91 results found
Challoner BR, Woolston A, Lau D, et al., 2023, Genetic and immune landscape evolution in MMR-deficient colorectal cancer., J Pathol
Mismatch repair-deficient (MMRd) colorectal cancers (CRCs) have high mutation burdens, which make these tumours immunogenic and many respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The MMRd hypermutator phenotype may also promote intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) and cancer evolution. We applied multiregion sequencing and CD8 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunostaining to systematically investigate ITH and how genetic and immune landscapes coevolve. All cases had high truncal mutation burdens. Despite pervasive ITH, driver aberrations showed a clear hierarchy. Those in WNT/β-catenin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and TGF-β receptor family genes were almost always truncal. Immune evasion (IE) drivers, such as inactivation of genes involved in antigen presentation or IFN-γ signalling, were predominantly subclonal and showed parallel evolution. These IE drivers have been implicated in immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance or sensitivity. Clonality assessments are therefore important for the development of predictive immunotherapy biomarkers in MMRd CRCs. Phylogenetic analysis identified three distinct patterns of IE driver evolution: pan-tumour evolution, subclonal evolution, and evolutionary stasis. These, but neither mutation burdens nor heterogeneity metrics, significantly correlated with T-cell densities, which were used as a surrogate marker of tumour immunogenicity. Furthermore, this revealed that genetic and T-cell infiltrates coevolve in MMRd CRCs. Low T-cell densities in the subgroup without any known IE drivers may indicate an, as yet unknown, IE mechanism. PD-L1 was expressed in the tumour microenvironment in most samples and correlated with T-cell densities. However, PD-L1 expression in cancer cells was independent of T-cell densities but strongly associated with loss of the intestinal homeobox transcription factor CDX2. This explains infrequent PD-L1 expression by cancer cells and may contribute to a higher recurrence risk of MMRd CRCs
Liu Z, Alexander J, Eng K, et al., 2023, Antibody responses to Influenza vaccination are diminished in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on infliximab or tofacitinib, Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, ISSN: 1873-9946
Background and aims:We sought to determine whether six commonly used immunosuppressive regimens were associated with lower antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccination in patients with IBD.Methods:We conducted a prospective study including 213 IBD patients and 53 healthy controls; 165 who had received seasonal influenza vaccine and 101 who had not. IBD medications included infliximab, thiopurines, infliximab and thiopurine combination therapy, ustekinumab, vedolizumab or tofacitinib. The primary outcome was antibody responses against influenza/A H3N2 and A/H1N1, compared to controls, adjusting for age, prior vaccination and interval between vaccination and sampling.Results:Lower antibody responses against influenza A/H3N2 were observed in patients on infliximab (Geometric Mean Ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.20-0.60], p=0.0002), combination of infliximab and thiopurine therapy (0.46 [0.27-0.79], p=0.0050) and tofacitinib (0.28 [0.14-0.57], p=0.0005) compared to controls. Lower antibody responses against A/H1N1 were observed in patients on infliximab (0.29 [0.15-0.56], p=0.0003), combination of infliximab and thiopurine therapy (0.34 [0.17-0.66], p=0.0016), thiopurine monotherapy (0.46 [0.24-0.87], p=0.017) and tofacitinib (0.23 [0.10-0.56], p=0.0013). Ustekinumab and vedolizumab were not associated with reduced antibody responses against A/H3N2 or A/H1N1. Vaccination in the previous year was associated with higher antibody responses to A/H3N2. Vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentration weakly correlated with antibodies against H3N2 (r=0.27; p=0.0004) and H1N1 (r=0.33; p<0.0001).Conclusions:Vaccination in both the 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 seasons was associated with significantly higher antibody responses to influenza/A than no vaccination or vaccination in 2021-2022 alone. Infliximab and tofacitinib are associated with lower binding antibody responses to Influenza/A, similar to COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses. Funding:Financial support was
Lo J, Cozzetto D, Alexander J, et al., 2023, Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced colitis is mediated by polyfunctional lymphocytes and dependent on IL23 and IFNg, Nature Communications, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2041-1723
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are a relatively newly licenced cancer treatment, which make a once previously untreatable disease now amenable to a potential cure. Combination regimens of anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1 show enhanced efficacy but are prone to off-target immune-mediated tissue injury, particularly at the barrier surfaces. To probe the impact of immune checkpoints on intestinal homoeostasis, mice are challenged with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy and manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. The immune profile of the colon of these mice with CPI-colitis is analysed using bulk RNA sequencing, single-cell RNA sequencing and flow cytometry. CPI-colitis in mice is dependent on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and by the induction of lymphocytes expressing interferon-γ (IFNγ), cytotoxicity molecules and other pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. This pre-clinical model of CPI-colitis could be attenuated following blockade of the IL23/IFNγ axis. Therapeutic targeting of IFNγ-producing lymphocytes or regulatory networks, may hold the key to reversing CPI-colitis.
