365 results found
Derichs N, Taylor-Cousar JL, Davies JC, et al., 2021, Riociguat for the treatment of Phe508del homozygous adults with cystic fibrosis., J Cyst Fibros
BACKGROUND: Riociguat is a first-in-class soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator for which preclinical data suggested improvements in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function. METHODS: This international, multicenter, two-part, Phase II study of riociguat enrolled adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) homozygous for Phe508del CFTR. Part 1 was a 28-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in participants not receiving CFTR modulator therapy. Twenty-one participants were randomized 1:2 to placebo or oral riociguat (0.5 mg three times daily [tid] for 14 days, increased to 1.0 mg tid for the subsequent 14 days). The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were change in sweat chloride concentration and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (ppFEV1), respectively, from baseline to Day 14 and Day 28 with riociguat compared with placebo. RESULTS: Riociguat did not alter CFTR activity (change in sweat chloride) or lung function (change in ppFEV1) at doses up to 1.0 mg tid after 28 days. The most common drug-related adverse event (AE) was headache occurring in three participants (21%); serious AEs occurred in one participant receiving riociguat (7%) and one participant receiving placebo (14%). This safety profile was consistent with the underlying disease and the known safety of riociguat for its approved indications. CONCLUSIONS: The Rio-CF study was terminated due to lack of efficacy and the changing landscape of CF therapeutic development. The current study, within its limits of a small sample size, did not provide evidence that riociguat could be a valid treatment option for CF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02170025.
Bentley S, Davies J, Gastine S, et al., 2021, Clinical pharmacokinetics and dose recommendations for posaconazole gastro-resistant tablets in children with Cystic Fibrosis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN: 0305-7453
ObjectivesTo investigate the population pharmacokinetics of posaconazole gastro-resistant tablets in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), and perform simulations to recommend optimal doses.Patients and methodsChildren from a paediatric CF centre who had received posaconazole tablets and underwent therapeutic drug monitoring were identified from Pharmacy records. Relevant clinical data was collated from case notes and electronic patient records and used to develop an allometrically scaled population pharmacokinetic model. A step-wise covariate model building exercise evaluated the influence of interacting medicines and liver function.Results One hundred posaconazole serum concentrations were collected from 37 children with a median age of 14 years (range 7-17). Posaconazole pharmacokinetics were adequately described by a one-compartment model with inter-individual variability on clearance. Dose simulations demonstrated a 77-83% probability of attaining a trough target of 1 mg/L with a dose of 300 mg every 12 hours for 2 doses then 300 mg once daily (OD) in children aged 6-11 years; and 86-88% with a dose of 400 mg every 12 hours for 2 doses then 400 mg OD in adolescents aged 12-17 years. This dose scheme also yields a 90% probability of achieving an AUC of 30 mg.h/L. AUC and trough concentration were highly correlated (r2=0.98). Simulations showed that trough concentrations of >0.75 mg/L would exceed an AUC of 30mg.h/L in 90% of patients.ConclusionsA starting dose of 300mg OD in 6-11 years and 400mg OD in 12-17 years (following loading doses) yields a 90% probability of attaining an AUC of 30 mg.h/L.
Short C, Semple T, Saunders C, et al., 2021, A Short extension to multiple breath washout provides additional signal of distal airway disease in people with CF: A pilot study., J Cyst Fibros
BACKGROUND: Adding a slow vital capacity (SVC) to multiple breath washout (MBW) allows quantification of otherwise overlooked signal from under/un-ventilated lung units (UVLU) and may provide a more comprehensive assessment of airway disease than conventional lung clearance index (LCI2.5). METHODS: We conducted a pilot study on people undergoing MBW tests: 10 healthy controls (HC) and 43 cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects performed an SVC after the standard end of test. We term the new outcome LCI with Short extension (LCIShX). We assessed (i) CF/ HC differences, (ii) variability (iii) effect of pulmonary exacerbation (PEx)/treatment and (iv) relationship with CF computed tomography (CFCT) scores. RESULTS: HC/ CF group differences were larger with LCIShX than LCI2.5 (P<0.001). Within the CF group UVLU was highly variable and when abnormal it did not correlate with corresponding LCI2.5. Signal showed little variability during clinical stability (n = 11 CF; 2 visits; median inter-test variability 2.6% LCIShX, 2.5% LCI2.5). PEx signal was significantly greater for LCIShX both for onset and resolution. Both MBW parameters correlated significantly with total lung CT scores and hyperinflation but only LCIShX correlated with mucus plugging. CONCLUSIONS: UVLU captured within the LCIShX varies between individuals; the lack of relationship with LCI2.5 demonstrates that new, additional information is being captured. LCIShX repeatability during clinical stability combined with its larger signal around episodes of PEx may lend it superior sensitivity as an outcome measure. Further studies will build on this pilot data to fully establish its utility in monitoring disease status.
