166 results found
Wan MSP, Standing JR, Potts DM, et al., 2021, Discussion of pore water pressure and total horizontal stress response to EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, Geotechnique: international journal of soil mechanics, Vol: 71, Pages: 368-372, ISSN: 0016-8505
Wan MSP, Standing JR, Potts DM, et al., 2021, Measured post-construction ground response to EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, 10th International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground (IS-Cambridge), Publisher: ROUTLEDGE, Pages: 191-198
Wan MSP, Standing JR, Potts DM, et al., 2019, Pore water pressure and total horizontal stress response to EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, Géotechnique, Vol: 69, Pages: 434-457, ISSN: 0016-8505
The ground response, in terms of surface and subsurface displacements, to twin-bore Crossrail tunnel construction beneath a research monitoring site in Hyde Park, London, using earth-pressure-balance machines (EPBMs) in London Clay, has recently been reported in two companion papers by the authors. This third paper presents and discusses corresponding changes in pore water pressure and total horizontal stress measured using multi-level piezometers and pushed-in spade cells. The three papers together provide a comprehensive and completely unique field monitoring case history of the short-term ground response to EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, making them invaluable for validating future numerical analyses. The fully grouted vibrating-wire piezometers were able to measure the rapid pore water pressure changes around the tunnels as they were constructed. Five distinct immediate pore water pressure responses are identified, induced by different stages of the tunnel drives as the EPBMs approached and passed the instruments. The responses are correlated with tunnel-boring machine operation variables and a postulated arching mechanism, identified for the first time through field measurements. The sense and magnitude of changes in horizontal total stress were reasonable and are correlated with overall pore water pressure changes. Both responses are linked where possible with measured subsurface displacements and generally correlate well, at least qualitatively. Limitations to the measurements and influencing factors are also discussed.
Lo D, Cunningham J, Burland J, 2018, Investigation of Distress of a Reinforced Earth Wall in Hong Kong, Proceedings of the ICE - Forensic Engineering, Vol: 171, Pages: 127-136, ISSN: 2043-9911
During an intense rainstorm on 22 May 2013, severe distress occurred at a reinforced earth wall in Hong Kong. The wall was under construction and nearing completion at the time of the incident. The distress involved the dislodgement of 78 facing panels, a total soil loss of about 1300 m3 and a disturbed groundmass of some 5500 m3. The distress occurred at three localised areas along the wall, with the formation of a sinkhole within the backfilled soil mass, referred to as the backyard of the wall. The incident resulted in significant soil deposition within the surface drainage system, flooding and debris overspill onto the road carriageway below, and it caused havoc to the local community. Subsequent to the incident, a detailed investigation was conducted to establish the probable causes and mechanism of the incident. This paper highlights some salient points of the investigation, the key findings and the lessons learnt from the incident
Wan MSP, Standing JR, Potts DM, et al., 2018, Measured short-term subsurface ground displacements from EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, Geotechnique: international journal of soil mechanics, Vol: 67, Pages: 748-779, ISSN: 0016-8505
Subsurface ground displacements from the construction of the twin-bore Crossrail tunnels in London Clay by earth pressure balance machines (EPBMs) are presented and discussed, complementing a companion paper by the authors that focused on the surface response. Both papers report vertical and horizontal displacements, in this case measured using comprehensive arrays of instruments installed within boreholes in Hyde Park, London. The Crossrail tunnels are deeper than those cited in most UK case histories concerning tunnelling in stiff clay. Clear insights were gained into subsurface displacement mechanisms: an ‘inward’ displacement field was observed around the Crossrail tunnel construction, in contrast to the ‘outward’ displacement field that developed around the shallower Channel Tunnel Rail Link tunnels constructed east of London using similar EPBMs in London Clay. This has important implications when estimating subsurface displacements using currently available empirical methods. Appraisal of the EPBM operational variables suggests that the relative magnitude of face and tail grout pressures to overburden stress is the key factor contributing to the opposing senses of the observed displacement fields. Earlier tunnelling-induced strain softening of the London Clay is evident from greater subsurface incremental volume losses and settlement trough width parameters relating to subsequent tunnel construction.
