165 results found
Wang W, Dack S, Mudway I, et al., 2023, Brownfield land and health: a systematic review of the literature, PLoS One, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundBrownfield land is vacant or derelict land that was previously used for industrial or commercial purposes. Brownfield land is increasingly being targeted for housing development, however, depending on the previous use and remediation activity, it might pose potential risks to the health of residents on or in the vicinity of redeveloped sites. This systematic review of the literature synthesises the empirical evidence on the associations between brownfield land and health.MethodsWe systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health, Web of Science, Scopus and GreenFile using a study protocol registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022286826). The search strategy combined the keywords “brownfield” and its interchangeable terms such as “previously developed land”, and any health outcomes such as “respiratory diseases” and “mortality”. Publications identified from the search were screened for eligibility by two authors, and data were extracted from the selected articles. Study quality was assessed based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.ResultsOf the 1,987 records retrieved, 6 studies met the inclusion criteria; 3 ecological studies, 2 cross-sectional studies, and 1 longitudinal study. There was considerable heterogeneity in the exposure metrics and health outcomes assessed. All studies found significant positive associations between brownfield land proximity or density with at least one health relevant outcome, including poorer self-reported general health, increased mortality rates, increased birth defects, increased serum metal levels, and accelerated immune ageing.ConclusionsBrownfield land may negatively affect the health of nearby residents. The epidemiological evidence on health effects associated with brownfield land in local communities, however, remains inconclusive and limited. Further studies are required to build the evidence base to inform future housing policies and urban planning.
Scales J, Chavda J, Ikeda E, et al., 2023, Device-Measured Change in Physical Activity in Primary School Children During the UK COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: A Longitudinal Study., J Phys Act Health, Vol: 20, Pages: 639-647
BACKGROUND: Lockdown measures, including school closures, due to the COVID-19 pandemic have caused widespread disruption to children's lives. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a national lockdown on children's physical activity using seasonally matched accelerometry data. METHODS: Using a pre/post observational design, 179 children aged 8 to 11 years provided physical activity data measured using hip-worn triaxial accelerometers worn for 5 consecutive days prepandemic and during the January to March 2021 lockdown. Multilevel regression analyses adjusted for covariates were used to assess the impact of lockdown on time spent in sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: A 10.8-minute reduction in daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (standard error: 2.3 min/d, P < .001) and a 33.2-minute increase in daily sedentary activity (standard error: 5.5 min/d, P < .001) were observed during lockdown. This reflected a reduction in daily moderate to vigorous physical activity for those unable to attend school (-13.1 [2.3] min/d, P < .001) during lockdown, with no significant change for those who continued to attend school (0.4 [4.0] min/d, P < .925). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the loss of in-person schooling was the single largest impact on physical activity in this cohort of primary school children in London, Luton, and Dunstable, United Kingdom.
Ronaldson A, Stewart R, Mueller C, et al., 2023, Associations between air pollution and mental health service use in dementia: a retrospective cohort study., BMJ Ment Health, Vol: 26
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of air pollution in how people with dementia use mental health services. OBJECTIVE: We examined longitudinal associations between air pollution exposure and mental health service use in people with dementia. METHODS: In 5024 people aged 65 years or older with dementia in South London, high resolution estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in ambient air were linked to residential addresses. Associations between air pollution and Community Mental Health Team (CMHT) events (recorded over 9 years) were examined using negative binomial regression models. Cognitive function was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and health and social functioning was measured using the Health of the Nation Outcomes Scale (HoNOS65+). Associations between air pollution and both MMSE and HoNOS65+ scores were assessed using linear regression models. FINDINGS: In the first year of follow-up, increased exposure to all air pollutants was associated with an increase in the use of CMHTs in a dose-response manner. These associations were strongest when we compared the highest air pollution quartile (quartile 4: Q4) with the lowest quartile (Q1) (eg, NO2: adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.27, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.45, p<0.001). Dose-response patterns between PM2.5 and CMHT events remained at 5 and 9 years. Associations were strongest for patients with vascular dementia. NO2 levels were linked with poor functional status, but not cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Residential air pollution exposure is associated with increased CMHT usage among people with dementia. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Efforts to reduce pollutant exposures in urban settings might reduce the use of mental health services in people with dementia, freeing up resources in already considerably stretched psychiatric services.
