Imperial College London

Dr Jonathan M Clarke

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Mathematics

Sir Henry Wellcome Postdoctoral Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

j.clarke Website

 
 
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Location

 

St Marys Multiple BuildingsSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

77 results found

Beatty JW, Clarke JM, Sounderajah V, Acharya A, Rabinowicz S, Martin G, Warren LR, Yalamanchili S, Scott AJ, Burgnon E, Purkayastha S, Markar S, Kinross JM, PANSURG-PREDICT Collaborativeet al., 2021, Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency adult surgical patients and surgical services: an international multi-center cohort study and department survey., Annals of Surgery, ISSN: 0003-4932

OBJECTIVES: The PREDICT study aimed to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected surgical services and surgical patients and to identify predictors of outcomes in this cohort. BACKGROUND: High mortality rates were reported for surgical patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic. However, the indirect impact of the pandemic on this cohort is not understood, and risk predictors are yet to be identified. METHODS: PREDICT is an international longitudinal cohort study comprising surgical patients presenting to hospital between March and August 2020, conducted alongside a survey of staff redeployment and departmental restructuring. A subgroup analysis of 3176 adult emergency patients, recruited by 55 teams across 18 countries is presented. RESULTS: Among adult emergency surgical patients, all-cause in-hospital mortality (IHM) was 3 6%, compared to 15 5% for those with COVID-19. However, only 14 1% received a COVID-19 test on admission in March, increasing to 76 5% by July.Higher Clinical Frailty Scale scores (CFS >7 aOR 18 87), ASA grade above 2 (aOR 4 29), and COVID-19 infection (aOR 5 12) were independently associated with significantly increased IHM.The peak months of the first wave were independently associated with significantly higher IHM (March aOR 4 34; April aOR 4 25; May aOR 3 97), compared to non-peak months.During the study, UK operating theatre capacity decreased by a mean of 63 6% with a concomitant 27 3% reduction in surgical staffing. CONCLUSION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted surgical patients, both directly through co-morbid infection and indirectly as shown by increasing mortality in peak months, irrespective of COVID-19 status.Higher CFS scores and ASA grades strongly predict outcomes in surgical patients and are an important risk assessment tool during the pandemic.

Journal article

Clarke J, Flott K, Crespo R, Ashrafian H, Fontana G, Benger J, Darzi A, Elkin Set al., 2021, Assessing the Safety of Home Oximetry for Covid-19: A multi-site retrospective observational study, BMJ Open, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives To determine the safety and effectiveness of home oximetry monitoring pathways safe for Covid-19 patients in the English NHS.Design Retrospective, multi-site, observational study of home oximetry monitoring for patients with suspected or proven Covid-19 Setting This study analysed patient data from four Covid-19 home oximetry pilot sites in England across primary and secondary care settings.Participants A total of 1338 participants were enrolled in a home oximetry programme across four pilot sites. Participants were excluded if primary care data and oxygen saturations are rest at enrolment were not available. Data from 908 participants was included in the analysis. Interventions Home oximetry monitoring was provided to participants with a known or suspected diagnosis of Covid-19. Participants were enrolled following attendance to emergency departments, hospital admission or referral through primary care services. Results Of 908 patients enrolled into four different Covid-19 home oximetry programmes in England, 771 (84.9%) had oxygen saturations at rest of 95% or more, and 320 (35.2%) were under 65 years of age and without comorbidities. 52 (5.7%) presented to hospital and 28 (3.1%) died following enrolment, of which 14 (50%) had Covid-19 as a named cause of death. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients enrolled after admission to hospital (OR 8.70 [2.53-29.89]), compared to those enrolled in primary care. Patients enrolled after hospital discharge (OR 0.31 [0.15-0.68]) or emergency department presentation (OR 0.42 [0.20-0.89]) were significantly less likely to present to hospital than those enrolled in primary care. ConclusionsThis study find that home oximetry monitoring can be a safe pathway for Covid-19 patients; and indicates increases in risk to vulnerable groups and patients with oxygen saturations < 95% at enrolment, and in those enrolled on discharge from hospital. Findings from this evaluation have contributed to the national

Journal article

Golestaneh AK, Clarke JM, Appelbaum N, Gonzalvez CR, Jose AP, Philip R, Poulter NR, Beaney Tet al., 2021, The factors influencing clinician use of hypertension guidelines in different resource settings: a qualitative study investigating clinicians' perspectives and experiences, BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Vol: 21

Journal article

Van Den Heede K, Chidambaram S, Winter Beatty J, Chander N, Markar S, Tolley NS, Palazzo FF, Kinross JK, Di Marco AN, PanSurg Collaborative and the PREDICT-Endocrine Collaborativeet al., 2021, The PanSurg-PREDICT Study: endocrine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, World Journal of Surgery, Vol: 45, Pages: 2315-2324, ISSN: 0364-2313

