, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322
Although guidelines recommend BRCA testing for all women with non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer, there is significant variability in access to testing across the UK. A germline BRCA mutation (BRCAm) in ovarian cancer patients provides prognostic and predictive information and influences clinical management, such as the use of PARP inhibitors, which have demonstrated a progression-free survival benefit in the BRCAm cohort. Additionally, the finding of a BRCAm has significant implications for patients and their families in terms of cancer risk and prevention. We studied the impact of a newly-formed, oncologist-led ‘mainstreaming’ germline BRCA testing pathway in 255 ovarian cancer patients at Imperial College NHS Trust. Prior to the establishment of ‘mainstreaming’, uptake of germline BRCA testing was 14% with a mean turnaround time of 148.2 calendar days. The ‘mainstreaming’ approach led to a 95% uptake of germline BRCA testing and a mean turnaround time of 20.6 days. Thirty-four (13.33%) BRCAm patients were identified. At the time of data collection nine BRCAm patients had received a PARP inhibitor off-trial, three had entered a PARP inhibitor trial and 5 were receiving platinum-based chemotherapy with a plan to receive PARP inhibitor maintenance. This study provides further evidence of the impact of oncologist-led ‘mainstreaming’ programs.
Cohen PA, Powell A, Böhm S, et al., 2020, Corrigendum to "Pathological chemotherapy response score is prognostic in tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data" [Gynecol. Oncol. 154 (2019) 441-448]., Gynecol Oncol
Li C, Course MM, McNeish IA, et al., 2020, Prophylactic In Vivo Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy with an Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Reverses Tumor Growth in Syngeneic Mouse Tumor Models, CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 80, Pages: 549-560, ISSN: 0008-5472
Blagih J, Zani F, Chakravarty P, et al., 2020, Cancer-specific loss of p53 leads to a modulation of myeloid and T cell responses, Cell Reports, Vol: 30, Pages: 481-196.e6, ISSN: 2211-1247
Loss of p53 function contributes to the development of many cancers. While cell-autonomous consequences of p53 mutation have been studied extensively, the role of p53 in regulating the anti-tumor immune response is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of p53 in cancer cells modulates the tumor-immune landscape to circumvent immune destruction. Deletion of p53 promotes the recruitment and instruction of suppressive myeloid CD11b+ cells, in part through increased expression of CXCR3/CCR2-associated chemokines and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and attenuates the CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) and CD8+ T cell responses in vivo. p53-null tumors also show an accumulation of suppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells. Finally, we show that two key drivers of tumorigenesis, activation of KRAS and deletion of p53, cooperate to promote immune tolerance.
Spear S, McNeish IA, Capasso M, 2019, Generation of orthotopic pancreatic tumors and ex vivo characterization of tumor-infiltrating T cell cytotoxicity., Journal of Visualized Experiments, Vol: 154, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1940-087X
In vivo models of pancreatic cancer provide invaluable tools for studying disease dynamics, immune infiltration and new therapeutic strategies. The orthotopic murine model can be performed on large cohorts of immunocompetent mice simultaneously, is relatively inexpensive and preserves the cognate tissue microenvironment. The quantification of T cell infiltration and cytotoxic activity within orthotopic tumors provides a useful indicator of an antitumoral response. This protocol describes the methodology for surgical generation of orthotopic pancreatic tumors by injection of a low number of syngeneic tumor cells resuspended in 5 µL basement membrane directly into the pancreas. Mice bearing orthotopic tumors take approximately 30 days to reach endpoint, at which point tumors can be harvested and processed for characterization of tumor-infiltrating T cell activity. Rapid enzymatic digestion using collagenase and DNase allows a single-cell suspension to be extracted from tumors. The viability and cell surface markers of immune cells extracted from the tumor are preserved; therefore, it is appropriate for multiple downstream applications, including flow-assisted cell sorting of immune cells for culture or RNA extraction, flow cytometry analysis of immune cell populations. Here, we describe the ex vivo stimulation of T cell populations for intracellular cytokine quantification (IFNγ and TNFα) and degranulation activity (CD107a) as a measure of overall cytotoxicity. Whole-tumor digests were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin for 5 h, in the presence of anti-CD107a antibody in order to upregulate cytokine production and degranulation. The addition of brefeldin A and monensin for the final 4 h was performed to block extracellular transport and maximize cytokine detection. Extra- and intra-cellular staining of cells was then performed for flow cytometry analysis, where the proportion of IFNγ+, TNFα+ and CD107a+ CD4+ and CD8+
Clamp AR, James EC, McNeish IA, et al., 2019, Weekly dose-dense chemotherapy in first-line epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma treatment (ICON8): primary progression free survival analysis results from a GCIG phase 3 randomised controlled trial, The Lancet, Vol: 394, Pages: 2084-2095, ISSN: 0140-6736
