Imperial College London

ProfessorJamesBarlow

Business School

Chair in Technology and Innovation Management
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 5936j.barlow Website CV

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Lorraine Sheehy +44 (0)20 7594 9173

 
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Location

 

Room 396Business School BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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160 results found

Antonacci G, Lennox L, Barlow J, Evans L, Reed Jet al., 2021, Process mapping in healthcare: a systematic review, BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1472-6963

IntroductionProcess mapping (PM) supports better understanding of complex systems and adaptation of improvement interventions to their local context. However, there is little research on its use in healthcare. This study (i) proposes a conceptual framework outlining quality criteria to guide the effective implementation, evaluation and reporting of PM in healthcare; (ii) reviews published PM cases to identify context and quality of PM application, and the reported benefits of using PM in healthcare.MethodsWe developed the conceptual framework by reviewing methodological guidance on PM and empirical literature on its use in healthcare improvement interventions. We conducted a systematic review of empirical literature using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. Inclusion criteria were: full text empirical study; describing the process through which PM has been applied in a healthcare setting; published in English. Databases searched are: Medline, Embase, HMIC–Health Management Information Consortium, CINAHL-Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus. Two independent reviewers extracted and analysed data. Each manuscript underwent line by line coding. The conceptual framework was used to evaluate adherence of empirical studies to the identified PM quality criteria. Context in which PM is used and benefits of using PM were coded using an inductive thematic analysis approach.ResultsThe framework outlines quality criteria for each PM phase: (i) preparation, planning and process identification, (ii) data and information gathering, (iii) process map generation, (iv) analysis, (v) taking it forward.PM is used in a variety of settings and approaches to improvement. None of the reviewed studies (N = 105) met all ten quality criteria; 7% were compliant with 8/10 or 9/10 criteria. 45% of studies reported that PM was generated through multi-professional meetings and 15% reported patient i

Journal article

Huddy JR, Ni MZ, Barlow J, Hanna GBet al., 2021, Qualitative analysis of stakeholder interviews to identify the barriers and facilitators to the adoption of point-of-care diagnostic tests in the UK., BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2044-6055

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the barriers and facilitators to the adoption of point-of-care tests (POCTs). DESIGN: Qualitative study incorporating a constant comparative analysis of stakeholder responses to a series of interviews undertaken to design the Point-of-Care Key Evidence Tool. SETTING: The study was conducted in relation to POCTs used in all aspects of healthcare. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three stakeholders were interviewed including clinicians (incorporating laboratory staff and members of trust POCT committees), commissioners, industry, regulators and patients. RESULTS: Thematic analysis highlighted 32 barriers in six themes and 28 facilitators in eight themes to the adoption of POCTs. Six themes were common to both barriers and facilitators (clinical, cultural, evidence, design and quality assurance, financial and organisational) and two themes contained facilitators alone (patient factors and other (non-financial) resource use). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study demonstrate the complex motivations of stakeholders in the adoption of POCT. Most themes were common to both barriers and facilitators suggesting that good device design, stakeholder engagement and appropriate evidence provision can increase the likelihood of a POCT device adoption. However, it is important to realise that while the majority of identified barriers may be perceived or mitigated some may be absolute and if identified early in device development further investment should be carefully considered.

Journal article

Sounderajah V, Patel V, Varatharajan L, Harling L, Normahani P, Symons J, Barlow J, Darzi A, Ashrafian Het al., 2020, Are disruptive innovations recognised in the healthcare literature? A systematic review, BMJ Innovations, Vol: 7, Pages: 208-216, ISSN: 2055-8074