BACKGROUND: In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients have continued to present with endocrine (surgical) pathology in an environment depleted of resources. This study investigated how the pandemic affected endocrine surgery practice. METHODS: PanSurg-PREDICT is an international, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of emergency and elective surgical patients in secondary/tertiary care during the pandemic. PREDICT-Endocrine collected endocrine-specific data alongside demographics, COVID-19 and outcome data from 11-3-2020 to 13-9-2020. RESULTS: A total of 380 endocrine surgery patients (19 centres, 12 countries) were analysed (224 thyroidectomies, 116 parathyroidectomies, 40 adrenalectomies). Ninety-seven percent were elective, and 63% needed surgery within 4 weeks. Eight percent were initially deferred but had surgery during the pandemic; less than 1% percent was deferred for more than 6 months. Decision-making was affected by capacity, COVID-19 status or the pandemic in 17%, 5% and 7% of cases. Indication was cancer/worrying lesion in 61% of thyroidectomies and 73% of adrenalectomies and calcium 2.80 mmol/l or greater in 50% of parathyroidectomies. COVID-19 status was unknown at presentation in 92% and remained unknown before surgery in 30%. Two-thirds were asked to self-isolate before surgery. There was one COVID-19-related ICU admission and no mortalities. Consultant-delivered care occurred in a majority (anaesthetist 96%, primary surgeon 76%). Post-operative vocal cord check was reported in only 14% of neck endocrine operations. Both of these observations are likely to reflect modification of practice due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected endocrine surgical decision-making, case mix and personnel delivering care. Significant variation was seen in COVID-19 risk mitigation measures. COVID-19-related complications were uncommon. This analysis demonstrates the safety of endocrine surgery during this

Journal article

Li E, Clarke J, Neves AL, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2021, Electronic health records, interoperability, and patient safety in health systems of high-income countries: a systematic review protocol, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction The availability and routine use of electronic health records (EHRs) have become commonplace in healthcare systems of many high-income countries. While there is an ever-growing body ofliterature pertaining to EHR use, evidence surrounding the importance of EHR interoperability and its impact on patient safety remains less clear. There is therefore a need and opportunity to evaluate the evidence available regarding this relationship so as to better inform health informatics development and policies in the years to come. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of EHR interoperability on patient safety in health systems of high-income countries. Methods and analysis A systematic literature review will be conducted via a computerised search through four databases: PubMed, Embase, HMIC, and PsycInfo for relevant articles published between 2010 and 2020. Outcomes of interest will include: impact on patient safety, and the broader effects on health systems. Quality of the randomised quantitative studies will be assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Non-randomised papers will be evaluated with the Risk of Bias In Non Randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Drummond’s Checklist will be utilised for publications pertaining to economic evaluation. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) quality appraisal checklist will be used to assess qualitative studies. A narrative synthesis will be conducted for included studies, and the body of evidence will be summarised in a summary of findings table. Ethics and dissemination This review will summarise published studies with non-identifiable data and thus does not require ethical approval. Findings will be disseminated through preprints, open access peer reviewed publication, and conference presentations

Journal article

Chan C, Sounderajah V, Daniels E, Acharya A, Clarke J, Yalamanchili S, Normahani P, Markar S, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2021, The reliability and quality of YouTube videos as a source of public health information regarding COVID-19 vaccination: cross-sectional study, JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2369-2960

Background: Recent emergency authorization and rollout of COVID-19 vaccines by regulatory bodies has generated global attention. As the most popular video-sharing platform globally, YouTube is a potent medium for the dissemination of key public health information. Understanding the nature of available content regarding COVID-19 vaccination on this widely used platform is of substantial public health interest.Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and quality of information on COVID-19 vaccination in YouTube videos.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the phrases “coronavirus vaccine” and “COVID-19 vaccine” were searched on the UK version of YouTube on December 10, 2020. The 200 most viewed videos of each search were extracted and screened for relevance and English language. Video content and characteristics were extracted and independently rated against Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct and DISCERN quality criteria for consumer health information by 2 authors.Results: Forty-eight videos, with a combined total view count of 30,100,561, were included in the analysis. Topics addressed comprised the following: vaccine science (n=18, 58%), vaccine trials (n=28, 58%), side effects (n=23, 48%), efficacy (n=17, 35%), and manufacturing (n=8, 17%). Ten (21%) videos encouraged continued public health measures. Only 2 (4.2%) videos made nonfactual claims. The content of 47 (98%) videos was scored to have low (n=27, 56%) or moderate (n=20, 42%) adherence to Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct principles. Median overall DISCERN score per channel type ranged from 40.3 (IQR 34.8-47.0) to 64.3 (IQR 58.5-66.3). Educational channels produced by both medical and nonmedical professionals achieved significantly higher DISCERN scores than those of other categories. The highest median DISCERN scores were achieved by educational videos produced by medical professionals (64.3, IQR 58.5-66.3) and the lowest median scores by indep

Journal article

Iqbal F, Lam K, Sounderajah V, Clarke J, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2021, Characteristics and predictors of acute and chronic post-COVID syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis, EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 36, ISSN: 2589-5370