Al-Rekabi Z, Dondi C, Faruqui N, et al., 2023, Uncovering the cytotoxic effects of air pollution with multi-modal imaging of in vitro respiratory models., R Soc Open Sci, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2054-5703
Annually, an estimated seven million deaths are linked to exposure to airborne pollutants. Despite extensive epidemiological evidence supporting clear associations between poor air quality and a range of short- and long-term health effects, there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which pollutant exposure induces adverse biological responses at the cellular and tissue levels. The development of more complex, predictive, in vitro respiratory models, including two- and three-dimensional cell cultures, spheroids, organoids and tissue cultures, along with more realistic aerosol exposure systems, offers new opportunities to investigate the cytotoxic effects of airborne particulates under controlled laboratory conditions. Parallel advances in high-resolution microscopy have resulted in a range of in vitro imaging tools capable of visualizing and analysing biological systems across unprecedented scales of length, time and complexity. This article considers state-of-the-art in vitro respiratory models and aerosol exposure systems and how they can be interrogated using high-resolution microscopy techniques to investigate cell-pollutant interactions, from the uptake and trafficking of particles to structural and functional modification of subcellular organelles and cells. These data can provide a mechanistic basis from which to advance our understanding of the health effects of airborne particulate pollution and develop improved mitigation measures.
Roberts M, Colley K, Currie M, et al., 2023, The Contribution of Environmental Science to Mental Health Research: A Scoping Review., Int J Environ Res Public Health, Vol: 20
Mental health is influenced by multiple complex and interacting genetic, psychological, social, and environmental factors. As such, developing state-of-the-art mental health knowledge requires collaboration across academic disciplines, including environmental science. To assess the current contribution of environmental science to this field, a scoping review of the literature on environmental influences on mental health (including conditions of cognitive development and decline) was conducted. The review protocol was developed in consultation with experts working across mental health and environmental science. The scoping review included 202 English-language papers, published between 2010 and 2020 (prior to the COVID-19 pandemic), on environmental themes that had not already been the subject of recent systematic reviews; 26 reviews on climate change, flooding, air pollution, and urban green space were additionally considered. Studies largely focused on populations in the USA, China, or Europe and involved limited environmental science input. Environmental science research methods are primarily focused on quantitative approaches utilising secondary datasets or field data. Mental health measurement was dominated by the use of self-report psychometric scales. Measures of environmental states or exposures were often lacking in specificity (e.g., limited to the presence or absence of an environmental state). Based on the scoping review findings and our synthesis of the recent reviews, a research agenda for environmental science's future contribution to mental health scholarship is set out. This includes recommendations to expand the geographical scope and broaden the representation of different environmental science areas, improve measurement of environmental exposure, prioritise experimental and longitudinal research designs, and giving greater consideration to variation between and within communities and the mediating pathways by which environment influences mental hea
Karamanos A, Lu Y, Mudway IS, et al., 2023, Associations between air pollutants and blood pressure in an ethnically diverse cohort of adolescents in London, England, PLoS One, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1932-6203
Longitudinal evidence on the association between air pollution and blood pressure (BP) in adolescence is scarce. We explored this association in an ethnically diverse cohort of schoolchildren. Sex-stratified, linear random-effects modelling was used to examine how modelled residential exposure to annual average nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10) and ozone (O3), measures in μg/m3, associated with blood pressure. Estimates were based on 3,284 adolescents; 80% from ethnic minority groups, recruited from 51 schools, and followed up from 11–13 to 14–16 years old. Ethnic minorities were exposed to higher modelled annual average concentrations of pollution at residential postcode level than their White UK peers. A two-pollutant model (NO2 & PM2.5), adjusted for ethnicity, age, anthropometry, and pubertal status, highlighted associations with systolic, but not diastolic BP. A μg/m3 increase in NO2 was associated with a 0.30 mmHg (95% CI 0.18 to 0.40) decrease in systolic BP for girls and 0.19 mmHg (95% CI 0.07 to 0.31) decrease in systolic BP for boys. In contrast, a 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 1.34 mmHg (95% CI 0.85 to 1.82) increase in systolic BP for girls and 0.57 mmHg (95% CI 0.04 to 1.03) increase in systolic BP for boys. Associations did not vary by ethnicity, body size or socio-economic advantage. Associations were robust to adjustments for noise levels and lung function at 11–13 years. In summary, higher ambient levels of NO2 were associated with lower and PM2.5 with higher systolic BP across adolescence, with stronger associations for girls.