Harris DI, Mair RJ, Burland JB, et al., 2017, The Big Ben Clock Tower: Protective compensation grouting operations, Geotechnics and Heritage: Historic Towers, Pages: 59-72, ISBN: 9781138032729
The construction of the Jubilee line Extension Station at Westminster, London was predicted to produce significant movements of the Big Ben Clock tower and the adjoining Palace ofWestminster. The works consisted of the excavation of two vertically stacked 7.4m tunnels and a 39m deep station escalator box respectively located 28m and 34m north of the foundations of the Clock Tower. The protective measures adopted to minimise damage to these priceless historic buildings consisted primarily of compensation grouting below the Clock Tower and proved extremely effective in controlling settlement and tilt of the structure. This case study not only demonstrates the success of this protective measure, but also shows the value of careful interpretation of appropriate numerical modelling and the results of high quality monitoring during and after completion of the works.
Wan MSP, Standing JR, Potts DM, et al., 2017, Measured short-term ground surface response to EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, Géotechnique, Vol: 67, Pages: 420-445, ISSN: 0016-8505
Earth-pressure-balance machines (EPBMs) were used for the construction of Crossrail tunnels in London, providing opportunities for field investigation of consequent ground response. Analysed results from an instrumented research site in Hyde Park with extensive surface and subsurface monitoring arrays are presented and discussed. The Crossrail tunnels at the site are 34·5 m below ground, deeper than those in most case histories of tunnelling in stiff clay in the UK. This paper characterises the tunnelling-induced ground response, both ‘greenfield’ and in the proximity of the existing Central Line tunnels, dealing with measurements at the ground surface. A companion paper covers the subsurface ground response. Vertical and horizontal ground surface displacements were obtained from manual precise levelling and micrometer stick measurements. Several key findings will benefit future tunnelling projects involving EPBMs. Volume loss values measured at the instrumented site were low, being less than 0·8% and 1·4% for the first and second tunnel drives respectively, higher values being associated with ground softening from the first tunnel construction. Smaller volume losses were recorded in the vicinity of the existing Central Line tunnels, compared with the greenfield location, suggesting that their presence inhibited the development of ground movements. Asymmetric settlement troughs developed due to either the nearby pre-existing tunnels or the construction of the first tunnel. Marginally smaller values of trough width parameter, Ky, were determined for these deeper tunnels compared with previous greenfield ground case histories. Resultant vectors of ground surface displacement were directed to well-defined point-sinks above the tunnel axis level.
Yu J, Standing J, Vollum R, et al., 2017, Experimental investigations of bolted segmental grey cast iron lining behaviour, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol: 61, Pages: 161-178, ISSN: 0886-7798
The need for the research reported in this paper was driven by the Crossrail project in London for which new tunnels were constructed close to numerous existing operational tunnels of the London Underground (LU) network.This research is based on experimental work conducted on half-scale grey cast iron (GCI) tunnel lining segments with chemical composition similar to the Victorian age GCI segments in the LU network. This paper discusses the deformation behaviour of the bolted segmental lining under the influence of factors such as overburden pressure, bolt preload and presence of grommets at small distortions. The measured behaviour of the segmental lining is compared against the calculated response of a continuous lining based on the assumption of elasticity.The industry practice for tunnel lining assessment is to calculate the induced bending moment in the tunnel lining using an elastic continuum model, while adopting a reduced lining stiffness to take into account the presence of the joints. Case studies have recorded that both loosening and tightening of lining bolts have been used as mitigation measures to reduce the impact of new tunnel excavations on existing GCI tunnels.The experimental work on the half-scale GCI lining has shown that a bolted segmental lining behaves as a continuous ring under small distortions imposed when subjected to hoop forces relevant to the depth of burial of LU tunnels. In the presence of hoop force, joint opening was minimal and the magnitude of preload in the bolts had little impact on the behaviour of the lining. It is therefore concluded that disturbance of the bolts in existing tunnels is not recommended as a mitigation measure as in addition to being ineffective it is both time consuming and introduces the risk of damaging the tunnel lining flanges.