The study aims to conduct a systematic review to characterise the spread and use of the concept of ‘disruptive innovation’ within the healthcare sector. We aim to categorise references to the concept over time, across geographical regions and across prespecified healthcare domains. From this, we further aim to critique and challenge the sector-specific use of the concept. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Global Health, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium were searched from inception to August 2019 for references pertaining to disruptive innovations within the healthcare industry. The heterogeneity of the articles precluded a meta-analysis, and neither quality scoring of articles nor risk of bias analyses were required. 245 articles that detailed perceived disruptive innovations within the health sector were identified. The disruptive innovations were categorised into seven domains: basic science (19.2%), device (12.2%), diagnostics (4.9%), digital health (21.6%), education (5.3%), processes (17.6%) and technique (19.2%). The term has been used with increasing frequency annually and is predominantly cited in North American (78.4%) and European (15.2%) articles. The five most cited disruptive innovations in healthcare are ‘omics’ technologies, mobile health applications, telemedicine, health informatics and retail clinics. The concept ‘disruptive innovation’ has diffused into the healthcare industry. However, its use remains inconsistent and the recognition of disruption is obscured by other types of innovation. The current definition does not accommodate for prospective scouting of disruptive innovations, a likely hindrance to policy makers. Redefining disruptive innovation within the healthcare sector is therefore crucial for prospectively identifying cost-effective innovations.

Journal article

Cisnetto V, Barlow J, 2020, The development of complex and controversial innovations.Genetically modified mosquitoes for malaria eradication, Research Policy, Vol: 49, ISSN: 0048-7333

When there is significant uncertainty in an innovation project, research literature suggests that strictly sequencing actions and stages may not be an appropriate mode of project management. We use a longitudinal process approach and qualitative system dynamics modelling to study the development of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes for malaria eradication in an African country. Our data were collected in real time, from early scientific research to deployment of the first prototype mosquitoes in the field. The 'gene drive' technology for modifying the mosquitoes is highly complex and controversial due to risks associated with its characteristics as a living, self-replicating technology. We show that in this case the innovation journey is linear and highly structured, but also embedded within a wider system of adoption that displays emergent behaviour. Although the need to control risks associated with the technology imposes a linearity to the NPD process, there are possibilities for deviation from a more structured sequence of stages. This arises from the effects of feedback loops in the wider system of evidence creation and learning at the population and governance levels, which cumulatively impact on acceptance of the innovation. The NPD and adoption processes are therefore closely intertwined, meaning that the endpoint for R&D and beginning of 'mainstream' adoption and diffusion are unclear. A key challenge for those responsible for NPD and its regulation is to plan for the adoption of the technology while simultaneously conducting its scientific and technical development.

Journal article

Ni M, Borsci S, Walne S, Mclister AP, Buckle P, Barlow JG, Hanna GBet al., 2020, The Lean and Agile Multi-dimensional Process (LAMP) - a new framework for rapid and iterative evidence generation to support health-care technology design and development, EXPERT REVIEW OF MEDICAL DEVICES, Vol: 17, Pages: 277-288, ISSN: 1743-4440

Journal article

Huddy JR, Ni M, Misra S, Mavroveli S, Barlow J, Hanna GBet al., 2019, Development of the Point-of-Care Key Evidence Tool (POCKET): a checklist for multi-dimensional evidence generation in point-of-care tests, Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Vol: 57, Pages: 845-855, ISSN: 1434-6621

BackgroundThis study aimed to develop the Point-of-Care Key Evidence Tool (POCKET); a multi-dimensional checklist to guide the evaluation of point-of-care tests (POCTs) incorporating validity, utility, usability, cost-effectiveness and patient experience. The motivation for this was to improve the efficiency of evidence generation in POCTs and reduce the lead-time for the adoption of novel POCTs.MethodsA mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was applied. Following a literature search, a three round Delphi process was undertaken incorporating a semi-structured interview study and two questionnaire rounds. Participants included clinicians, laboratory personnel, commissioners, regulators (including members of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE] committees), patients, industry representatives and methodologists. Qualitative data were analysed based on grounded theory. The final tool was revised at an expert stakeholder workshop.ResultsForty-three participants were interviewed within the semi-structured interview study, 32 participated in the questionnaire rounds and nine stakeholders attended the expert workshop. The final version of the POCKET checklist contains 65 different evidence requirements grouped into seven themes. Face validity, content validity and usability has been demonstrated. There exists a shortfall in the evidence that industry and research methodologists believe should be generated regarding POCTs and what is actually required by policy and decision makers to promote implementation into current healthcare pathways.ConclusionsThis study has led to the development of POCKET, a checklist for evidence generation and synthesis in POCTs. This aims to guide industry and researchers to the evidence that is required by decision makers to facilitate POCT adoption so that the benefits they can bring to patients can be effectively realised.