Kumar P, Zavala-Reyes JC, Kalaiarasan G, et al., 2023, Characteristics of fine and ultrafine aerosols in the London underground., Science of the Total Environment, Vol: 858, ISSN: 0048-9697
Underground railway systems are recognised spaces of increased personal pollution exposure. We studied the number-size distribution and physico-chemical characteristics of ultrafine (PM0.1), fine (PM0.1-2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles collected on a London underground platform. Particle number concentrations gradually increased throughout the day, with a maximum concentration between 18:00 h and 21:00 h (local time). There was a maximum decrease in mass for the PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and black carbon of 3.9, 4.5 and ~ 21-times, respectively, between operable (OpHrs) and non-operable (N-OpHrs) hours. Average PM10 (52 μg m-3) and PM2.5 (34 μg m-3) concentrations over the full data showed levels above the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines. Respiratory deposition doses of particle number and mass concentrations were calculated and found to be two- and four-times higher during OpHrs compared with N-OpHrs, reflecting events such as train arrival/departure during OpHrs. Organic compounds were composed of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to be harmful to health. Specific ratios of PAHs were identified for underground transport that may reflect an interaction between PAHs and fine particles. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) chemical maps of fine and ultrafine fractions show they are composed of Fe and O in the form of magnetite and nanosized mixtures of metals including Cr, Al, Ni and Mn. These findings, and the low air change rate (0.17 to 0.46 h-1), highlight the need to improve the ventilation conditions.
Tandon S, Grande AJ, Karamanos A, et al., 2023, Association of Ambient Air Pollution with Blood Pressure in Adolescence: A Systematic-review and Meta-analysis., Curr Probl Cardiol, Vol: 48
We systematically reviewed the association of ambient air pollution with blood pressure (BP) as a primary outcome in adolescents (10-19 years). Five databases (Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and LILACS) were searched for relevant articles published up to August 2022. Meta-analyses were conducted using STATA v17 (Protocol - OSF Registries https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/96G5Q). Eight studies (5 cohort, 3 cross-sectional) with approximately 15,000 adolescents were included. Data from 6 studies were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analyses. In sub-group analyses, non-significant positive associations were observed for cohort studies assessing long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 on systolic and diastolic BP. At age 12 years old (3702 adolescents), we found significant positive associations for long-term exposure to PM2.5(β=5.33 (1.56, 9.09) mmHg) and PM10 (β=2.47 (0.10, 4.85) mmHg) on diastolic BP. Significant positive associations were observed (3,592 adolescents) for long-term exposure to PM10(β=0.34 (0.19, 0.50) mmHg) and NO2 on diastolic BP (β=0.40 (0.09, 0.71) mmHg), and PM10 on systolic BP (β=0.48 (0.19, 0.77) mmHg). The overall quality of evidence analysed was graded as "low/very low." Insufficient data for short-term exposures to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO on BP led to their exclusion from the meta-analysis. Inconsistent associations were reported for gender-stratified results. The evidence, though of low-quality and limited, indicated that ambient air pollution was positively associated with adolescent BP. Future studies need improved measures of air pollutant exposures, consideration of gender and socio-economic circumstances on the observed pollution effects, as well as adjustment for other potential confounding factors.