Background: A significant proportion of individuals experience lingering and debilitating symptoms following acute COVID-19 infection. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) have coined the persistent cluster of symptoms as post-COVID syndrome. This has been further sub-categorised into acute post-COVID syndrome for symptoms persisting three weeks beyond initial infection and chronic post-COVID syndrome for symptoms persisting beyond twelve weeks. The aim of this review was to detail the prevalence of clinical features and identify potential predictors for acute and chronic post-COVID syndrome. Methods: A systematic literature search, with no language restrictions, was performed to identify studies detailing characteristics and outcomes related to survivorship of post-COVID syndrome. The last search was performed on 6 March 2021 and all pre-dating published articles included. A means of proportion meta-analysis was performed to quantify characteristics of acute and chronic post-COVID syndrome. Study quality was assessed with a specific risk of bias tool. PROSPERO Registration: CRD42020222855Findings: A total of 43 studies met the eligibility criteria; of which, 38 allowed for meta-analysis. Fatigue and dyspnoea were the most prevalent symptoms in acute post-COVID (0·37 and 0·35) and fatigue and sleep disturbance in chronic post-COVID syndrome (0·48 and 0·44) post-COVID syndrome, respectively. The available evidence is generally of poor quality, with considerable risk of bias, and are of observational design. Interpretation: In conclusion, this review highlights that flaws in data capture and interpretation, noted in the uncertainty within our meta-analysis, affect the applicability of current knowledge. Policy makers and researchers must focus on understanding the impact of this condition on individuals and society with appropriate funding initiatives and global collaborative research.

Journal article

Van den Heede K, Chidambaram S, Beatty JW, Chander N, Markar S, Tolley NS, Palazzo FF, Kinross JK, Di Marco ANet al., 2021, The PanSurg-PREDICT study: endocrine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic (Apr, 10.1007/s00268-021-06099-z, 2021), World Journal of Surgery, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0364-2313

Journal article

Twumasi-Ankrah B, Poulter NR, Tannor EK, Adu-Boakye Y, Nyarko OO, Opoku G, Konadu SO, Aniagyei M, Ogah A, Baidoo TE, Mensah C, Clarke J, Beaney T, Myers-Hansen GAet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Ghana-Sub-Saharan Africa, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B62-B65, ISSN: 1520-765X

Raised blood pressure (BP) remains the biggest single risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease and to global mortality. Although a substantial number of people who have hypertension are either oblivious of it, not treated, or being managed but remain uncontrolled. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative led by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) with the goal of increasing awareness of high BP and serving as a spur to establish screening programmes worldwide. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. Measurement of BP and collection of relevant health information were performed according to a standardized protocol for MMM. Screening sites were set up in churches, mosques, health facilities, pharmacies, recreational parks, sports facilities, shopping centres, marketplaces, universities, workplaces, and community centres across four regions of Ghana. A total of 7102 participants gave their consent and were screened during MMM 2019. After multiple imputation, of all 7102 participants 1836 (25.9%) had hypertension. Of all 1836 participants with hypertension, 36.5% were aware of their status and 30.0% were on anti-hypertensive medication. Of 550 participants on antihypertensive medications, 46.1% had controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Also, of all 1836 participants with hypertension, 13.8% had their BP controlled. Again, the proportion of participants with hypertension of those not receiving anti-hypertensive treatment was 1286 (19.6%). Data obtained from this project demonstrates that there is still a significant number of people with hypertension who are unaware of having it, are untreated, or are on treatment but remain uncontrolled. It also highlights the significance of BP screening campaigns as a tool to identify persons with elevated BP.

Journal article

Peñaherrera E, Ramírez M, Peñaherrera R, Duarte YC, Cáceres S, Avila E, Jarrin E, Ullauri V, Aucancela H, Bayas M, Oña F, Arteaga F, Ruales J, Liendo K, Avila JB, Hidalgo E, Clarke J, Poulter NR, Beaney Tet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Ecuador, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B55-B58, ISSN: 1520-765X

Arterial hypertension is a growing burden worldwide, leading to over 10.8 million deaths each year. In Ecuador, it is the main risk factor for the major cause of death, coronary, and cerebrovascular disease [GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018;392:1923-1994]. The May Measurement Month Campaign in 2019 (MMM19) is a global initiative of the International Society of Hypertension aimed at raising awareness of high blood pressure (BP) and to act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programs worldwide. A volunteer cross-sectional survey was carried out in May 2019 across 42 health centres in Ecuador. The average age was 51 (SD ±17.6) years. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension (mean of the second and third BP measurement ≥140/90 mmHg or who were medicated for high BP), and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. In total, 15 885 volunteers participated in MMM19. After multiple imputation, 6654 (41.9%) had hypertension. Of individuals not receiving antihypertensive medication, 2383 (20.5%) were hypertensive. Of individuals receiving antihypertensive medication, 1004 (23.5%) had uncontrolled BP. May Measurement Month 2019 was the largest BP screening campaign done in Ecuador. In the survey, including 6654 participants with hypertension, only 49.1% had their BP values controlled (<140/90 mmHg). May Measurement Month 2019 demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertension among volunteer screenees in our country. The high percentage of persons untreated or with uncontrolled hypertension while on pharmacologic treatment suggest that appropriate screening can help to identify a significant number of people with high BP. These data shou