Journal article

Chatterjee A, Modarai M, Naylor N, Boyd S, Atun R, Barlow J, Holmes A, Johnson A, Robotham Jet al., 2018, Quantifying drivers of antibiotic resistance in humans: a systematic review, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: e368-e378, ISSN: 1473-3099

Mitigating the risks of antibiotic resistance requires a horizon scan linking the quality with the quantity of data reported on drivers of antibiotic resistance in humans, arising from the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs. We did a systematic review using a One Health approach to survey the key drivers of antibiotic resistance in humans. Two sets of reviewers selected 565 studies from a total of 2819 titles and abstracts identified in Embase, MEDLINE, and Scopus (2005–18), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and WHO (One Health data). Study quality was assessed in accordance with Cochrane recommendations. Previous antibiotic exposure, underlying disease, and invasive procedures were the risk factors with most supporting evidence identified from the 88 risk factors retrieved. The odds ratios of antibiotic resistance were primarily reported to be between 2 and 4 for these risk factors when compared with their respective controls or baseline risk groups. Food-related transmission from the animal reservoir and water-related transmission from the environmental reservoir were frequently quantified. Uniformly quantifying relationships between risk factors will help researchers to better understand the process by which antibiotic resistance arises in human infections.

Journal article

Antonacci G, Reed JE, Sriram V, Barlow Jet al., 2018, Quality Improvement through Interactive Simulation, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 29-30, ISSN: 1353-4505

Conference paper

Whole System Demonstrators team, 2018, Exploring barriers to participation and adoption of telehealth and telecare within the Whole System Demonstrator trial: a qualitative study, BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1472-6963

BackgroundTelehealth (TH) and telecare (TC) interventions are increasingly valued for supporting self-care in ageing populations; however, evaluation studies often report high rates of non-participation that are not well understood. This paper reports from a qualitative study nested within a large randomised controlled trial in the UK: the Whole System Demonstrator (WSD) project. It explores barriers to participation and adoption of TH and TC from the perspective of people who declined to participate or withdrew from the trial.MethodsQualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 people who declined to participate in the trial following explanations of the intervention (n = 19), or who withdrew from the intervention arm (n = 3). Participants were recruited from the four trial groups (with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, or social care needs); and all came from the three trial areas (Cornwall, Kent, east London). Observations of home visits where the trial and interventions were first explained were also conducted by shadowing 8 members of health and social care staff visiting 23 people at home. Field notes were made of observational visits and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes.ResultsBarriers to adoption of TH and TC associated with non-participation and withdrawal from the trial were identified within the following themes: requirements for technical competence and operation of equipment; threats to identity, independence and self-care; expectations and experiences of disruption to services. Respondents held concerns that special skills were needed to operate equipment but these were often based on misunderstandings. Respondents’ views were often explained in terms of potential threats to identity associated with positive ageing and self-reliance, and views that interventions could undermine self-care and coping. Finally, participants were reluctant to risk p

Journal article

Myron R, French C, Sullivan P, Sathyamoorthy G, Barlow J, Pomeroy Let al., 2018, Professionals learning together with patients: An exploratory study of a collaborative learning Fellowship programme for healthcare improvement, Journal of Interprofessional Care, Vol: 32, Pages: 257-265, ISSN: 1356-1820