Chilvers MA, Davies J, Milla C, et al., 2021, Long-term safety and efficacy of lumacaftor/ivacaftor therapy in children aged 6–11 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation: a phase 3, open-label extension study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 9, Pages: 721-732, ISSN: 2213-2600
Background: The safety and efficacy of 24 weeks of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy in children aged 6–11 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation was previously demonstrated in two phase 3 studies. Here, we report long-term safety and efficacy data in children who rolled over from these two parent studies into a 96-week lumacaftor/ivacaftor open-label extension study (NCT02544451).Methods: The primary endpoint was safety. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in lung clearance index 2∙5% (LCI2·5), sweat chloride concentration, body mass index, and Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire–Revised respiratory domain score.Findings: Of 239 children who enrolled in the study and received at least one dose of lumacaftor/ivacaftor, 215 completed 96 weeks of treatment. Most children had adverse events (AEs) that were mild or moderate in severity, and there was a low rate of AEs leading to treatment discontinuation. The most frequently reported AEs were common manifestations or complications of cystic fibrosis or were consistent with the known safety profile of lumacaftor/ivacaftor in older children and adults. No new safety concerns were identified with extended lumacaftor/ivacaftor treatment. Children treated with placebo in the parent study and who began lumacaftor/ivacaftor in this extension study had improvements in efficacy endpoints consistent with those observed in the parent studies. Improvements observed in lumacaftor/ivacaftor-treated children in the parent studies were generally maintained in the extension study. Interpretation: Lumacaftor/ivacaftor therapy in children homozygous for F508del-CFTR who initiated treatment at ages 6–11 years was generally safe and well tolerated, and efficacy was sustained for up to 120 weeks in this open-label extension study. These data support the long-term use of lumacaftor/ivacaftor to treat children aged ≥6 years homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation.
Davies J, Goss C, Fajac I, et al., 2021, Efficacy and safety of inhaled ENaC inhibitor BI 1265162 in patients with cystic fibrosis: BALANCE–CF™ 1 – a randomised, Phase II study, European Respiratory Journal, ISSN: 0903-1936
Background: Inhibition of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways provides a mutation-agnostic approach that could improve mucociliary clearance in all CF patients. BI 1265162 is an ENaC inhibitor with demonstrated preclinical efficacy and safety already demonstrated in humans.Objective: We present results from BALANCE-CF™ 1, a Phase II, placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind study of four dose levels of BI 1265162 versus placebo for 4 weeks on top of standard of care in adults and adolescents with CF.Results: Initially, 28 randomised subjects (n=14 each BI 1265162 200 µg BID, placebo BID) were assessed at an interim futility analysis. Compared with placebo, numerical changes of –0.8% (95%CI –6.6, 4.9) in ppFEV1 and +2.1 units (95%CI –2.4, 6.5) in LCI were observed in the active group, meeting a predefined stopping rule; accordingly, the study was terminated. Recruitment had continued during the interim analysis and pending results; 24 patients were added across three dose levels and placebo. The final results including these patients (+1.5% ppFEV1, 200 µg BID dose versus placebo) were not supportive of relevant clinical effect. LCI change was also not supportive, although interpretation was limited due to insufficient traces meeting quality criteria. A 9.4-point improvement in CFQ-R Respiratory Domain was observed in the 200 µg BID dose group versus placebo. BI 1265162 up to 200 µg BID was safe and well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetics were similar to those in healthy volunteers.Conclusion: BI 1265162 was safe, but did not demonstrate a potential for clinical benefit. Development has been terminated.
Shteinberg M, Haq IJ, Polineni D, et al., 2021, Cystic fibrosis, LANCET, Vol: 397, Pages: 2195-2211, ISSN: 0140-6736
Dixon E, Dick K, Ollosson S, et al., 2021, Telemedicine and cystic fibrosis: Do we still need face-to-face clinics?, Paediatr Respir Rev
There has been growing interest in telemedicine for cystic fibrosis over recent years based largely on convenience for patients and/or increasing the frequency of surveillance and early detection which, it is assumed, could improve treatment outcomes. During 2020, the covid-19 pandemic catalysed the pace of development of this field, as CF patients were presumed to be at high risk of infection. Most clinics adapted to digital platforms with provision of lung function monitoring and sample collection systems. Here, we present the views of multidisciplinary team members at a large paediatric CF centre on what has worked well and what requires further optimisation in the future. In response to the question posed, 'Do we still need face to face clinics?' our answer is 'Yes, but not every time, and not for everyone'.