BACKGROUND: Carboplatin and paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks is standard-of-care first-line chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer. The Japanese JGOG3016 trial showed a significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival with dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and 3-weekly carboplatin. In this study, we aimed to compare efficacy and safety of two dose-dense weekly regimens to standard 3-weekly chemotherapy in a predominantly European population with epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, women with newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to group 1 (carboplatin area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6 and 175 mg/m2 paclitaxel every 3 weeks), group 2 (carboplatin AUC5 or AUC6 every 3 weeks and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly), or group 3 (carboplatin AUC2 and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly). Written informed consent was provided by all women who entered the trial. The protocol had the appropriate national research ethics committee approval for the countries where the study was conducted. Patients entered the trial after immediate primary surgery, or before neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent planned delayed primary surgery. The trial coprimary outcomes were progression-free survival and overall survival. Data analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis, and were powered to detect a hazard ratio of 0·75 in progression-free survival. The main comparisons were between the control group (group 1) and each of the weekly research groups (groups 2 and 3). FINDINGS: Between June 6, 2011, and Nov 28, 2014, 1566 women were randomly assigned to treatment. 72% (365), completed six protocol-defined treatment cycles in group 1, 60% (305) in group 2, and 63% (322) in group 3, although 90% (454), 89% (454), and 85% (437) completed six platinum-based chemotherapy cycles, respectively. Paclitaxel dose intensification was achieved with weekly treatment (med
Christopoulou A, Marme F, Oaknin A, et al., 2019, ATHENA (GOG-3020/ENGOT-OV45; EUDRACT 2017-004557-17; NCT03522246): A RANDOMISED, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, PHASE 3 STUDY OF THE POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE (PARP) INHIBITOR RUCAPARIB + THE PD-1 INHIBITOR NIVOLUMAB FOLLOWING FRONTLINE PLATINUM-BASED CHEMOTHERAPY IN OVARIAN CANCER (OC), Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A130-A131, ISSN: 1048-891X
Piskorz A, Robertson D, Lin KK, et al., 2019, CTDNA RESPONSE TO THE PARP INHIBITOR RUCAPARIB PREDICTS PROGRESSION-FREE SURVIVAL AND BEST OVERALL RESPONSE ON THE ARIEL2 TRIAL, 12th Rivkin-Centre Biennial Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium, Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, Pages: 112-112, ISSN: 1078-0432
Macintyre G, Goranova TE, De Silva D, et al., 2019, COPY-NUMBER SIGNATURES AND MUTATIONAL PROCESSES IN HIGH GRADE SEROUS OVARIAN CARCINOMA, 12th Rivkin-Centre Biennial Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium, Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, Pages: 64-64, ISSN: 1078-0432
Kristeleit RS, Oaknin A, Ray-Coquard I, et al., 2019, Antitumor activity of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor rucaparib as monotherapy in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed, BRCA-mutated, high-grade ovarian cancer, and an update on safety, International Journal of Gynecologic Cancer, Vol: 29, Pages: 1396-1404, ISSN: 1048-891X
Objective To report results from an integrated efficacy and safety analysis supporting the European Commission's approval of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor rucaparib as monotherapy treatment for relapsed, platinum-sensitive, BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer.Methods Efficacy was analyzed in platinum-sensitive patients from Study 10 (NCT01482715) and ARIEL2 (NCT01891344) who had high-grade serous or endometrioid epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer and a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and received two or more prior chemotherapies (including two or more platinum-based therapies). The primary end point was investigator-assessed, confirmed objective response rate (visit cut-off: April 10, 2017). Safety was analyzed in patients with ovarian cancer, regardless of BRCA mutation status or lines of prior chemotherapies, who received at least one dose of rucaparib 600 mg in either study (visit cut-off: December 31, 2017).Results In the integrated platinum-sensitive efficacy population (n=79), objective response rate was 64.6% (95% CI, 53.0 to 75.0); 10.1% (8/79) of patients had a complete response and 54.4% (43/79) had a partial response. Median duration of response was 294 days (95% CI, 224 to 393). In the integrated safety population (n=565), the most common any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (77.7%, 439/565), asthenia/fatigue (74.7%, 422/565), vomiting (45.8%, 259/565), and hemoglobin decreased (44.2%, 250/565). Treatment-emergent adverse events led to treatment interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation in 60.2% (340/565), 46.0% (260/565), and 16.8% (95/565) of patients.Conclusions In patients with platinum-sensitive, BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer, rucaparib demonstrated antitumor activity and is the first and currently the only poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor approved by the European Commission as treatment for this population. The safety analysis used a more recent visit cut-off date and
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