Improving the quality of healthcare involves collaboration between many different stakeholders. Collaborative learning theory suggests that teaching different professional groups alongside each other may enable them to develop skills in how to collaborate effectively, but there is little literature on how this works in practice. Further, though it is recognised that patients play a fundamental role in quality improvement, there are few examples of where they learn together with professionals. To contribute to addressing this gap, we review a collaborative fellowship in Northwest London, designed to build capacity to improve healthcare, which enabled patients and professionals to learn together. Using the lens of collaborative learning, we conducted an exploratory study of six cohorts of the year long programme (71 participants). Data were collected using open text responses from an online survey (n = 31) and semi-structured interviews (n = 34) and analysed using an inductive open coding approach. The collaborative design of the Fellowship, which included bringing multiple perspectives to discussions of real world problems, was valued by participants who reflected on the safe, egalitarian space created by the programme. Participants (healthcare professionals and patients) found this way of learning initially challenging yet ultimately productive. Despite the pedagogical and practical challenges of developing a collaborative programme, this study indicates that opening up previously restricted learning opportunities as widely as possible, to include patients and carers, is an effective mechanism to develop collaborative skills for quality improvement.

Journal article

Antonacci G, Reed JE, Lennox L, Barlow Jet al., 2018, The use of process mapping in healthcare quality improvement projects, Health Services Management Research, Vol: 31, Pages: 74-84, ISSN: 0951-4848

Introduction: Process Mapping (PM), provides insight into systems and processes in which improvement interventions are introduced and is seen as useful in healthcare Quality Improvement (QI) projects. There is little empirical evidence on the use of PM in healthcare practice. This study advances understanding of the benefits and success factors of PM within QI projects. Methods: Eight QI projects were purposively selected from different healthcare settings within the UK’s National Health Service. Data was gathered from multiple data-sources, including interviews exploring participants’ experience of using PM in their projects and perceptions of benefits and challenges related to its use. These were analysed using inductive analysis. Results: Eight key benefits related to PM use were reported by participants (gathering a shared understanding of the reality; identifying improvement opportunities; engaging stakeholders in the project; defining project's objectives; monitoring project progress; learning; increased empathy; simplicity of the method) and five factors related to successful PM exercises (simple and appropriate visual representation, information gathered from multiple stakeholders, facilitator’s experience and soft skills, basic training, iterative use of PM throughout the project). Conclusions: Findings highlight benefits and versatility of PM and provide practical suggestions to improve its use in practice.

Journal article

Dattee B, Barlow JG, 2017, Multilevel organizational adaptation: Scale invariance in the Scottish healthcare system., Organization Science, Vol: 28, Pages: 301-319, ISSN: 1047-7039

We use the case of a “whole-system” change program in a national healthcare system to empirically examine the multilevel dynamics underlying organizational adaptation. Our analysis demonstrates how the cognitive distance between agents’ causal representations affects opportunities to cooperate in hierarchical systems. Using complexity theory, we identify a scale-invariant causal pathway that can be applied recursively across many organizational levels. At each level, three coupled feedback loops determine how local agents modify their cognitive representations to include uncovered interdependencies and synchronize their adaptive search across organizational boundaries: a “boundary work” loop, a “small wins” loop, and a “parochialism” loop. Our results also point to the scale-dependency of the strength of dissipative processes across levels. These novel results further develop the theory of organizational change and have practical implications for large multilevel organizations, especially regarding the sustainability of improvements.

Journal article

Barlow J, 2016, Managing Innovation in Healthcare, Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Europe Limited, ISBN: 9781786341518

Innovative thinking is essential to meet these twin challenges, but innovation is both a cause and cure of many struggles in healthcare — we need it, but it is hard to manage and the introduction of new technology can lead to higher costs ...