Davies J, Kos R, Brinkman P, et al., 2021, Targeted exhaled breath analysis for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients, Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, ISSN: 1569-1993
BackgroundPseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an important respiratory pathogen for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Routine microbiology surveillance is time-consuming, and is best performed on expectorated sputum. As alternative, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be indicative of PA colonisation. In this study, we aimed to identify VOCs associated with PA in literature and perform targeted exhaled breath analysis to recognize PA positive CF patients non-invasively.MethodsThis study consisted of 1) a literature review to select VOCs of interest, and 2) a cross-sectional CF study. Definitions used: A) PA positive, PA culture at visit/chronically; B) PA free, no PA culture in ≥12 months. Exhaled VOCs were identified via quadrupole MS. The primary endpoint was the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROCC) of individual VOCs as well as combined VOCs against PA culture.Results241 VOCs were identified in literature, of which 56 were further evaluated, and 13 could be detected in exhaled breath in our cohort. Exhaled breath of 25 pediatric and 28 adult CF patients, PA positive (n=16) and free (n=28) was available. 3/13 VOCs were significantly (p<0.05) different between PA groups in children; none were in adults. Notably, a composite model based on 5 or 1 VOC(s) showed an AUROCC of 0.86 (CI 0.71–1.0) and 0.87 (CI 0.72–1.0) for adults and children, respectively.ConclusionsTargeted VOC analysis appears to discriminate children and adults with and without PA positive cultures with clinically acceptable sensitivity values.
Hughes DA, Archangelidi O, Coates M, et al., 2021, Clinical characteristics of Pseudomonas and Aspergillus co-infected cystic fibrosis patients: A UK registry study., J Cyst Fibros
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus species (Asp) are the most common bacterial and fungal organisms respectively in CF airways. Our aim was to examine impacts of Asp infection and Pa/Asp co-infection. METHODS: Patients on the UK CF Registry in 2016 were grouped into: absent (Pa-), intermittent (Pai) or chronic Pa (Pac), each with Asp positive (Asp+) or negative (Asp-). Primary outcome was best percentage predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1) that year. Secondary outcomes were intravenous (IV) antibiotic courses, growth (height, weight, BMI) and additional disease complications. Associations between outcomes and infection-status were assessed using regression models adjusting for significant confounders (age, sex, Phe508del homozygosity and CF-related diabetes (CFRD)). RESULTS: 9,270 patients were included (median age 19 [IQR 9-30] years, 54% male, 50% Phe508del/F508del). 4,142 patients (45%) isolated Pa, 1,460 (16%) Asp. Pa-/Asp+ subjects had an adjusted ppFEV1 that was 5.9% lower than Pa-/Asp- (p < 0.0001). In patients with Pai or Pac, there was no additional impact of Asp on ppFEV1. However, there was a higher probability that Pac/Asp+ patients had required IV antibiotics than Pac/Asp- group (OR 1.23 [1.03-1.48]). Low BMI, ABPA, CF-liver disease and CFRD were all more frequent with Asp alone than Pa-/Asp-, though not more common in Pac/Asp+ than Pac/Asp-. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with Pa and Asp was not associated with reduced lung function compared with Pa alone, but was associated with additional use of IV antibiotics. Asp infection itself is associated with several important indicators of disease severity. Longitudinal analyses should explore the impact of co-infection on disease progression.