Journal article

Nemcsik J, Páll D, Nemes-Nagy Z, Bacskai M, Kovács T, Benczúr B, Kiss A, Ábrahám G, Barna I, Beaney T, Clarke J, Poulter NR, Járai Zet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Hungary, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B70-B72, ISSN: 1520-765X

Cardiovascular diseases are not only the leading causes of mortality in Hungary but also the mortality rate is twice as high as the European Union average, so screening programmes identifying subjects with elevated blood pressure (BP) are of utmost importance. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global initiative that began in 2017 aimed at raising awareness of high BP. Hungary joined the 3rd campaign of MMM in 2019 and an overview of the results are presented in this paper. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of participants aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2019. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or treatment for hypertension, statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. In Hungary, 55 sites were set up in primary and secondary care facilities, in pharmacies, and in malls across all regions, in both cities and villages. Out of 2766 individuals screened, 1286 participants (46.5%) had hypertension. Out of 1869 participants not on antihypertensive medication, 389 (20.8%) had elevated BP. In the case of treated individuals (n = 897), 420 (46.8%) had uncontrolled hypertension. Almost every 2nd subject of the screened cohort had hypertension (treated and controlled, treated and uncontrolled, or untreated). In the untreated cohort, every 5th subject had elevated BP, whilst among patients on antihypertensive medication, every second had uncontrolled BP. By identifying almost one-third of the whole screened cohort with the possibility of newly diagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension, our results confirm the importance of BP screening campaigns.

Journal article

Ellenga-Mbolla B, Makani-Bassakouahou J, Landa CK, Monabeka M-G, Ossou-Nguiet P-M, Ngamami SM, Sinomono TE, Bouithy S, Ikama S-M, Ngouma A, Monabeka HG, Ngolo-Letomo K, Beaney T, Clarke J, Poulter NRet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Republic of the Congo, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B49-B51, ISSN: 1520-765X

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>The aim of this study was to determine the proportion with hypertension among an opportunistic sample of the population of the Republic of the Congo. Screening was conducted during the period from 15 May to 15 June 2019. Participants included, consenting persons 18 years of age and over, from five cities: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, Oyo, Owando, and Ouesso. In total, 3157 participants were screened as part of the campaign. The mean age was 44.7 years (SD: ±14.9), and 47% were male. Based on the total participants, 881 (27.9%) were overweight and 447 (14.2%) were obese. A total of 583 (18.5%) participated in MMM 2017 or 2018 screenings. The proportion with hypertension was 33.5% (n = 1057), 42.6% of those were aware and 37.3% were taking antihypertensive medication. Of the participants on treatment, 62.4% were controlled (&amp;lt;140/90 mmHg). Overall, 23.3% of patients with hypertension were controlled. After imputation, the proportions with hypertension were 30.1% (n = 1475) according to standardized age and sex. Obesity (P &amp;lt; 0.001) and alcohol intake (P &amp;lt; 0.001) were associated with higher BP compared with normal weight and non-drinkers, respectively. With regards to the social disparities of the different regions of Congo, large scale screening is necessary, in order to report the real situation of hypertension. This will improve the overall management policy for this condition in our country.</jats:p>

Journal article

Zelveian P, Hayrumyan S, Gourgenyan S, Hakobyan Z, Kzhdryan H, Avagyan A, Minasyan A, Gharibyan H, Ustyan T, Aroyan S, Vatinyan S, Beaney T, Clarke J, Poulter NRet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Armenia, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B15-B17, ISSN: 1520-765X

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>Elevated blood pressure (BP) is an enormous public health problem and a growing burden worldwide and the biggest single risk factor for cardiovascular death. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative aimed to raise awareness of high BP and to act as a temporary solution to the lack of screening programmes worldwide. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May to July 2019. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard MMM protocol. The study was conducted in public areas (23 sites in the capital city Yerevan and 13 in other regions), both indoor and outdoor, as well as in primary and secondary healthcare centres. In total, 9818 individuals (11.3% participated in either MMM2017/2018 or both) were screened of which 9786 had three BP measurements available, 1.6% of them reported never having had their BP measured. The mean age of screened participants was 47.6 (SD ± 16.5) years, 61.9% were female. After multiple imputation, 41.6% of participants had hypertension and 72.8% of them were aware of their high BP, 65.4% were on treatment, and of those treated, 46.5% had controlled BP (&amp;lt;140/90 mmHg). Of 4088 participants with hypertension, 30.4% had controlled BP. Of all risk factors analysed, reported use of anti-hypertensive medication and a previous diagnosis of hypertension were the strongest predictors of higher levels of BP. We found that the prevalence of hypertension, untreated and treated, but uncontrolled hypertension is still substantial in Armenia, which maybe a vital contributor to the growing burden of non-communicable diseases.</jats:p>