Book

Barlow JG, Tucker DA, Hendy J, 2016, The dynamic nature of social accounts: an examination of how interpretive processes impact on account effectiveness, Journal of Business Research, Vol: 69, Pages: 6079-6087, ISSN: 0148-2963

Social accounts are a powerful tool in influencing the behavior of organizational members during major change. Examination of their effectiveness has largely focused on the design of accounts to influence behavioral and affective responses. However, when used in real life practice, more individualized, interpretive and agentic responses to social accounts have been found to influence effectiveness. Using an example of large-scale organizational change, moving from one hospital facility to another, we explore the dynamic and contextual interpretation of social accounts over time. Our findings expand social account theory by examining how potentially successful change communications are derailed by the relevance of the account in relation to an individual's past, by the individuals' ability to express agency and by temporality; how over time, lived experience can alter the perceived truthfulness of an account and alter its potency.

Journal article

Greenhalgh T, Annandale E, Ashcroft R, Barlow J, Black N, Bleakley A, Boaden R, Braithwaite J, Britten N, Carnevale F, Checkland K, Cheek J, Clark A, Cohn S, Coulehan J, Crabtree B, Cummins S, Davidoff F, Davies H, Dingwall R, Dixon-Woods M, Elwyn G, Engebretsen E, Ferlie E, Fulop N, Gabbay J, Gagnon M-P, Galasinski D, Garside R, Gilson L, Griffiths P, Hawe P, Helderman J-K, Hodges B, Hunter D, Kearney M, Kitzinger C, Kitzinger J, Kuper A, Kushner S, Le May A, Legare F, Lingard L, Locock L, Maben J, Macdonald ME, Mair F, Mannion R, Marshall M, May C, Mays N, McKee L, Miraldo M, Morgan D, Morse J, Nettleton S, Oliver S, Pearce W, Pluye P, Pope C, Robert G, Roberts C, Rodella S, Rycroft-Malone J, Sandelowski M, Shekelle P, Stevenson F, Straus S, Swinglehurst D, Thorne S, Tomson G, Westert G, Wilkinson S, Williams B, Young T, Ziebland Set al., 2016, An open letter to The BMJ editors on qualitative research, BMJ, Vol: 352, ISSN: 1756-1833

Journal article

Barlow J, Knapp M, Comas-Herrera A, Damant J, Freddolino P, Hamblin K, Hu B, Lorenz K, Perkins M, Rehill A, Wittenberg R, Woolham Jet al., 2015, The case for investment in technology to manage the global costs of dementia, The case for investment in technology to manage the global costs of dementia, Publisher: Policy Innovation Research Unit

Worldwide growth in the number of people living with dementia will continue over the coming decades and is already putting pressure on health and care systems, both formal and informal, and on costs, both public and private. One response could be to make greater use of digital and other technologies to try to improve outcomes and contain costs. We were commissioned to examine the economic case for acceleratedinvestment in technology that could, over time, deliver savings on the overall cost ofcare for people with dementia. Our short study included a rapid review of international evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of technology, consideration of the conditions for its successful adoption, and liaison with people from industry, government, academic, third sector and other sectors, and people with dementia and carers. We used modelling analyses to examine the economic case, using the UK as context. We then discussed the roles that state investment or action could play, perhaps to accelerate use of technology so as to deliver both wellbeing and economic benefits.

Report

Maben J, Griffiths P, Penfold C, Simon M, Anderson JE, Robert G, Pizzo E, Hughes J, Murrells T, Barlow Jet al., 2015, One size fits all? Mixed methods evaluation of the impact of 100% single-room accommodation on staff and patient experience, safety and costs., BMJ Quality & Safety, Vol: 25, Pages: 241-256, ISSN: 2044-5423