Alexander J, Monahan K, 2023, The diagnostic yield of genetic testing in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas: a specialist centre cohort study, Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN: 2155-384X
Background and aims:Adenoma multiplicity is associated with increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The utility of genetic testing in multiple colorectal adenoma (MCRA) patients remains uncertain. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of mutations in polyposis and CRC associated genes in patients with MCRA. Methods:We performed a cross-sectional review of adult patients with 10-99 cumulative adenomas from the prospective database at the St Mark’s Hospital Polyposis Registry and Family Cancer Clinic between 1999-2021. Genetic testing was performed for adenomatous polyposis associated genes, hamartomatous polyposis associated genes, and nonpolyposis colorectal cancer associated genes. Clinicopathological outcomes were extracted for multiple logistic regression analysis.Results:259 patients with MCRA (median age 61 [interquartile range 53-69]) were identified. 66 patients (25.5%) had a pathogenic variant (PV) or likely pathogenic variant (LPV), with APC and biallelic MUTYH mutations constituting the majority of identified PV/LPVs. Diagnostic yields were greater than 10% at any adenoma burden. In univariate analysis, higher adenoma burden and younger age were associated with higher yield (both p<0.0001). In MCRA patients with 10-19 adenomas without a relevant personal or family history of CRC, the diagnostic yield was nil. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher adenoma burden, younger age, personal history of CRC and first-degree familial history of CRC were associated with higher diagnostic yield. Conclusions:Diagnostic yield of >10% at any adenoma burden supports current guidance for constitutional genetic testing in MCRA patients, although the low yield in people over 60 years with 10-19 adenomas suggests that a stratified approach might be appropriate.
Liu Z, Alexander J, Le K, et al., 2023, Neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 and wild-type virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease following three doses of COVID-19 vaccine (VIP): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study, EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 64, ISSN: 2589-5370
BackgroundPatients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF and JAK-inhibitor therapy have attenuated responses to COVID-19 vaccination. We aimed to determine how IBD treatments affect neutralising antibody responses against the Omicron BA.4/5 variant.MethodsIn this multicentre cohort study, we prospectively recruited 340 adults (69 healthy controls and 271 IBD) at nine UK hospitals between May 28, 2021 and March 29, 2022. The IBD study population was established (>12 weeks therapy) on either thiopurine (n = 63), infliximab (n = 45), thiopurine and infliximab combination therapy (n = 48), ustekinumab (n = 45), vedolizumab (n = 46) or tofacitinib (n = 24). Patients were excluded if they were being treated with any other immunosuppressive therapies. Participants had two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccines, followed by a third dose of either BNT162b2 or mRNA1273. Pseudo-neutralisation assays against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and BA.4/5 were performed. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (NT50) of participant sera was calculated. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralising response against wild-type virus and Omicron BA.4/5 variant after the second and third doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, stratified by immunosuppressive therapy, adjusting for prior infection, vaccine type, age, and interval between vaccination and blood collection. This study is registered with ISRCTN (No. 13495664).FindingsBoth heterologous (first two doses adenovirus vaccine, third dose mRNA vaccine) and homologous (three doses mRNA vaccine) vaccination strategies significantly increased neutralising titres against both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Omicron BA.4/5 variant in healthy participants and patients with IBD. Antibody titres against BA.4/5 were significantly lower than antibodies against wild-type virus in both healthy participants and patients with IBD (p < 0.0001). Multivariable models demonstrated that neutralising antibodies against
Marchesi J, Alexander J, Balarajah S, et al., 2023, Identification of a sub-clinical Salmonella spp. infection in a dairy cow using a commercially available stool storage kit, Animals, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2076-2615