Journal article

Dzudie A, Njume E, Mfekeu LK, Djomou A, Ba H, Ndom MS, Nkoke C, Ndongo S, Boombhi J, Kamdem F, Mouandjo JPD, Mouliom SA, Kouam CK, Meli H, Monkam Y, Awungia A, Serah A, Tantchou C, Ndjebet J, Menanga A, Beaney T, Clarke J, Poulter NR, Kengne AP, Kingue S, Cameroon Cardiac Society and MMM Cameroon investigator groupet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Cameroon, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B33-B36, ISSN: 1520-765X

The multi-country May Measurement Month (MMM) screening campaign aims to raise awareness on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in individuals and communities, and measure BP, ideally, of those who had no BP measurement in the preceding year. We here report key findings from the Cameroon arm of MMM 2019. An opportunistic sample of adults (≥18 years) was included from 5 May to 5 June 2019 across 15 sites (markets, churches, homes, motor parks, workplaces, and hospitals/clinics). Data collection, cleaning, the definition of hypertension, and statistical analysis followed the standard protocol. The mean age of the 30 187 participants screened was 36.9 (SD: 14.9) years, 50.4% were female (5% of whom were pregnant), and 94.4% were screened out of the hospital/clinic settings. After multiple imputation of missing data, 6286 (20.8%) had hypertension, 24.0% were taking antihypertensive medication, and 705 (11.2%) of all participants with hypertension had controlled BP. In linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and antihypertensive medicines use, a previous diagnosis of hypertension, a history of stroke, and use of antihypertensive medicines were significant predictors of systolic and diastolic BP levels. BPs were also significantly higher when measured in public outdoors, public indoors (diastolic BP only), workplaces, and other unspecified areas compared to hospitals/clinic settings. MMM19 is the largest ever BP screening campaign in a single month, in Cameroon and despite the limitations resulting from non-random sample selection, the opportunistic screening allows access to awareness and screening for hypertension out of the hospital/clinic settings.

Journal article

Hernández-Hernández R, Poulter NR, Gúzman-Franolic ML, Rawik Y, Octavio-Seijas JA, López-Rivera JA, Beaney T, Morr I, Silva E, Costantini-Olmos AP, Marval J, Ruíz-Lugo JF, Duín A, Clarke J, Armas-Hernández MJet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Venezuela, Latin America, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B151-B153, ISSN: 1520-765X

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in Venezuela. Raised blood pressure (BP) accompanied by diabetes mellitus, obesity, lipid abnormalities, and tobacco usage are the biggest contributors to mortality. The May Measurement Month (MMM) campaign is a global initiative aimed to raising awareness of hypertension, which has been conducted in Venezuela since 2017. MMM2019 included 24 672 subjects (mean age: 54.7 years, SD 25.2, 63.1% female). The proportion with hypertension was 48.9%; 14.3% were unknown hypertensives, 35.5% of those who receiving treatment had uncontrolled hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg); when considering all hypertensives, 53.3% were controlled. Sixty per cent of those on anti-hypertensive medication were on monotherapy, 27.7% were on two, and 7.7% were on three or more drugs. Body mass index, calculated for the total population, was on average 25.6 (SD: 4.8) kg/m2. 16.2% of participants were classified as obese, 34.0% as overweight, and 4.0% were classified as underweight. Diabetes mellitus was reported by 9.4%, smoking by 7.3%, and 10.5% reported drinking alcohol regularly. Conditions associated with higher BP levels were obesity, diabetes mellitus, and women with a history of hypertension during a previous pregnancy. These results are consistent with the two previous MMM campaigns and indicate that repeated screening can routinely identify hypertension. There is an urgent need for Venezuela to implement programmes of detection, treatment, and control not only for hypertension but also for other common cardiovascular risk factors.</jats:p>

Journal article

Memon F, Beaney T, Clarke J, Ishaq M, Bai Ket al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Pakistan-South Asia, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B117-B119, ISSN: 1520-765X

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>High blood pressure (BP) is well recognized as a huge health problem worldwide and is often described as a silent killer. To develop awareness and screening of this health issue globally, the International Society of Hypertension created ‘May Measurement Month (MMM)’ a campaign to provide BP screening and advice to interested participants. This screening and awareness campaign in Pakistan is a continuation of the efforts of the first MMM programme in Pakistan in 2017. This study was conducted in May and June 2019. This public based cross-sectional study included and screened 6919 individuals of either gender and aged ≥18 years, after informed consent. Information about prior diagnosis and treatment of hypertension with history about comorbidities and life-style were taken by a standard pre-designed form. Participants also asked about previous participation in MMM 2017/18. Arterial BP was measured using the OMRON digital BP apparatus and three successive readings were taken. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensives. Participants had a mean age of 45.8 years and 47.1% had never had their BP checked. Of all those screened, 3601 (52.1%) participants had hypertension, of whom 56.2% were aware of their diagnosis, 49.5% were on antihypertensive medication and 19.8% had controlled BP (&amp;lt;140/90 mmHg). Of the 1783 participants on antihypertensive medication, 40.0% had controlled BP. In Pakistan, there are still low levels of awareness, counselling and screening about high BP. Further large-scale studies are required in this region to evaluate these problems and link them with potential solutions.</jats:p>