Bayfield KJ, Douglas TA, Rosenow T, et al., 2021, Time to get serious about the detection and monitoring of early lung disease in cystic fibrosis., Thorax
Structural and functional defects within the lungs of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are detectable soon after birth and progress throughout preschool years often without overt clinical signs or symptoms. By school age, most children have structural changes such as bronchiectasis or gas trapping/hypoperfusion and lung function abnormalities that persist into later life. Despite improved survival, gains in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) achieved across successive birth cohorts during childhood have plateaued, and rates of FEV1 decline in adolescence and adulthood have not slowed. This suggests that interventions aimed at preventing lung disease should be targeted to mild disease and commence in early life. Spirometry-based classifications of 'normal' (FEV1≥90% predicted) and 'mild lung disease' (FEV1 70%-89% predicted) are inappropriate, given the failure of spirometry to detect significant structural or functional abnormalities shown by more sensitive imaging and lung function techniques. The state and readiness of two imaging (CT and MRI) and two functional (multiple breath washout and oscillometry) tools for the detection and monitoring of early lung disease in children and adults with CF are discussed in this article.Prospective research programmes and technological advances in these techniques mean that well-designed interventional trials in early lung disease, particularly in young children and infants, are possible. Age appropriate, randomised controlled trials are critical to determine the safety, efficacy and best use of new therapies in young children. Regulatory bodies continue to approve medications in young children based on safety data alone and extrapolation of efficacy results from older age groups. Harnessing the complementary information from structural and functional tools, with measures of inflammation and infection, will significantly advance our understanding of early CF lung disease pathophysiology and responses to therapy
MacSweeney R, Reddy K, Davies J, et al., 2021, Trans-epithelial nasal potential difference in patients with, and at risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome, Thorax, ISSN: 0040-6376
Background: Impaired alveolar fluid clearance, determined in part by alveolar sodium transport, is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nasal sodium transport may reflect alveolar transport. The primary objective of this prospective, observational study was to determine if reduced nasal sodium transport, as measured by nasal potential difference (NPD), was predictive of the development of and outcome from ARDS.Methods: NPD was measured in 15 healthy controls and in 88 patients: 40 mechanically ventilated patients defined as ‘at-risk’ for ARDS, 61 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS (13 who were previously included in the ‘at-risk’ group) and 8 ARDS survivors on the ward.Results: In at-risk subjects, maximum NPD (mNPD) was greater in those who developed ARDS (difference –8.4 mV; 95% CI –13.8 to –3.7; p=0.005) and increased mNPD predicted the development of ARDS before its onset (area under the curve (AUC) 0.75; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89). In the ARDS group, mNPD was not significantly different for survivors and non-survivors (p=0.076), and mNPD was a modest predictor of death (AUC 0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.75). mNPD was greater in subjects with ARDS (−30.8 mV) than in at-risk subjects (−24.2 mV) and controls (−19.9 mV) (p<0.001). NPD values were not significantly different for survivors and controls (p=0.18).Conclusions: Increased NPD predicts the development of ARDS in at-risk subjects but does not predict mortality. NPD increases before ARDS develops, is greater during ARDS, but is not significantly different for controls and survivors. These results may reflect the upregulated sodium transport necessary for alveolar fluid clearance in ARDS. NPD may be useful as a biomarker of endogenous mechanisms to stimulate sodium transport. Larger studies are now needed to confirm these associations and predictive performance.
Dobra R, Elborn JS, Madge S, et al., 2021, Guiding the rational design of patient-centred drug trials in Cystic Fibrosis: A Delphi study., J Cyst Fibros
BACKGROUND: Making trials more patient-centred improves recruitment and retention, patient satisfaction and makes research accessible to a more representative population. We aimed to understand the factors that influence participation and engagement in clinical trials in cystic fibrosis (CF) trials to guide the rational design and delivery of patient-centred trials. METHODS: We used a Delphi process, supported by extensive literature review and 3 workshops, to determine which factors stakeholders think exert significant influence in participation and engagement in CF trials. Panellists were recruited from across the UK and the study was administered online. RESULTS: We had representation from 19 CF centres; 28 people with CF (pwCF), 26 parents and 30 healthcare professionals (HCPs). Panels were presented with a shortlist of 104 factors and asked which they thought influence participation and engagement in CF trials. After 3 iterations, 43 statements met consensus for pwCF, 48 for the parents and 69 for the HCPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified many targets to make trials more patient-centred. Whilst some require an overhaul of trial delivery, many are relatively easy to implement. We outline a list of 'dos and don'ts' for sponsors and research teams including: focus on good communication; recognise that lack of time is the greatest barrier to trial participation so minimise the frequency and length of visits; help participants fit trials around busy lives; remember trial participation can be a major life-event and support participants accordingly; and don't underestimate the impact of simple strategies e.g. on-site access to Wifi and cups of tea.
Dobra R, Davies G, Pike K, et al., 2021, Optimising equity of access: how should we allocate slots to the most competitive trials in Cystic Fibrosis (CF)?, Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, ISSN: 1569-1993
Background:Trial participation can allow people with CF early access to CFTR modulator therapies, with high potential for clinical benefit. Therefore, the number of people wishing to participate can substantially exceed the number of slots available. We aimed to understand how the CF community thinks slots to competitive trials should be allocated across the UK and whether this should be driven by clinical need, patients’ engagement/adherence or be random. For the latter, we explored site-level versus registry-based, national randomisation processes.Methods:We developed an online survey, recruiting UK-based stakeholders through social media, newsletters and personal contacts. Closed questions were analysed for frequencies and percentages of responses. Free-text questions were analysed using thematic analysis.Results:We received 203 eligible responses. Overall, 75% of stakeholders favoured allocation of slots to individual sites based on patient population size, although pharma favoured allocation based on previous metrics. Currently, few centres have defined strategies for allocating slots locally. At face-value, stakeholders believe all eligible participants should have an equal chance of getting a slot. However, further questioning reveals preference for prioritisation strategies, primarily perceived treatment adherence, although healthcare professionals were less likely to favour this strategy than other stakeholder groups. The majority of stakeholders would prefer to allocate slots and participate in trials locally but 80% said if necessary, they would engage in a system of national allocation.Conclusions:Fair allocation to highly competitive trials does not appear to have a universally acceptable solution. Therefore, transparency and empathy remain critical to negotiate this uncertain territory.