Burland JB, Jamiolkowski MB, Viggiani C, 2015, Underexcavating the Tower of Pisa: Back to Future, GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 46, Pages: 126-135, ISSN: 0046-5828
Standing JR, Potts DM, Vollum R, et al., 2015, Investigating the effect of tunnelling on existing tunnels, Underground Design and Construction Conference, Publisher: IOM3, Pages: 301-312
A major research project investigating the effect of tunnelling on existing tunnels has beencompleted at Imperial College London. This subject is always of great concern during theplanning and execution of underground tunnelling works in the urban environment. Many citiesalready have extensive existing tunnel networks and so it is necessary to construct new tunnels ata level beneath them. The associated deformations that take place during tunnelling have to becarefully assessed and their impact on the existing tunnels estimated. Of particular concern is theserviceability of tunnels used for underground trains where the kinematic envelope must not beimpinged upon. The new Crossrail transport line under construction in London passes beneathnumerous tunnels including a number of those forming part of the London Underground network
Yu J, Standing J, Vollum R, et al., 2015, Stress and Strain monitoring at Tottenham Court Road Station, London, UK, Proceedings of the ICE - Structures and Buildings, Pages: 107-117, ISSN: 0965-0911
The redevelopment of Tottenham Court Road Underground Station started in 2011 as part of the Tube Upgrade Plan to improve and increase the capacity of the existing facility. The plan is to upgrade the station by 2016 to meet an estimated demand of more than 200,000 journeys per day once Crossrail is built. During April to November 2011, major structural work was carried out on the Northern Line platform tunnels as part of the station upgrade. This included removing grey cast iron tunnellining segments on the platform side to allow for construction of new cross passages to improve access to the platforms. The upgrade works provided an opportunity to trial in-tunnel instrumentation prior to implementation in other London Underground (LUL) tunnels which interface with the Crossrail project. Mechanical and electrical resistance strain gauges were installed on tunnel segments to make discrete measurements of changes in strain due to unloading as the segments were removed from the tunnel rings. Linear variable differential transformer type displacement transducers were installed to make continuous measurements of the opening and closing of circumferential and longitudinal joints on trackside segments which are left insitu and affected by adjacent excavations. This paper describes the installation process and highlights the lessons learnt for future applications. The insitu strain measurements are presented and compared to the expected response based on laboratory tests conducted on grey cast iron tunnel segments in the 1970s. The changes in strain measured by both types of strain gauges agreed well with the estimated changes assuming full overburden unloading.
Standing JR, Potts DM, Vollum R, et al., 2015, Research into the effect of tunnelling on existing tunnels, Pages: 515-520
Increasing demands for providing transport systems in the urban environment has led to many tunnelling projects being undertaken worldwide. Many of the cities where new tunnels are to be constructed already have a comprehensive underground network of tunnels for both transport and services. New tunnels often have to be aligned beneath these and frequently there are concerns that their construction may cause unacceptable deformations of Ibe existing tunnels, potentially hindering their serviceability and in the extreme threatening their stability. The Crossrail project, currently underway in London, involves tunnelling beneath numerous existing tunnels. It therefore has provided a great opportunity to study this complex boundary value problem. This paper describes the philosophy behind a comprehensive research project, run in conjunction with the Crossrail construction, which has an emphasis on the response of older tunnels lined with grey cast iron segments. There is a focus on how the Central Line tunnels responded to new twin tunnel construction beneath them. The five main strands of the research arc: field monitoring within and around the existing tunnels; numerical analyses of the field conditions; structural testing of a half-scale grey cast iron segmental ring; numerical analyses of the ring and two-segment tests performed; advanced laboratory testing of London Clay samples taken during installation of field instrumentation. These activities link into each other. Some preliminary results are presented and the main finding to date arc summarised.
Harris DI, Mair RJ, Burland JB, et al., 2013, Protective compensation grouting operations beneath the Big Ben Clock Tower, Geotechnics and Heritage: Case Histories, Pages: 137-152, ISBN: 9781138000544
The construction of the Jubilee line Extension Station at Westminster, London was predicted to produce significant movements of the Big Ben Clock tower and the adjoining Palace of Westminster. The works consisted of the excavation of two 7.4 m tunnels and a 39 m deep station escalator box located 34 m north of the foundations of the Clock Tower. The protective measures adopted to minimise damage to these priceless historic buildings consisted primarily of compensation grouting below the Clock Tower and proved extremely effective in controlling settlement and tilt of the structure. This case study not only demonstrates the success of this innovative protective measure, but also shows the value of careful interpretation of appropriate numerical modelling and the results of high quality monitoring during and after completion of the works.