Stool sampling is a useful tool for diagnosing gastrointestinal disease in veterinary medicine. The sub-clinical disease burden of Salmonella spp. in cattle can become significant for farmers. However, current methods of faecal sampling in a rural setting for diagnosis are not consistently sufficient for the preservation of Salmonella spp. in faeces. This study evaluated the use of a commercial stool storage kit for bacterial preservation in cow faecal samples compared to unpreserved stools placed into refrigeration at different time-points. A stool sample was collected per-rectum from one apparently healthy Holstein–Freisen cow. The sample was weighed and aliquoted into two sterile Falcon tubes and into two commercial kit tubes. The aliquots were then placed into refrigeration at 4 °C at 0, 24, and 96 h after processing. One commercial kit tube was not aliquoted and remained at ambient temperature. After 2 weeks, DNA was extracted from the samples and analysed using endpoint PCR, revealing a sub-clinical infection with Salmonella spp. The bacterium was best preserved when the stool was stored in the commercial kit at ambient temperature and re-homogenised immediately prior to DNA extraction. The unpreserved stool did not maintain obvious levels of Salmonella spp. after 24 h at ambient temperature. This commercial kit should be considered for use in the diagnosis of salmonellosis in cattle.
Alexander J, Posma J, Scott A, et al., 2023, Pathobionts in the tumour microbiota predict survival following resection for colorectal cancer, Microbiome, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2049-2618
Background and aimsThe gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to map the CRC mucosal microbiota and metabolome and define the influence of the tumoral microbiota on oncological outcomes.MethodsA multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted of CRC patients undergoing primary surgical resection in the UK (n = 74) and Czech Republic (n = 61). Analysis was performed using metataxonomics, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), targeted bacterial qPCR and tumour exome sequencing. Hierarchical clustering accounting for clinical and oncological covariates was performed to identify clusters of bacteria and metabolites linked to CRC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to ascertain clusters associated with disease-free survival over median follow-up of 50 months.ResultsThirteen mucosal microbiota clusters were identified, of which five were significantly different between tumour and paired normal mucosa. Cluster 7, containing the pathobionts Fusobacterium nucleatum and Granulicatella adiacens, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR = 0.0002). Additionally, tumoral dominance of cluster 7 independently predicted favourable disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.031). Cluster 1, containing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, was negatively associated with cancer (PFDR = 0.0009), and abundance was independently predictive of worse disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.0009). UPLC-MS analysis revealed two major metabolic (Met) clusters. Met 1, composed of medium chain (MCFA), long-chain (LCFA) and very long-chain (VLCFA) fatty acid species, ceramides and lysophospholipids, was negatively associated with CRC (PFDR = 2.61 × 10−11); Met 2, composed of phosphatidylcholine species, nucleosides and amino acids, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR&
Alexander J, Powell N, Marchesi J, et al., 2023, Considerations for peripheral blood transport and storage during large-scale multicentre metabolome research, Gut, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 0017-5749
Alexander JL, Mullish BH, Danckert NP, et al., 2023, The gut microbiota and metabolome are associated with diminished COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses in immunosuppressed inflammatory bowel disease patients, EBioMedicine, Vol: 88, ISSN: 2352-3964
Background:Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with anti-TNF therapy exhibit attenuated humoral immune responses to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The gut microbiota and its functional metabolic output, which are perturbed in IBD, play an important role in shaping host immune responses. We explored whether the gut microbiota and metabolome could explain variation in anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination responses in immunosuppressed IBD patients.Methods:Faecal and serum samples were prospectively collected from infliximab-treated patients with IBD in the CLARITY-IBD study undergoing vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Antibody responses were measured following two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine. Patients were classified as having responses above or below the geometric mean of the wider CLARITY-IBD cohort. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and bile acid profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) were performed on faecal samples. Univariate, multivariable and correlation analyses were performed to determine gut microbial and metabolomic predictors of response to vaccination.Findings:Forty-three infliximab-treated patients with IBD were recruited (30 Crohn's disease, 12 ulcerative colitis, 1 IBD-unclassified; 26 with concomitant thiopurine therapy). Eight patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seventeen patients (39.5%) had a serological response below the geometric mean. Gut microbiota diversity was lower in below average responders (p = 0.037). Bilophila abundance was associated with better serological response, while Streptococcus was associated with poorer response. The faecal metabolome was distinct between above and below average responders (OPLS-DA R2X 0.25, R2Y 0.26, Q2 0.15; CV-ANOVA p = 0.038). Trimethylamine, isobutyrate and omega-muricholic acid were associated with better response, while succinate, phenylalanine, taurolithoc
Liu Z, Le K, Zhou X, et al., 2023, Neutralising antibody potency against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron BA.1 and BA.4/5 variants in infliximab and vedolizumab treated patients with inflammatory bowel disease after three doses of COVID-19 vaccine: a prospective multicentre cohort study (CLARITY), The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 8, Pages: 145-156, ISSN: 2468-1253
Background:Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs such as infliximab are associated with attenuated antibody responses after COVID-19 vaccination. It is unknown how infliximab impacts vaccine-induced serological responses against highly transmissible Omicron variants, which possess the ability to evade host immunity and are now the dominating variants causing current waves of infection. Methods:CLARITY IBD is a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study investigating the impact of infliximab and vedolizumab on SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the current work, the primary outcome was neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron BA.1 and BA.4/5 variants after three doses of COVID-19 vaccination in 1288 patients with IBD without prior COVID-19 infection, who were established on either infliximab (n=871) or vedolizumab (n=417). Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to investigate the risk of breakthrough infection in relation to neutralising antibody titres.Findings:Following three doses of COVID-19 vaccine, neutralising titre NT50 (half-inhibitory neutralising titre) was significantly diminished in patients treated with infliximab as compared to patients treated with vedolizumab, against wild-type (geometric mean [95% CI], 1990 [1781, 2223] vs 3212 [2780, 3712], p<0·0001), BA.1 (95·46 [82·80, 110·0] vs 599·1 [492·6, 728·6], p<0·0001) and BA.4/5 (30·73 [26·26, 35·96] vs 212·2 [177·0, 254·4], p<0·0001) variants. Breakthrough infection was significantly more frequent in patients treated with infliximab (13·66% [11·49%, 16·16%], 119/871) compared to patients treated with vedolizumab (6·95% [4·79%, 9·95%], 29/417, p=0·0004). Cox proportional hazards models of time to breakthrough infection after the third d
Liu Z, Alexander J, LIN K, et al., 2023, Infliximab and tofacitinib attenuate neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and Omicron variants in IBD patients following 3 doses of COVID-19 vaccine, Gastroenterology, Vol: 164, Pages: 300-303.e3, ISSN: 0016-5085
Radhakrishnan ST, Gallagher KI, Mullish BH, et al., 2023, Rectal swabs as a viable alternative to faecal sampling for the analysis of gut microbiota functionality and composition, Scientific Reports, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Faecal or biopsy samples are frequently used to analyse the gut microbiota, but issues remain with the provision and collection of such samples. Rectal swabs are widely-utilised in clinical practice and previous data demonstrate their potential role in microbiota analyses; however, studies to date have been heterogenous, and there are a particular lack of data concerning the utility of swabs for the analysis of the microbiota’s functionality and metabolome. We compared paired stool and rectal swab samples from healthy individuals to investigate whether rectal swabs are a reliable proxy for faecal sampling. There were no significant differences in key alpha and beta diversity measures between swab and faecal samples, and inter-subject variability was preserved. Additionally, no significant differences were demonstrated in abundance of major annotated phyla. Inferred gut functionality using Tax4Fun2 showed excellent correlation between the two sampling techniques (Pearson’s coefficient r = 0.9217, P < 0.0001). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy enabled the detection of 20 metabolites, with overall excellent correlation identified between rectal swab and faecal samples for levels all metabolites collectively, although more variable degrees of association between swab and stool for levels of individual metabolites. These data support the utility of rectal swabs in both compositional and functional analyses of the gut microbiota.