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is little strong evidence relating to the impact of single-room accommodation on healthcare quality and safety. We explore the impact of all single rooms on staff and patient experience; safety outcomes; and costs. METHODS: Mixed methods pre/post 'move' comparison within four nested case study wards in a single acute hospital with 100% single rooms; quasi-experimental before-and-after study with two control hospitals; analysis of capital and operational costs associated with single rooms. RESULTS: Two-thirds of patients expressed a preference for single rooms with comfort and control outweighing any disadvantages (sense of isolation) felt by some. Patients appreciated privacy, confidentiality and flexibility for visitors afforded by single rooms. Staff perceived improvements (patient comfort and confidentiality), but single rooms were worse for visibility, surveillance, teamwork, monitoring and keeping patients safe. Staff walking distances increased significantly post move. A temporary increase of falls and medication errors in one ward was likely to be associated with the need to adjust work patterns rather than associated with single rooms per se. We found no evidence that single rooms reduced infection rates. Building an all single-room hospital can cost 5% more with higher housekeeping and cleaning costs but the difference is marginal over time. CONCLUSIONS: Staff needed to adapt their working practices significantly and felt unprepared for new ways of working with potentially significant implications for the nature of teamwork in the longer term. Staff preference remained for a mix of single rooms and bays. Patients preferred single rooms.

Journal article

Barlow JG, Jacobson EU, Bayer S, Dennis M, MacLeod MJet al., 2015, The scope for improvement in hyper-acute stroke care in Scotland, Operations Research for Health Care, ISSN: 2211-6923

Thrombolysis is associated with reduced disability for selected patients who have suffered ischemic stroke. However only a fraction of all patients who have suffered this type of stroke receive thrombolysis. The short time window of 4.5 h in which treatment is licensed means that rapid care and well-organised pathways are essential. We studied measures to increase the uptake of thrombolysis through a better understanding of the hospital delays which lead to a lack of timely brain scanning and diagnosis. We examine the factors influencing the number of thrombolysed patients, the time between arrival at hospital and the administration of thrombolysis (door to needle time).Our analysis is based on the Scottish Stroke Care Audit (SSCA) data covering all stroke patients admitted to hospitals in Scotland in 2010, as well as on interviews with stroke care staff in Scotland. The data show significant variation in the speed of scanning, thrombolysis treatment and numbers of patients receiving treatment among hospitals. In the best performing hospital, 68% of patients arriving within 4 h of stroke onset are scanned in time for thrombolysis compared with 40% on average and 5% in the worst performing hospital.We model the system as a discrete-event simulation following the patient journey, starting when patients have a stroke and ending at thrombolysis for those who qualify. The simulation results show that just improving the performance of all hospitals to the level of the best performing hospital would (even without improvements in onset to arrival times) increase the thrombolysis rate from 6% (in 2010) to 11% of all admitted stroke patients in Scotland. By 2013 9% of patients were receiving thrombolysis, suggesting there is still room for improvement.

Journal article

Barlow JG, 2015, Changing the innovation landscape in the UK’s National Health Service to meet its future challenges, Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Health, Vol: 2015, Pages: 59-67, ISSN: 2324-5905

The UK’s National Health Service is widely held to be lagging behind the healthsystems of other countries in its innovativeness. In particular, there is said to be a “technologydeficit” in certain clinical areas, such that patients are unable to access the latest drugs or medicaldevices. Moreover, the UK conducts world-leading research in health-related sciences andhas a globally competitive pharmaceutical industry and sizeable medical technology sector, yetthere have been persistent concerns about the translation of this research into products that canbe commercialized. The last 15 years have seen successive attempts to rectify this situation andimprove the flow of health care innovations into practice. In addition, the importance of organizationalinnovation to improve productivity and clinical, quality, and safety performance hasbeen recognized. This is becoming more urgent given the need to meet the challenges of risingdemand for health care at a time of increasingly constrained resources. This review discussesthe changing landscape of policy and other interventions that have been put in place to tacklethe factors that inhibit health care-related innovation in the UK.