Hughes DA, Price H, Rosenthal M, et al., 2021, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the cystic fibrosis airway: does it deserve its reputation as a predatory 'Bully'?, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 203, Pages: 1027-1030, ISSN: 1073-449X
Sepahzad A, Morris-Rosendahl D, Davies J, 2021, Cystic fibrosis lung disease modifiers and their relevance in the new era of precision medicine, Genes, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2073-4425
Our understanding of cystic fibrosis (CF) has grown exponentially since the discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in 1989. With evolving genetic and genomic tools, we have come to better understand the role of CFTR genotypes in the pathophysiology of the disease. This, in turn, has paved the way for the development of modulator therapies targeted at mutations in the CFTR, which are arguably one of the greatest advances in the treatment of CF. These modulator therapies, however, do not target all the mutations in CFTR that are seen in patients with CF and, furthermore, a variation in response is seen in patients with the same genotype who are taking modulator therapies. There is growing evidence to support the role of non-CFTR modifiers, both genetic and environmental, in determining the variation seen in CF morbidity and mortality and also in the response to existing therapies. This review focusses on key findings from studies using candidate gene and genome-wide approaches to identify CF modifier genes of lung disease in cystic fibrosis and considers the interaction between modifiers and the response to modulator therapies. As the use of modulator therapies expands and we gain data around outcomes, it will be of great interest to investigate this interaction further. Going forward, it will also be crucial to better understand the relative influence of genomic versus environmental factors. With this understanding, we can truly begin to deliver personalised care by better profiling the likely disease phenotype for each patient and their response to treatment.
Sabnis A, Haggard K, Kloeckner A, et al., 2021, Colistin kills bacteria by targeting lipopolysaccharide in the cytoplasmic membrane, eLife, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-26, ISSN: 2050-084X
Colistin is an antibiotic of last resort, but has poor efficacy and resistance is a growing problem. Whilst it is well established that colistin disrupts the bacterial outer membrane (OM) by selectively targeting lipopolysaccharide (LPS), it was unclear how this led to bacterial killing. We discovered that MCR-1 mediated colistin resistance in Escherichia coli is due to modified LPS at the cytoplasmic rather than OM. In doing so, we also demonstrated that colistin exerts bactericidal activity by targeting LPS in the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). We then exploited this information to devise a new therapeutic approach. Using the LPS transport inhibitor murepavadin, we were able to cause LPS accumulation in the CM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which resulted in increased susceptibility to colistin in vitro and improved treatment efficacy in vivo. These findings reveal new insight into the mechanism by which colistin kills bacteria, providing the foundations for novel approaches to enhance therapeutic outcomes.
Martin I, Kenna D, Morales S, et al., 2021, Variability in bacteriophage and antibiotic sensitivity in serial Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis airway cultures over 12 months, Mircoorganisms, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2076-2607
Antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) in cystic fibrosis is limited in efficacy and may lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR). Alternatives such as bacteriophages are being explored but well designed, and controlled trials are crucial. The rational selection of patients with bacteriophage susceptible infections is required for both safety and efficacy monitoring. We questioned whether bacteriophage susceptibility profiles were constant or variable over time, variability having been reported with antibiotics. Serial Pa isolates (n = 102) from 24 chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over one year were investigated with plaque and antibiotic disc diffusion assays. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis identified those patients with >1 isolate. A median (range) of 4 (3–6) isolates/patient were studied. Twenty-one (87.5%) individuals had a single VNTR type; three (12.5%) had two VNTR types at different times. Seventy-five percent of isolates were sensitive to bacteriophage at ≥ 1 concentration; 50% of isolates were antibiotic multidrug resistant. Serial isolates, even when representing a single VNTR type, varied in sensitivity to both bacteriophages and antibiotics. The rates of sensitivity to bacteriophage supports the development of this therapy; however, the variability in response has implications for the selection of patients in future trials which must be on the basis of current, not past, isolate testing.