Alexander J, Liu Z, Munoz Sandoval D, et al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody and T cell responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease after the third vaccine dose: a multicentre, prospective, case-control study, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 1005-1015, ISSN: 2468-1253
Background:COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses are reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) taking anti-TNF or tofacitinib after two vaccine doses. We sought to determine whether immunosuppressive treatments were associated with reduced antibody and T cell responses after a third vaccine dose.Methods:352 adults (72 healthy controls and 280 IBD) were sampled 28-49 days after a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. IBD medications studied included thiopurines (n=65), infliximab (n=46), thiopurine/infliximab combination therapy (n=49), ustekinumab (n=44), vedolizumab (n=50) or tofacitinib (n=26). SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody binding and T cell responses were measured. Findings:Geometric mean [geometric SD] anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations increased in all groups following a third dose, but were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (2736.8 U/mL [4.3]; P<0.0001), infliximab and thiopurine combination (1818.3 U/mL [6.7]; P<0.0001) and tofacitinib (8071.5 U/mL [3.1]; P=0.0018) compared to controls (16774.2 U/ml [2.6]). There were no significant differences in anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations between control subjects and thiopurine (12019.7 U/mL [2.2]; P=0.099), ustekinumab (11089.3 U/mL [2.8]; P=0.060), nor vedolizumab treated patients (13564.9 U/mL [2.4]; P=0.27). In multivariable modelling, lower anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations were independently associated with infliximab (Geometric mean ratio 0.15, 95% CI 0.11-0.21, P<0.0001), tofacitinib (0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.87, P=0.012) and thiopurine (0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, P=0.021), but not with ustekinumab (0.64, 95% CI 0.39-1.06, P=0.083), or vedolizumab (0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.30, P=0.43). Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.58, 95% CI 1.22-2.05, P=0.00056) and older age (0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P=0.0073) were independently associated with higher and lower anti-S1 antibody concentrations respectively. Antigen specific T cell responses were similar in all groups, except for reci
Mullish BH, Paizs P, Alexander J, et al., 2022, Intestinal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection restores microbial arylsulfatases and sulfatide degradation: a novel mechanism of efficacy?, UEG Week 2022, Pages: 823-823
Alexander J, Powell N, Ibraheim H, et al., 2022, Oral Beclomethasone Dipropionate is an effective treatment for immune checkpoint inhibitor induced colitis, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2051-1426
IntroductionSystemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for immune checkpoint inhibitor induced (CPI) colitis but are associated with complications including life-threatening infection. The topically-acting oral corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate (BD) is an effective treatment for mild to moderate flares of ulcerative colitis, and has fewer side effects than systemic corticosteroids. We hypothesised that BD would be an effective treatment for CPI-induced colitis.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who started BD for CPI-induced colitis at three UK cancer centres between November 2017 and October 2020. All patients underwent endoscopic assessment and biopsy. The initial regimen of BD was 5mg once daily for 28 days. Data were collected from electronic patient records. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 28 days after initiation of treatment.ResultsTwenty-two patients (fourteen male) with a median age of 64 (range 45-84) with CPI-induced colitis were treated with BD. At baseline, the median number of loose stools in a 24-hour period was six (CTCAE grade diarrhoea = 2). Thirteen patients (59%) were dependent on systemic corticosteroids prior to starting BD. Baseline sigmoidoscopy showed moderate inflammation (Mayo endoscopic score [MES] = 2) in two patients (9%), mild inflammation (MES = 1) in nine patients (41%) and normal findings (MES = 0) in eleven patients (50%). Twenty patients (91%) had histopathological features of inflammation. All 22 patients (100%) had a clinical response to BD and 21 (95%) achieved clinical remission with a return to baseline stool frequency (CTCAE diarrhoea = 0). 10 patients (45%) had symptomatic relapse on cessation of BD, half within seven days of stopping. All patients recaptured response on restarting BD. No adverse events were reported in patients treated with BD.ConclusionsTopical BD represents an appealing alternative option to systemic immunosuppressive treatments to treat colonic inflamma
- Novel long-acting coronavirus prophylactic monoclonal antibodytherapies have been shown to be effective in preventing COVID19 in immunocompromised individuals who are at increased riskfrom SARS-CoV-2.- Prophylactic antibody therapies should be made available in atimely manner to give an antibody immunity boost to vulnerablepatients.- Real world evaluations should be co-implemented to provideconfidence of ongoing effectiveness.- Successful delivery of a coronavirus prophylactic antibodytherapy programme would deliver significant benefits tohealthcare systems, communities and immunocompromisedindividuals.