de la Torre JA, Ronaldson A, Alonso J, et al., 2023, The relationship between air pollution and multimorbidity: Can two birds be killed with the same stone?, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, ISSN: 0393-2990
Ronaldson A, Arias de la Torre J, Ashworth M, et al., 2022, Associations between air pollution and multimorbidity in the UK Biobank: A cross-sectional study, FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 10
Glencross D, Cheadle C, Palaga T, et al., 2022, Evidence for a role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in inflammatory responses to air pollution, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Fussell JC, Franklin M, Green DC, et al., 2022, A Review of road traffic-derived non-exhaust particles: emissions, physicochemical characteristics, health risks, and mitigation measures., Environmental Science and Technology (Washington), Vol: 56, ISSN: 0013-936X
Implementation of regulatory standards has reduced exhaust emissions of particulate matter from road traffic substantially in the developed world. However, nonexhaust particle emissions arising from the wear of brakes, tires, and the road surface, together with the resuspension of road dust, are unregulated and exceed exhaust emissions in many jurisdictions. While knowledge of the sources of nonexhaust particles is fairly good, source-specific measurements of airborne concentrations are few, and studies of the toxicology and epidemiology do not give a clear picture of the health risk posed. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge, with a strong focus on health-related research, highlighting areas where further research is an essential prerequisite for developing focused policy responses to nonexhaust particles.
Lim S, Mudway I, Molden N, et al., 2021, Identifying trends in ultrafine particle infiltration and carbon dioxide ventilation in 92 vehicle models, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 812, ISSN: 0048-9697
Kelly F, scales J, Chavda J, et al., 2021, Investigating the impact of London’s Ultra Low Emission Zone on children’s health: Children’s Health in London and Luton (CHILL): Protocol for a prospective parallel cohort study, medRxiv
Newbury JB, Stewart R, Fisher HL, et al., 2021, Association between air pollution exposure and mental health service use among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders: retrospective cohort study, The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol: 219, Pages: 678-685, ISSN: 0007-1250
Background:Growing evidence suggests that air pollution exposure may adversely affect the brain and increase risk for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. However, little is known about the potential role of air pollution in severity and relapse following illness onset.Aims:To examine the longitudinal association between residential air pollution exposure and mental health service use (an indicator of illness severity and relapse) among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders.Method:We identified individuals aged ≥15 years who had first contact with the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust for psychotic and mood disorders in 2008–2012 (n = 13 887). High-resolution (20 × 20 m) estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in ambient air were linked to residential addresses. In-patient days and community mental health service (CMHS) events were recorded over 1-year and 7-year follow-up periods.Results:Following covariate adjustment, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx and PM2.5 were associated with 18% (95% CI 5–34%), 18% (95% CI 5–34%) and 11% (95% CI 3–19%) increased risk for in-patient days after 1 year. Similarly, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with 32% (95% CI 25–38%), 31% (95% CI 24–37%), 7% (95% CI 4–11%) and 9% (95% CI 5–14%) increased risk for CMHS events after 1 year. Associations persisted after 7 years.Conclusions:Residential air pollution exposure is associated with increased mental health service use among people recently diagnosed with psychotic and mood disorders. Assuming causality, interventions to reduce air pollution exposure could improve mental health prognoses and reduce healthcare costs.
Lim S, Holliday L, Barratt B, et al., 2021, Assessing the exposure and hazard of diesel exhaust in professional drivers: a review of the current state of knowledge, Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, Vol: 14, Pages: 1681-1695, ISSN: 1873-9318
It is well-established that traffic-related air pollution has a detrimental impact on health. Much of the focus has been on diesel exhaust emissions due to a rapid increase in vehicle numbers and studies finding that this pollutant is carcinogenic. Unsurprisingly, the highest diesel exposures that the general population experiences are during urban daily commutes; however, few studies have considered professional drivers who are chronically exposed to the pollutant due to their work in transport microenvironments. In this narrative review, we address the literature on professional drivers’ exposure to diesel exhaust and advocate that a modern exposure science approach utilised in commuter personal exposure studies is needed. This type of evaluation will provide a more detailed understanding of the time-activity of professional drivers’ exposures which is required to identify specific interventions to reduce their risk to diesel exhaust emissions.