Journal article

Huddy JR, Ni M, Mavroveli S, Barlow J, Williams DA, Hanna GBet al., 2015, A research protocol for developing a Point-Of-Care Key Evidence Tool 'POCKET': a checklist for multidimensional evidence reporting on point-of-care in vitro diagnostics., BMJ Open, Vol: 5, Pages: e007840-e007840, ISSN: 2044-6055

INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care in vitro diagnostics (POC-IVD) are increasingly becoming widespread as an acceptable means of providing rapid diagnostic results to facilitate decision-making in many clinical pathways. Evidence in utility, usability and cost-effectiveness is currently provided in a fragmented and detached manner that is fraught with methodological challenges given the disruptive nature these tests have on the clinical pathway. The Point-of-care Key Evidence Tool (POCKET) checklist aims to provide an integrated evidence-based framework that incorporates all required evidence to guide the evaluation of POC-IVD to meet the needs of policy and decisionmakers in the National Health Service (NHS). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multimethod approach will be applied in order to develop the POCKET. A thorough literature review has formed the basis of a robust Delphi process and validation study. Semistructured interviews are being undertaken with POC-IVD stakeholders, including industry, regulators, commissioners, clinicians and patients to understand what evidence is required to facilitate decision-making. Emergent themes will be translated into a series of statements to form a survey questionnaire that aims to reach a consensus in each stakeholder group to what needs to be included in the tool. Results will be presented to a workshop to discuss the statements brought forward and the optimal format for the tool. Once assembled, the tool will be field-tested through case studies to ensure validity and usability and inform refinement, if required. The final version will be published online with a call for comments. Limitations include unpredictable sample representation, development of compromise position rather than consensus, and absence of blinding in validation exercise. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Imperial College Joint Research Compliance Office and the Imperial College Hospitals NHS Trust R&D department have approved the protocol. The checklist tool will be

Journal article

Spyridonidis D, Hendy J, Barlow J, 2015, Leadership for Knowledge Translation: The Case of CLAHRCs., Qualitative Health Research, ISSN: 1552-7557

Calls for successful knowledge translation (KT) in health care have multiplied over recent years. The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) program is a policy initiative in the United Kingdom aimed at speeding-up the translation of research into health care practice. Using multiple qualitative research methods and drawing on the ongoing processes used by individuals to interpret and contextualize information, we explore how new organizational forms for KT bridge the gap between research and practice. We pay particular attention to the relationship between the organization and practices of KT and leadership. Our empirical data demonstrate how the relationship between leadership and KT shifted over time from a push model where the authoritarian top-down leadership team set outcome measures by which to judge KT performance to one which aimed to distribute leadership capacity across a wide range of stakeholders in health and social care systems. The relationship between the organization and practices of KT and leadership is affected by local contextual influences on policies directed at increasing the uptake of research in clinical practice. Policy makers and service leaders need to recognize that more dispersed type of leadership is needed to accommodate the idiosyncratic nature of collective action.

Journal article

Oliveira TC, Barlow J, Bayer S, 2015, The association between general practitioner participation in joint teleconsultations and rates of referral: a discrete choice experiment, BMC Family Practice, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1471-2296

BackgroundJoint consultations – such as teleconsultations – provide opportunities for continuing education of general practitioners (GPs). It has been reported this form of interactive case-based learning may lead to fewer GP referrals, yet these studies have relied on expert opinion and simple frequencies, without accounting for other factors known to influence referrals. We use a survey-based discrete choice experiment of GPs’ referral preferences to estimate how referral rates are associated with participation in joint teleconsultations, explicitly controlling for a number of potentially confounding variables.MethodsWe distributed questionnaires at two meetings of the Portuguese Association of General Practice. GPs were presented with descriptions of patients with dermatological lesions and asked whether they would refer based on the waiting time, the distance to appointment, and pressure from patients for a referral. We analysed GPs’ responses to multiple combinations of these factors, coupled with information on GP and practice characteristics, using a binary logit model. We estimated the probabilities of referral of different lesions using marginal effects.ResultsQuestionnaires were returned by 44 GPs, giving a total of 721 referral choices. The average referral rate for the 11 GPs (25%) who had participated in teleconsultations was 68.1% (range 53-88%), compared to 74.4% (range 47-100%) for the remaining physicians. Participation in teleconsultations was associated with reductions in the probabilities of referral of 17.6% for patients presenting with keratosis (p = 0.02), 42.3% for psoriasis (p < 0.001), 8.4% for melanoma (p = 0.14), and 5.4% for naevus (p = 0.19).ConclusionsThe results indicate that GP participation in teleconsultations is associated with overall reductions in referral rates and in variation across GPs, and that these effects are robust to the inclusion of other factors known to influence referrals. The reduction i