Alexander JL, Liu Z, Mūnoz Sandoval D, et al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody and T cell responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease after the third vaccine dose, Publisher: SSRN
Background: COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses are reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) taking infliximab or tofacitinib after two vaccine doses. We sought to determine whether immunosuppressive treatments were associated with reduced antibody and T cell responses after a third vaccine dose. Methods: 352 adults (72 healthy controls and 280 IBD) from the prospectively recruited study cohort were sampled 28-49 days after a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. IBD medications studied included thiopurines (n=65), infliximab (n=46), thiopurine/infliximab combination therapy (n=49), ustekinumab (n=44), vedolizumab (n=50) or tofacitinib (n=26). SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody binding and T cell responses were measured. Findings: Geometric mean [geometric SD] anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations increased in all study groups following a third dose of vaccine, but were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (2736.8 U/mL [4.3]; P<0.0001), infliximab and thiopurine combination (1818.3 U/mL [6.7]; P<0.0001) and tofacitinib (8071.5 U/mL [3.1]; P=0.0018) compared to controls (16774.2 U/ml [2.6]). There were no significant differences in anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations between control subjects and thiopurine (12019.7 U/mL [2.2]; P=0.099), ustekinumab (11089.3 U/mL [2.8]; P=0.060), nor vedolizumab treated patients (13564.9 U/mL [2.4]; P=0.27). In multivariable modelling, lower anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations were independently associated with infliximab (Geometric mean ratio 0.15, 95% CI 0.11-0.21, P<0.0001), tofacitinib (0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.87, P=0.012) and thiopurine (0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, P=0.021), but not with ustekinumab (0.64, 95% CI 0.39-1.06, P=0.083), or vedolizumab (0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.30, P=0.43). Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.58, 95% CI 1.22-2.05, P=0.00056) and older age (0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P=0.0073) were independently associated with higher and lower anti-S1 antibody concentrations respectively. However
Alexander J, Kennedy NA, Lees CW, et al., 2022, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for patients with inflammatory bowel disease – Authors' reply, The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol: 6, Pages: 523-524, ISSN: 2468-1253
Sani M, Ford L, Simon D, et al., 2022, A prospective pilot study of desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the early detection of colorectal adenoma., Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Paizs P, Roberts D, Danckert N, et al., 2022, Gut microbial co-metabolism influences the tumor microenvironment, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Liu Z, Lo J, Alexander J, et al., 2022, DYSREGULATED GUT MICROBIOTA-HOST METABOLISM UNDERPINS IMMUNE ACTIVATION IN A MICROBIOTA-DEPENDENT MODEL OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS, Annual Meeting of the British-Society-of-Gastroenterology (BSG), Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A19-A20, ISSN: 0017-5749
Lo J, Cozzetto D, Liu Z, et al., 2022, IMMUNE CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR-INDUCED COLITIS IS MEDIATED BY CXCR6+POLYFUNCTIONAL LYMPHOCYTES AND DEPENDENT ON IL23/IFNG AXIS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A56-A56, ISSN: 0017-5749
Alexander J, Mullish B, Danckert N, et al., 2022, COVID-19 VACCINATION RESPONSE IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PATIENTS WITH IBD IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED GUT MICROBIOTA FUNCTION, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A36-A36, ISSN: 0017-5749
Powles STR, Gallagher KI, Chong LWL, et al., 2022, Effects of bowel preparation on intestinal bacterial associated urine and faecal metabolites and the associated faecal microbiome, BMC Gastroenterology, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1471-230X
BackgroundUrinary and faecal metabolic profiling have been extensively studied in gastrointestinal diseases as potential diagnostic markers, and to enhance our understanding of the intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis these conditions. The impact of bowel cleansing on the microbiome has been investigated in several studies, but limited to just one study on the faecal metabolome.AimTo compare the effects of bowel cleansing on the composition of the faecal microbiome, and the urine and faecal metabolome.MethodsUrine and faecal samples were obtained from eleven patients undergoing colonoscopy at baseline, and then at day 3 and week 6 after colonoscopy. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyse changes in the microbiome, and metabonomic analysis was performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy.ResultsMicrobiomic analysis demonstrated a reduction in alpha diversity (Shannon index) between samples taken at baseline and three days following bowel cleansing (p = 0.002), and there was no significant difference between samples at baseline and six weeks post colonoscopy. Targeted and non-targeted analysis of urinary and faecal bacterial associated metabolites showed no significant impact following bowel cleansing.ConclusionsBowel cleansing causes a temporary disturbance in bacterial alpha diversity measured in faeces, but no significant changes in the faecal and urine metabolic profiles, suggesting that overall the faecal microbiome and its associated metabolome is resistant to the effects of an induced osmotic diarrhoea.