Selley L, Lammers A, Le Guennec A, et al., 2021, Alterations to the urinary metabolome following semi-controlled short exposures to ultrafine particles at a major airport, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYGIENE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 237, ISSN: 1438-4639
Karamanos A, Mudway I, Webb A, et al., 2021, Air pollution and Blood Pressure change over time in 3323 adolescents in London: differences by gender and ethnicity, 2021 Annual Scientific Meeting of the British and Irish Hypertension Society (BIHS), Publisher: Springer Nature [academic journals on nature.com], Pages: 2-2, ISSN: 0950-9240
Lim S, Barratt B, Holliday L, et al., 2021, Characterising professional drivers’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution: Evidence for reduction strategies from in-vehicle personal exposure monitoring, Environment International, Vol: 153, ISSN: 0160-4120
Professional drivers working in congested urban areas are required to work near harmful traffic related pollutants for extended periods, representing a significant, but understudied occupational risk. This study collected personal black carbon (BC) exposures for 141 drivers across seven sectors in London. The aim of the study was to assess the magnitude and the primary determinants of their exposure, leading to the formulation of targeted exposure reduction strategies for the occupation. Each participant’s personal BC exposures were continuously measured using real-time monitors for 96 h, incorporating four shifts per participant. ‘At work’ BC exposures (3.1 ± 3.5 µg/m3) were 2.6 times higher compared to when ‘not at work’ (1.2 ± 0.7 µg/m3). Workers spent 19% of their time ‘at work driving’, however this activity contributed 36% of total BC exposure, highlighting the disproportionate effect driving had on their daily exposure. Taxi drivers experienced the highest BC exposures due to the time they spent working in congested central London, while emergency services had the lowest. Spikes in exposure were observed while driving and were at times greater than 100 µg/m3. The most significant determinants of drivers’ exposures were driving in tunnels, congestion, location, day of week and time of shift. Driving with closed windows significantly reduced exposures and is a simple behaviour change drivers could implement. Our results highlight strategies by which employers and local policy makers can reduce professional drivers’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution.
Unosson J, Kabele M, Boman C, et al., 2021, Acute cardiovascular effects of controlled exposure to dilute Petrodiesel and biodiesel exhaust in healthy volunteers: a crossover study, PARTICLE AND FIBRE TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1743-8977
Peters R, Mudway I, Booth A, et al., 2021, Putting Fine Particulate Matter and Dementia in the Wider Context of Noncommunicable Disease: Where are We Now and What Should We Do Next: A Systematic Review, NEUROEPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 55, Pages: 253-265, ISSN: 0251-5350
Karamanos A, Mudway I, Kelly F, et al., 2021, Air pollution and trajectories of adolescent conduct problems: the roles of ethnicity and racism; evidence from the DASH longitudinal study, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: the international journal for research in social and genetic epidemiology and mental health services, Vol: 56, Pages: 2029-2039, ISSN: 0933-7954
PurposeNo known UK empirical research has investigated prospective associations between ambient air pollutants and conduct problems in adolescence. Ethnic minority children are disproportionately exposed to structural factors that could moderate any observed relationships. This prospective study examined whether exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations is associated with conduct problems in adolescence, and whether racism or ethnicity moderate such associations.MethodsLongitudinal associations between annual mean estimated PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations at the residential address and trajectories of conduct problems, and the potential influence of racism and ethnicity were examined school-based sample of 4775 participants (2002–2003 to 2005–2006) in London, using growth curve models.ResultsOverall, in the fully adjusted model, exposure to lower concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 was associated with a decrease in conduct problems during adolescence, while exposure to higher concentrations was associated with a flattened trajectory of conduct symptoms. Racism amplified the effect of PM2.5 (β = 0.05 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.10, p < 0.01)) on adolescent trajectories of conduct problems over time. At higher concentrations of PM2.5, there was a divergence of trajectories of adolescent conduct problems between ethnic minority groups, with White British and Black Caribbean adolescents experiencing an increase in conduct problems over time.ConclusionThese findings suggest that the intersections between air pollution, ethnicity, and racism are important influences on the development of conduct problems in adolescence.