Journal article

Alcocer L, Rosas M, Estrada A, Ruiz-Gastelum E, Pombo EJ, Cardona EG, Borrayo G, Galvan H, Alvarez H, Gomez-Alvarez E, Chavez A, Beaney T, Clarke J, Poulter NR, MMM-19-Mexico groupet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Mexico, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B104-B106, ISSN: 1520-765X

May Measurement Month 2019 (MMM19) in Mexico was an opportunistic survey, aimed to improve blood pressure (BP) awareness at the individual and population levels. This survey followed the methodology of MMM19, previously published. The total number of participants screened was 39 700, 56.7% female, 36.6% were of mixed ethnicity, mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 46.9 (17.4) years, and mean body mass index was 27.2 (SD: 4.4) kg/m2. Seven per cent of the participants reported having diabetes, 2.4% reported having a myocardial infarction in the past, 1.1% stroke, 2.0% were pregnant at the time of the survey, 3.7% of women had suffered from hypertension in a previous pregnancy, 11.4% declared that they were smokers, and 47.0% drank alcohol at least once a week. After multiple imputations, of all 39 700 participants, 10 140 (25.5%) had hypertension; of all participants with hypertension, 43.8% were aware of their diagnosis, 41.7% were on antihypertensive medication, and 27.8% had controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Of those on antihypertensive medication, 27.8% had controlled BP. In Mexico, MMM is the largest hypertension survey ever done, it provides complementary data to the existing information on arterial hypertension in the country and helps to increase the visibility of hypertension: a priority health problem.

Journal article

Božič Ješe N, Knez J, Dolenc P, Beaney T, Clarke J, Poulter NR, Brguljan Hitij Jet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Slovenia, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B131-B133, ISSN: 1520-765X

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>Accounting for an estimated 10.4 million deaths each year, arterial hypertension is a worldwide epidemic. However, it is a treatable condition that can be readily recognized with cost-effective blood pressure (BP) measurements. Alongside continuous improvements in BP control and treatment, worldwide strategies aim to achieve a high level of hypertension awareness. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global campaign initiated by the International Society of Hypertension to raise awareness of high BP. Slovenia began with yearly cost-free BP measurements and awareness campaigns in 2005 when World Hypertension Day was announced by the World Hypertension League and in 2017, we joined the MMM initiative. In May 2019, we performed a cross-sectional survey following the standardized MMM protocol. Healthcare personnel obtained BP measurements in a sample of adult subjects (≥18 years) across all regions of the country, mostly in healthcare facilities and pharmacies. In total, 4974 individuals (61.1% female), with a mean age of 59.6 years, were screened. After multiple imputation for missing data, 3037 (61.1%) participants had hypertension. Of individuals not receiving antihypertensive medication, 973 (33.4%) were hypertensive. Of those who reported receiving antihypertensives, 1110 (53.8%) had uncontrolled BP. MMM19 was the largest BP screening campaign undertaken in Slovenia so far. We again identified a substantial number of participants with possible hypertension and uncontrolled BP despite taking antihypertensive medication, which were then referred to their general practitioners or dedicated hypertension centres for further evaluation and management. Taken together, our findings underline the importance of opportunistic screening programmes.</jats:p>

Journal article

Aljuraiban GS, Al Slail FY, Aldhwailea SK, Badawi AA, Beaney T, Clarke J, Poulter NRet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Saudi Arabia, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B128-B130, ISSN: 1520-765X

High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and was identified as the most significant single preventable cause of mortality. The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia is high. To raise awareness and identify undiagnosed hypertension, the Saudi Ministry of Health participated in the May Measurement Month (MMM) 2019 global screening initiative of the International Society of Hypertension. Ninety-two primary care centres across the Kingdom recruited respondents aged ≥18 years through opportunistic sampling, from 1 May to 30 August of 2019. Data collection included sociodemographic, lifestyle habits, environmental, and anthropometric indicators. Blood pressure was measured twice using automated BP devices. A total of 25 023 adults were screened with a mean age of 42.4 (16.7) years and a mean body mass index of 27.5 (6.0) kg/m2. In total, 43.6% of participants were females and 56.4% were males. Of all the participants with hypertension, 60.8% were aware, 60.8% were on antihypertensive medication, and 39.3% had controlled BP (systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg). Moreover, out of 4440 participants on antihypertensive medication, only 64.6% had controlled BP. The high numbers of individuals with hypertension and with undiagnosed hypertension highlight the importance of BP screening campaigns to increase awareness, detection, and target treatment on a national level. Findings from this study can form a baseline by which to measure progress in future iterations of MMM.