Alexander JL, Mullish BH, Danckert NP, et al., 2022, POOR RESPONSE TO ANTI-SARS-COV-2 VACCINATION IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE PATIENTS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED GUT MICROBIOTA FUNCTION, GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 162, Pages: S653-S653, ISSN: 0016-5085
Alexander JL, Kennedy N, Ibraheim H, et al., 2022, COVID-19 VACCINE-INDUCED ANTIBODY RESPONSES ARE IMPAIRED IN IBD PATIENTS TREATED WITH INFLIXIMAB, USTEKINUMAB OR TOFACITINIB, BUT NOT THIOPURINES OR VEDOLIZUMAB, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC
Paizs P, Mullish BH, Alexander JL, et al., 2022, INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANT FOR RECURRENT <i>CLOSTRIODIOIDES</i> <i>DIFFICILE</i> INFECTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH RESTORATION OF MICROBIAL ARYLSULFATASES AND SULFATIDE DEGRADATION, GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 162, Pages: S649-S649, ISSN: 0016-5085
Liu Z, Lo JW, Alexander JL, et al., 2022, DYSREGULATED MICROBE-HOST METABOLISM UNDERPINS IMMUNE ACTIVATION IN A MICROBIOTA-DEPENDENT MODEL OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS, Digestive Disease Week (DDW), Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S793-S793, ISSN: 0016-5085
Lo JW, Cozzetto D, Madgwick M, et al., 2022, IMMUNE CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR-INDUCED COLITIS IS MEDIATED BY CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTES AND IS RELIANT ON THE IL23/IFNγ AXIS, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S78-S79, ISSN: 0016-5085
Alexander JL, Kennedy NA, Ibraheim H, et al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (VIP): a multicentre, prospective, case-control study, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 342-352, ISSN: 2468-1253
BACKGROUND: The effects that therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have on immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are not yet fully known. Therefore, we sought to determine whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses were altered in patients with IBD on commonly used immunosuppressive drugs. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, case-control study (VIP), we recruited adults with IBD treated with one of six different immunosuppressive treatment regimens (thiopurines, infliximab, a thiopurine plus infliximab, ustekinumab, vedolizumab, or tofacitinib) and healthy control participants from nine centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and had received two doses of COVID-19 vaccines (either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [Oxford-AstraZeneca], BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech], or mRNA1273 [Moderna]) 6-12 weeks apart (according to scheduling adopted in the UK). We measured antibody responses 53-92 days after a second vaccine dose using the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations in participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, adjusted by age and vaccine type, and was analysed by use of multivariable linear regression models. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN13495664, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between May 31 and Nov 24, 2021, we recruited 483 participants, including patients with IBD being treated with thiopurines (n=78), infliximab (n=63), a thiopurine plus infliximab (n=72), ustekinumab (n=57), vedolizumab (n=62), or tofacitinib (n=30), and 121 healthy controls. We included 370 participants without evidence of previous infection in our primary analysis. Geometric mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (156·8 U/mL [geometric SD 5·7]; p<0·0001), infliximab plus thiopurine (111·1 U/mL [5·
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