Enlo-Scott Z, Backstrom E, Mudway I, et al., 2021, Drug metabolism in the lungs: opportunities for optimising inhaled medicines, EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG METABOLISM & TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 17, Pages: 611-625, ISSN: 1742-5255
Pfeffer PE, Mudway IS, Grigg J, 2021, Air Pollution and Asthma Mechanisms of Harm and Considerations for Clinical Interventions, CHEST, Vol: 159, Pages: 1346-1355, ISSN: 0012-3692
Bos B, Lim S, Hedges M, et al., 2021, Taxi drivers' exposure to black carbon and nitrogen dioxide in electric and diesel vehicles: A case study in London, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 195, ISSN: 0013-9351
Kelly FJ, Mudway IS, Fussell JC, 2020, Air pollution and asthma: critical targets for effective action, Pulmonary Therapy, Vol: 7, Pages: 9-24, ISSN: 2364-1746
Evidence to advocate for cleaner air for people with asthma is not in short supply. We know that air pollution is associated with the development and worsening of the condition and that mitigating interventions can improve respiratory outcomes. We have clear targets, particularly traffic emissions, especially in urban areas, and plenty of potentially effective actions. Road traffic must be reduced, and what remains should be cleaner and greener. Urban green spaces, safe cycle networks and wider pavements will promote active travel and leisure time exercise. Healthcare professionals must ensure people are aware of their air quality, its impact on asthma and the appropriate behaviour to safeguard health. What remains are realistic policies and effective measures, based on the correct scientific evidence, to be taken forth with political courage and investment so that air pollution no longer contributes to the development or worsening of respiratory ill health.
Bakolis I, Hammoud R, Stewart R, et al., 2020, Mental health consequences of urban air pollution: prospective population-based longitudinal survey, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: the international journal for research in social and genetic epidemiology and mental health services, Vol: 56, Pages: 1587-1599, ISSN: 0933-7954
PURPOSE: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recently ranked air pollution as the major environmental cause of premature death. However, the significant potential health and societal costs of poor mental health in relation to air quality are not represented in the WHO report due to limited evidence. We aimed to test the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with poor mental health. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal population-based mental health survey was conducted of 1698 adults living in 1075 households in South East London, from 2008 to 2013. High-resolution quarterly average air pollution concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10) and < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were linked to the home addresses of the study participants. Associations with mental health were analysed with the use of multilevel generalised linear models, after adjusting for large number of confounders, including the individuals' socioeconomic position and exposure to road-traffic noise. RESULTS: We found robust evidence for interquartile range increases in PM2.5, NOx and NO2 to be associated with 18-39% increased odds of common mental disorders, 19-30% increased odds of poor physical symptoms and 33% of psychotic experiences only for PM10. These longitudinal associations were more pronounced in the subset of non-movers for NO2 and NOx. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that traffic-related air pollution is adversely affecting mental health. Whilst causation cannot be proved, this work suggests substantial morbidity from mental disorders could be avoided with improved air quality.
The exposome concept refers to the totality of exposures from a variety of external and internal sources including chemical agents, biological agents, or radiation, from conception onward, over a complete lifetime. It encompasses also “psychosocial components” including the impact of social relations and socio-economic position on health. In this review we provide examples of recent contributions from exposome research, where we believe their application will be of the greatest value for moving forward. So far, environmental epidemiology has mainly focused on hard outcomes, such as mortality, disease exacerbation and hospitalizations. However, there are many subtle outcomes that can be related to environmental exposures, and investigations can be facilitated by an improved understanding of internal biomarkers of exposure and response, through the application of omic technologies. Second, though we have a wealth of studies on environmental pollutants, the assessment of causality is often difficult because of confounding, reverse causation and other uncertainties. Biomarkers and omic technologies may allow better causal attribution, for example using instrumental variables in triangulation, as we discuss here. Even more complex is the understanding of how social relationships (in particular socio-economic differences) influence health and imprint on the fundamental biology of the individual. The identification of molecular changes that are intermediate between social determinants and disease status is a way to fill the gap. Another field in which biomarkers and omics are relevant is the study of mixtures. Epidemiology often deals with complex mixtures (e.g. ambient air pollution, food, smoking) without fully disentangling the compositional complexity of the mixture, or with rudimentary approaches to reflect the overall effect of multiple exposures or components.From the point of view of disease mechanisms, most models hypothesize that several stages need t
Pitt S, Mudway I, 2020, The Solution to Pollution: Is it Technological?, IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY MAGAZINE, Vol: 39, Pages: 30-99, ISSN: 0278-0097
Mudway IS, Sandstrom T, 2020, Do Plasticizers within the Indoor Environment Increase Airway Allergen Responsiveness?, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 202, Pages: 639-640, ISSN: 1073-449X
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