Journal article

Barlow J, Maben J, Griffiths P, Pizzo E, Robert Get al., 2015, Evaluating a major innovation in hospital design: workforce implications and impact on patient and staff experiences of all single room hospital accommodation, Publisher: NIHR Health Services and Delivery Research

Report

Tucker DA, Hendy J, Barlow J, 2015, The importance of role sending in the sensemaking of change agent roles, JOURNAL OF HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 29, Pages: 1047-1064, ISSN: 1477-7266

Journal article

Barlow JG, Tucker DA, Hendy J, 2014, When infrastructure transition and work practice redesign collide, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1758-7816

Journal article

Hendy J, Chrysanthaki T, Barlow J, 2014, Managers’ Identification with and Adoption of Telehealthcare, Societies, Vol: 4, Pages: 428-445

Journal article

Spyridonidis D, Hendy JH, Barlow J, 2014, Understanding hybrid roles: the role of identity processes amongst physicians, Public Administration, Vol: 93, Pages: 395-411, ISSN: 1467-9299

Increasing attention has been paid in both public administration and organizational theory to understanding how physicians assume a ‘hybrid’ role as they take on managerial responsibilities. Limited theoretical attention has been devoted to the processes involved in negotiating, developing, and maintaining such a role. We draw on identity theory, using a qualitative, five-year longitudinal case study, to explore how hybrid physician–managers in the English National Health Service and the organizations they are situated in achieve this. We highlight the importance of saliency – how central an identity is to an individual's values and beliefs – in managing new identities. We found three differing responses to taking on a hybrid physician–manager role, with identity emerging as a mitigating factor for negotiating potentially conflicting roles. We discuss the implications for existing theory and practice in the management of public organizations and identify an agenda for further research.

Journal article

MacNeill V, Sanders C, Fitzpatrick R, Hendy J, Barlow J, Knapp M, Rogers A, Bardsley M, Newman SPet al., 2014, Experiences of front-line health professionals in the delivery of telehealth: a qualitative study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF GENERAL PRACTICE, Vol: 64, Pages: E401-E407, ISSN: 0960-1643

Journal article

Henderson C, Knapp M, Fernandez J-L, Beecham J, Hirani SP, Beynon M, Cartwright M, Rixon L, Doll H, Bower P, Steventon A, Rogers A, Fitzpatrick R, Barlow J, Bardsley M, Newman SPet al., 2014, Cost-effectiveness of telecare for people with social care needs: the Whole Systems Demonstrator cluster randomised trial, Age and Ageing, Vol: 43, Pages: 794-800, ISSN: 1468-2834

Purpose of the study: to examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of ‘second-generation’ telecare, in addition to standard support and care that could include ‘first-generation’ forms of telecare, compared with standard support and care that could include ‘first-generation’ forms of telecare.Design and methods: a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with nested economic evaluation. A total of 2,600 people with social care needs participated in a trial of community-based telecare in three English local authority areas. In the Whole Systems Demonstrator Telecare Questionnaire Study, 550 participants were randomised to intervention and 639 to control. Participants who were offered the telecare intervention received a package of equipment and monitoring services for 12 months, additional to their standard health and social care services. The control group received usual health and social care.Primary outcome measure: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. The analyses took a health and social care perspective.Results: cost per additional QALY was £297,000. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves indicated that the probability of cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay of £30,000 per QALY gained was only 16%. Sensitivity analyses combining variations in equipment price and support cost parameters yielded a cost-effectiveness ratio of £161,000 per QALY.Implications: while QALY gain in the intervention group was similar to that for controls, social and health services costs were higher. Second-generation telecare did not appear to be a cost-effective addition to usual care, assuming a commonly accepted willingness to pay for QALYs.

Journal article

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