Journal article

Wahab KW, Kolo PM, Odili A, Iwuozo E, Ifebunandu N, Ademiluyi B, Okunola O, Sani MU, Akinlade M, Isezuo S, Ale OK, Beaney T, de la Rosa CN, Clarke J, Poulter NR, Omotoso ABet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Nigeria, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B114-B116, ISSN: 1520-765X

The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of undetected hypertension across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. We conducted an opportunistic screening of adults aged at least 18 years in the month of May 2019. Participants were recruited by trained volunteers using the May Measurement Month protocol. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using validated digital and mercury sphygmomanometers. We defined hypertension as BP ≥140/90 mmHg or the use of BP-lowering medication. A total of 3646 participants (52.8% females) with a mean age of 44.5 ± 15.7 years were screened. Hypertension was present in 39.2% of the participants but only 55. 4% of these were on antihypertensive medications. Only 46.8% hypertensives who were on medications had their BP controlled (<140/90 mmHg). Previous history of hypertension in pregnancy, alcohol intake and smoking were associated with increased mean systolic and diastolic BPs. The frequency of Nigerians with hypertension is high while only about half of those on antihypertensive medications are controlled. A multi-pronged approach to reduce the burden of hypertension is needed.

Journal article

Patil M, Jose AP, More A, Maheshwari A, Verma N, Shah R, Kaur A, Kaushik A, Sepat P, Beaney T, Clarke J, Bagadia L, Jadhav S, Poulter NR, Prabhakaran Det al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from India, European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B73-B76, ISSN: 1520-765X

Aims: May Measurement Month is a global screening campaign to raise awareness regarding elevated blood pressure (BP). With the growing burden of hypertension, it is imperative to regularly assess the disease's prevalence, risk factors, and awareness levels in a country. The current prevalence of hypertension in India as per the National Family Health Survey Data stands at 25.3%. May Measurement Month mobilizes healthcare professionals and sensitizes them to regularly measure BP, and impart lifestyle modification advice to the community. It also complements the deficiency in screening programmes at a national and international level. Methods and results: May Measurement Month was carried out in May 2019 as an opportunistic screening campaign for adults (≥18 years). It was carried out by over 5000 trained volunteers across approximately 1000 screening sites (hospitals, public places, pharmacies, villages, and malls) in India. A total of 362 708 (57% males and 42.7% females) people were screened, among whom 68.1% had never measured their BP, and 29.4% (n = 106 522) were found to have hypertension. Of these, only 42.0% were on antihypertensive medication and 23.3% had controlled hypertension. Conclusion: Almost a third of the screened population had hypertension, and less than half of those with hypertension were aware of it or on treatment for it. Among those on antihypertensive drugs, BP was controlled in only half of them. These results support the need for greater impetus on BP screening initiatives to detect hypertension early in the community and prevent complications due to uncontrolled BP.

Journal article

Clarke JM, Majeed A, Beaney T, 2021, Measuring the impact of covid-19, BMJ, Vol: 373, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 1759-2151

Journal article

Philip R, Beaney T, Appelbaum N, Rodriguez Gonzalvez C, Koldeweij C, Kataria Golestaneh A, Poulter N, Clarke Jet al., 2021, Variation in hypertension clinical practice guidelines: a global comparison, BMC Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundHypertension is the largest single contributor to the global burden of disease, affecting an estimated 1.39 billion people worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) can aid in the effective management of this common condition, however, inconsistencies exist between CPGs, and the extent of this is unknown. Understanding the differences in CPG recommendations across income settings may provide an important means of understanding some of the global variations in clinical outcomes related to hypertension.AimsThis study aims to analyse the variation between hypertension CPGs globally. It aims to assess the variation in three areas: diagnostic threshold and staging, treatment and target blood pressure (BP) recommendations in hypertension.MethodsA search was conducted on the MEDLINE repository to identify national and international hypertension CPGs from 2010 to May 2020. An additional country-specific grey-literature search was conducted for all countries and territories of the world as identified by the World Bank. Data describing the diagnosis, staging, treatment and target blood pressure were extracted from CPGs, and variations between CPGs for these domains were analysed.ResultsForty-eight CPGs from across all World Bank income settings were selected for analysis. Ninety-six per cent of guidelines defined hypertension as a clinic-based BP of ≥140/90 mmHg, and 87% of guidelines recommended a target BP of < 140/90 mmHg. In the pharmacological treatment of hypertension, eight different first-step, 17 different second-step and six different third-step drug recommendations were observed. Low-income countries preferentially recommended diuretics (63%) in the first-step treatment, whilst high-income countries offered more choice between antihypertensive classes. Forty-four per cent of guidelines, of which 71% were from higher-income contexts recommended initiating treatment with dual-drug therapy at BP 160/100 mmHg or higher.C