Zemanick ET, Taylor-Cousar JL, Davies J, et al., 2021, A Phase 3 open-label study of ELX/TEZ/IVA in children 6 through 11 years of age with CF and at least one F508del allele., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 203, Pages: 1522-1532, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ELX/TEZ/IVA) was shown to be efficacious and safe in patients aged 12 years and older with cystic fibrosis and at least one F508del-CFTR allele, but has not been evaluated in children <12 years of age. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ELX/TEZ/IVA in children 6 through 11 years of age with F508del-minimal function or F508del-F508del genotypes. METHODS: In this 24-week open-label Phase 3 study, children (N=66) weighing <30 kg received 50% of the ELX/TEZ/IVA adult daily dose (ELX 100 mg once daily, TEZ 50 mg once daily, and IVA 75 mg every 12 hours) while children weighing ≥30 kg received the full adult daily dose (ELX 200 mg once daily, TEZ 100 mg once daily, and IVA 150 mg every 12 hours). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability. The safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of ELX/TEZ/IVA were generally consistent with those observed in older patients. The most common reported adverse events (AEs) included cough, headache, and pyrexia; in most of the children who had AEs, these were mild or moderate in severity. Through Week 24, ELX/TEZ/IVA treatment improved the ppFEV1 (10.2 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.9 to 12.6), Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (7.0 points; 95% CI, 4.7 to 9.2), lung clearance index2.5 (-1.71 units; 95% CI, -2.11 to -1.30), and sweat chloride (-60.9 mmol/L; 95% CI, -63.7 to -58.2); body mass index-for-age z-score increased over the 24-week treatment period compared to the pre-treatment baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show ELX/TEZ/IVA is safe and efficacious in children 6 through 11 years of age with at least one F508del-CFTR allele, supporting its use in this patient population. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT03691779 This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No D
Davies J, Dobra R, Boeri M, et al., 2021, Protocol: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify the influence of trial features on the decision to participate in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) clinical trials, British medical journal, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0007-1447
Introduction Engaging people with cystic fibrosis (CF) in clinical trials is critical to improving outcomes for this fatal disease. Following extensive exploration of engagement in CF trials we believe six key concepts require a quantitative understanding of their influence in the current CF trials landscape including how controversial issues like placebos, washouts, stipend provision and location of trial visits are viewed by the CF community and how these might be modified depending on the type of medicine being investigated and the mechanism of access to the drug on trial completion.Methods and analysis We have designed and will administer an online discrete choice experiment to elicit and quantify preferences of people with CF for these trials’ attributes and estimate the relative importance of an attribute when choosing to participate in a trial. The cross-sectional data generated will be explored using conditional multinomial logit model. Mixed logit models such as the random-parameters logit and a latent class models will be used to explore preference heterogeneity. To determine the relative importance of an attribute, the difference between the attribute level with the highest preference weight and the level with the lowest preference weight will be calculated.Ethics and dissemination Imperial College London Joint Research Compliance Office has granted ethical approval for this study. Patient consent will be sought following full explanation. No identifying information will be collected. Dissemination will be via international conferences, peer-review publication and patient accessible forums. Major CF trials networks have agreed to incorporate our findings into their review process, meaning our results can realistically influence and optimise CF trial delivery.PROSPERO registration number CRD42020184886.
Davies JC, Wainwright CE, Sawicki GS, et al., 2021, Ivacaftor in Infants Aged 4 to < 12 Months with Cystic Fibrosis and a Gating Mutation Results of a Two-Part Phase 3 Clinical Trial, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 203, Pages: 585-593, ISSN: 1073-449X
Davies J, Dobra R, Huband K, et al., 2021, Strengthening clinical trial pharmacovigilance: simple interventions improve communication over serious adverse events, Journal of Clinical Trials
Dave K, Dobra R, Scott S, et al., 2021, Entering the era of highly effective modulator therapies, PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Vol: 56, Pages: S79-S89, ISSN: 8755-6863
Coates M, Alton E, Rapeport W, et al., 2021, Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces p38MAP kinase-dependent IL-6 and CXCL8 release from bronchial epithelial cells via a Syk kinase pathway, PLoS One, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection is a major cause of airway inflammation in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) and tyrosine kinases are integral to inflammatory responses and are therefore potential targets for novel anti-inflammatory therapies. We have determined the involvement of specific kinases in Pa-induced inflammation. The effects of kinase inhibitors against p38MAPK, MEK 1/2, JNK 1/2, Syk or c-Src, a combination of a p38MAPK with Syk inhibitor, or a novel narrow spectrum kinase inhibitor (NSKI), were evaluated against the release of the proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine, IL-6 and CXCL8 from BEAS-2B and CFBE41o- epithelial cells by Pa. Effects of a Syk inhibitor against phosphorylation of the MAPKs were also evaluated. IL-6 and CXCL8 release by Pa were significantly inhibited by p38MAPK and Syk inhibitors (p<0.05). Phosphorylation of HSP27, but not ERK or JNK, was significantly inhibited by Syk kinase inhibition. A combination of p38MAPK and Syk inhibitors showed synergy against IL-6 and CXCL8 induction and an NSKI completely inhibited IL-6 and CXCL8 at low concentrations. Pa-induced inflammation is dependent on p38MAPK primarily, and Syk partially, which is upstream of p38MAPK. The NSKI suggests that inhibiting specific combinations of kinases is a potent potential therapy for Pa-induced inflammation.