Bym T, Marketos G, Burland JB, et al., 2013, Use of a two-dimensional discrete-element line-sink model to gain insight into tunnelling-induced deformations, Geotechnique
Puzrin AM, Burland JB, Standing JR, 2012, Simple approach to predicting ground displacements caused by tunnelling in undrained anisotropic elastic soil, GEOTECHNIQUE, Vol: 62, Pages: 341-352, ISSN: 0016-8505
Potts D, Zdravkovic L, 2012, Computer Analysis principles in geotechnical engineering, ICE manual of Geotechnical Engineering - Volume 1 Geotechnical Engineering Principles, Problematic Soils and Site Investigation, Editors: Burland, Skinner, Brown, Publisher: Institution of Civil Engineers, Pages: 35-57
Burland JB, Jamiolkowski MB, Viggiani C, 2009, Leaning Tower of Pisa: Behaviour after Stabilization Operations, International Journal of Geoengineering Case Histories, Vol: 1, Pages: 156-169, ISSN: 1790-2045
It is well known that the foundations of the Leaning Tower of Pisa were stabilised using the method ofunderexcavation to reduce the southward inclination of the Tower by about 10 percent in combination with controlling theseasonally fluctuating water table beneath the north side. Having been closed to the public since early in 1990, the Towerwas re-opened in December 2001. The paper summarises the response of the Tower during the period of implementation ofthe stabilisation works. Monitoring of the movements of the Tower has been continuing and the observations obtained since2001 are presented. It is shown that over the six years between 2003 and 2008 the induced rate of northward rotation of theTower has been steadily reducing to less than 0.2 arc seconds per year. Similarly the rate of induced settlement of thecentre of the foundation has been steadily reducing and is approaching the background rate of settlement of the Piazza.Piezometer measurements close to the north side of the foundation shows that the drainage system has been successful instabilising the groundwater levels beneath the north side of the Tower’s foundation. The paper concludes with a briefdiscussion on the possible future behaviour of the Tower.
Burland JB, 2008, Reflections on Victor de Mello, Friend, Engineer and Philosopher, Soils and Rocks, Vol: 31, Pages: 111-123, ISSN: 1980-9743
<jats:p>The author first met Victor de Mello in 1975 at the 6th African Regional Soil Mechanics Conference in Durban, South Africa. For over 30 years he has retained a close personal friendship with this remarkable man and his family. The First Victor de Mello Lecture illuminates something of him as a person, an engineer and a philosopher. It describes his upbringing and schooling in India, his university education at MIT and some highlights of his professional career as an international civil engineer specialising in dams and geotechnics. The key messages from some of his major lectures are presented and discussed. Engineers of all disciplines have much to learn from this brilliant, inspiring and cultured man. Above all we can learn from his insistence that we are human beings first, engineers second and specialists third - the order being very important.</jats:p>
Burland JB, Dean ETR, Gudehus G, et al., 2008, Interlocking, and peak and design strengths - Discussion, GEOTECHNIQUE, Vol: 58, Pages: 527-532, ISSN: 0016-8505
Burland JB, 2008, The founders of Geotechnique, GEOTECHNIQUE, Vol: 58, Pages: 327-341, ISSN: 0016-8505
Burland JB, 2008, Personal reflections on the teaching of soil mechanics, 1st International Conference on Education and Training in Geo-Engineering Science - Soil Mechanics, Geotechnical Engineering, Engineering Geology and Rock Mechanics, Publisher: CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP, Pages: 35-48
Burland JB, 2008, A case history of the failure of some silos during discharge, International Conference on Structures and Granular Solids - From Scientific Principles to Engineering Applications, Publisher: CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP, Pages: 135-143
Georgiannou VN, Burland JB, 2006, A laboratory study of slip surface formation in an intact natural stiff clay, GEOTECHNIQUE, Vol: 56, Pages: 551-559, ISSN: 0016-8505
Burland J B, 2006, Interaction between structural and geotechnical engineers, The Structural Engineer, Vol: 84, Pages: 29-37
Burland JB, 2006, Vote of thanks, GEOTECHNIQUE, Vol: 56, Pages: 122-122, ISSN: 0016-8505
Standing JR, Burland JB, 2006, Unexpected tunnelling volume losses in the Westminster area, London, GEOTECHNIQUE, Vol: 56, Pages: 11-26, ISSN: 0016-8505
Franzius JN, Potts DM, Burland JB, 2006, The response of surface structures to tunnel construction, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 159, Pages: 3-17, ISSN: 1353-2618
Standing JR, Burland JB, 2006, Investigating variations in tunnelling volume loss - a case study, 5th International Conference on Getechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, Pages: 305-+
Franzius JN, Potts DM, Burland JB, 2006, Twist behaviour of buildings due to tunnel induced ground movement, 5th International Conference on Getechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, Pages: 107-+
Burland JB, Federico A, 2005, Comment on "Use of the ranking distance as an index for assessing the accuracy and precision of equations for the bearing capacity of piles and at-rest earth pressure coefficient", CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 42, Pages: 1718-1719, ISSN: 0008-3674
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