Davies JC, Sermet-Gaudelus I, Naehrlich L, et al., 2021, A phase 3, double-blind, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tezacaftor in combination with ivacaftor in participants 6 through 11 years of age with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del or heterozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation and a residual function mutation, JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS, Vol: 20, Pages: 68-77, ISSN: 1569-1993
Farrant KV, Spiga L, Davies JC, et al., 2021, Response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the innate immune system-derived oxidants hypochlorous acid and hypothiocyanous acid, Journal of Bacteriology, Vol: 203, ISSN: 0021-9193
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant nosocomial pathogen and associated with lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). Once established, P. aeruginosa infections persist and are rarely eradicated despite host immune cells producing antimicrobial oxidants, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN). There is limited knowledge as to how P. aeruginosa senses, responds to, and protects itself against HOCl and HOSCN, and the contribution of such responses to its success as a CF pathogen. To investigate the P. aeruginosa response to these oxidants we screened 707 transposon mutants, with mutations in regulatory genes, for altered growth following HOCl exposure. We identified regulators of antibiotic resistance, methionine biosynthesis and catabolite repression, and PA14_07340, the homologue of the Escherichia coli HOCl-sensor RclR (30% identical), that are required for protection against HOCl. We have shown that RclR (PA14_07340) protects specifically against HOCl and HOSCN stress, and responds to both oxidants by upregulating expression of a putative peroxiredoxin, rclX (PA14_07355). Transcriptional analysis revealed that while there was specificity in the response to HOCl (231 genes upregulated) and HOSCN (105 genes upregulated) there was considerable overlap, with 74 genes upregulated by both oxidants. These included genes encoding the type III secretion system, sulphur and taurine transport, and the MexEF-OprN efflux pump. RclR coordinates part of the response to both oxidants, including upregulation of pyocyanin biosynthesis genes, and in the presence of HOSCN, downregulation of chaperone genes. These data indicate that the P. aeruginosa response to HOCl and HOSCN is multifaceted, with RclR playing an essential role.
Barben J, Castellani C, Munck A, et al., 2020, Updated guidance on the management of children with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-related metabolic syndrome/cystic fibrosis screen positive, inconclusive diagnosis (CRMS/CFSPID)., J Cyst Fibros
Over the past two decades there has been considerable progress with the evaluation and management of infants with an inconclusive diagnosis following Newborn Screening (NBS) for cystic Fibrosis (CF). In addition, we have an increasing amount of evidence on which to base guidance on the management of these infants and, importantly, we have a consistent designation being used across the globe of CRMS/CFSPID. There is still work to be undertaken and research questions to answer, but these infants now receive more consistent and appropriate care pathways than previously. It is clear that the majority of these infants remain healthy, do not convert to a diagnosis of CF in childhood, and advice on management should reflect this. However, it is also clear that some will convert to a CF diagnosis and monitoring of these infants should facilitate their early recognition. Those infants that do not convert to a CF diagnosis have some potential of developing a CFTR-RD later in life. At present, it is not possible to quantify this risk, but families need to be provided with clear information of what to look out for. This paper contains a number of changes from previous guidance in light of developing evidence, but the major change is the recommendation of a detailed assessment of the child with CRMS/CFSPID in the sixth year of age, including respiratory function assessment and imaging. With these data, the CF team can discuss future care arrangements with the family and come to a shared decision on the best way forward, which may include discharge to primary care with appropriate information. Information is key for these families, and we recommend consideration of a further appointment when the individual is a young adult to directly communicate the implications of the CRMS/CFSPID designation.
Short C, Saunders C, Davies JC, 2020, Utility of lung clearance index in CF: What we know, what we don't know and musings on how to bridge the gap, JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS, Vol: 19, Pages: 852-855, ISSN: 1569-1993
Nissenbaum C, Davies G, Horsley A, et al., 2020, Monitoring early stage lung disease in cystic fibrosis., Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, Vol: 26, Pages: 671-678, ISSN: 1070-5287
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early stage lung disease has long been synonymous with infancy and childhood. As diagnosis happens earlier and conventional management improves, we are seeing larger proportions of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) in adolescence and even adulthood with well preserved lung health. The availability of highly effective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulator drugs for a large proportion of the CF population will impact even further. Transitioning into adult care with 'normal' lung function will become more common. However, it is crucial that we are not blasé about this phase, which sets the scene for future lung health. It is well recognized that lung function assessed by spirometry is insensitive to 'early' changes occurring in the distal, small airways. Much of our learning has come from studies in infants and young children, which have allowed assessment and optimization of alternative forms of monitoring. RECENT FINDINGS: Here, as a group of paediatric and adult CF specialists, we review the evidence base for sensitive physiological testing based on multibreath washout, lung imaging, exercise and activity monitoring, assessment of infection and quality of life measures. SUMMARY: We seek to emphasise the importance of further work in these areas, as outcome measures become widely applicable to a growing CF population.
Kerem E, Cohen-Cymberknoh M, Tsabari R, et al., 2020, Ivacaftor in people with cystic fibrosis and a 3849+10kb C →T or D1152H residual function mutation., Annals of the American Thoracic Society, Vol: 18, Pages: 433-441, ISSN: 1546-3222
Rationale: Ivacaftor's clinical effects in the residual function mutations 3849+10kb C →T and D1152H warrant further characterization. Objectives: Evaluate ivacaftor's effect in people with cystic fibrosis aged ≥6 years with 3849+10kb C→T or D1152H residual function mutations; explore the correlation between ivacaftor-induced organoid-based cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function measurements and clinical response to ivacaftor. Methods: Participants were randomized (1:1) in this placebo-controlled crossover study; each treatment sequence included two 8-week treatments with an 8-week washout period. The primary endpoint was absolute change in lung clearance index2.5 from baseline through Week 8. Additional endpoints included lung function, patient-reported outcomes, and in vitro intestinal organoid-based measurements of ivacaftor-induced cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function. Results: Of 38 participants, 37 completed the study. The primary endpoint was met; the Bayesian posterior probability of improvement in lung clearance index2.5 with ivacaftor vs placebo was >99%. Additional endpoints improved with ivacaftor. Safety findings were consistent with ivacaftor's known safety profile. Dose-dependent swelling was observed in 23/25 viable organoid cultures with ivacaftor treatment. Correlations between ivacaftor-induced organoid swelling and clinical endpoints were negligible to low. Conclusions: In people with cystic fibrosis aged ≥6 years with a 3849+10kb C →T or D1152H mutation, ivacaftor treatment improved clinical endpoints vs placebo; however, there was no correlation between organoid swelling and change in clinical endpoints. The organoid assay may assist in identification of ivacaftor-responsive mutations but in this study did not predict magnitude of clinical benefit for individual people with cystic fibrosis with these two mutations. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT0306831
O'Neill K, Ferguson K, Cosgrove D, et al., 2020, Multiple Breath Washout (MBW) in bronchiectasis clinical trials – Is it feasible?, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0903-1936
Background: Evaluation of Multiple Breath Washout (MBW) set-up including staff training, certification and central “over-reading” for data quality control is essential to determine the feasibility of MBW in future bronchiectasis studies. Aims: To assess the outcomes of a MBW training, certification and central over-reading programme. Methods: MBW training and certification was conducted in European sites collecting LCI data in the BronchUK clinimetrics and/or i-BEST-1 studies. The blended training programme included the use of an eLearning tool and a 1-day face-to-face session. Sites submitted MBW data to trained central over-readers who determined validity and quality. Results: Thirteen training days were delivered to 56 participants from 22 sites. 18/22 (82%) were MBW naïve. Participant knowledge and confidence increased significantly (p<0.001). By the end of the study recruitment, 15/22 sites (68%) had completed certification with a mean (range) time since training of 6.2 (3-14) months. In the BronchUK clinimetrics study, 468/589 (79%) tests met45 the quality criteria following central over-reading, compared with 137/236 (58%) tests in the i-BEST-1 study. Conclusions: LCI is feasible in a bronchiectasis multicentre clinical trial setting however, consideration of site experience in terms of training as well as assessment of skill drift and the need for re-training may be important to reduce time to certification and optimise data quality. Longer times to certification, a higher percentage of naive sites and patients with worse lung function may have contributed to the lower success rate in the i-BEST-1 study.
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