Journal article

Vaghela U, Rabinowicz S, Bratsos P, Martin G, Fritzilas E, Markar S, Purkayastha S, Stringer K, Llewellyn C, Singh H, Dutta D, Clarke J, Howard M, Pansurg C, Serban OM, Kinross Jet al., 2021, Using a secure continually updating web-source processing pipeline supporting a Real-time data synthesis and analysis of scientific literature: development and validation study, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background: The scale and quality of the global scientific response to the COVID-19 pandemic have unquestionably saved lives. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has also triggered an unprecedented “infodemic”; the velocity and volume of data production have overwhelmed many key stakeholders such as clinicians and policy makers, as they have been unable to process structured and unstructured data for evidence-based decision making. Solutions that aim to alleviate this data synthesis–related challenge are unable to capture heterogeneous web data in real time for the production of concomitant answers and are not based on the high-quality information in responses to a free-text query.Objective: The main objective of this project is to build a generic, real-time, continuously updating curation platform that can support the data synthesis and analysis of a scientific literature framework. Our secondary objective is to validate this platform and the curation methodology for COVID-19–related medical literature by expanding the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset via the addition of new, unstructured data.Methods: To create an infrastructure that addresses our objectives, the PanSurg Collaborative at Imperial College London has developed a unique data pipeline based on a web crawler extraction methodology. This data pipeline uses a novel curation methodology that adopts a human-in-the-loop approach for the characterization of quality, relevance, and key evidence across a range of scientific literature sources.Results: REDASA (Realtime Data Synthesis and Analysis) is now one of the world’s largest and most up-to-date sources of COVID-19–related evidence; it consists of 104,000 documents. By capturing curators’ critical appraisal methodologies through the discrete labeling and rating of information, REDASA rapidly developed a foundational, pooled, data science data set of over 1400 articles in under 2 weeks. These articles provide COVID-19&ndas

Journal article

Haj Amor S, Beaney T, Saidi O, Clarke J, Poulter NR, Ben Alaya N, Ben Romdhane H, MMM Tunisian Working Groupet al., 2021, May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Tunisia., European Heart Journal Supplements, Vol: 23, Pages: B144-B146, ISSN: 1520-765X

We performed a May Measurement Month (MMM) screening campaign among adult volunteers aged 18 years old and over in Tunisia. The objective was to raise awareness, and to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Following the MMM protocol, three blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken by physicians and standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or treatment with antihypertensive medication. From 11 271 adults screened, the prevalence of hypertension was 38.1%. Among those with hypertension, 72.5% were aware of their diagnosis, and 67.5% were treated. BP control was achieved in only 38.2% of all those with hypertension. The study highlights the magnitude of hypertension in Tunisia. There is an urgent need for implementing a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention programme to ameliorate the growing problem of hypertension.

Journal article

Denning M, Goh ET, Tan B, Kanneganti A, Almonte M, Scott A, Martin G, Clarke J, Sounderajah V, Markar S, Przybylowicz J, Chan YH, Sia C-H, Chua YX, Sim K, Lim L, Tan L, Tan M, Sharma V, Ooi S, Beatty JW, Flott K, Mason S, Chidambaram S, Yalamanchili S, Zbikowska G, Fedorowski J, Dykowska G, Wells M, Purkayastha S, Kinross Jet al., 2021, Determinants of burnout and other aspects of psychological well-being in healthcare workers during the Covid-19 pandemic: A multinational cross-sectional study, PLOS ONE, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Appelbaum N, Clarke J, 2021, Ideal body weight calculations: fit for purpose in modern anaesthesia?, Eur J Anaesthesiol

Journal article

Vaghela U, Rabinowicz S, Bratsos P, Martin G, Fritzilas E, Markar S, Purkayastha S, Stringer K, Singh H, Llewellyn C, Dutta D, Clarke JM, Howard M, Serban O, Kinross Jet al., 2021, Using a secure, continually updating, web source processing pipeline to support the real-time data synthesis and analysis of scientific literature: development and validation study, Publisher: JMIR Publications

Background:The scale and quality of the global scientific response to the COVID-19 pandemic have unquestionably saved lives. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has also triggered an unprecedented “infodemic”; the velocity and volume of data production have overwhelmed many key stakeholders such as clinicians and policy makers, as they have been unable to process structured and unstructured data for evidence-based decision making. Solutions that aim to alleviate this data synthesis–related challenge are unable to capture heterogeneous web data in real time for the production of concomitant answers and are not based on the high-quality information in responses to a free-text query.Objective:The main objective of this project is to build a generic, real-time, continuously updating curation platform that can support the data synthesis and analysis of a scientific literature framework. Our secondary objective is to validate this platform and the curation methodology for COVID-19–related medical literature by expanding the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset via the addition of new, unstructured data.Methods:To create an infrastructure that addresses our objectives, the PanSurg Collaborative at Imperial College London has developed a unique data pipeline based on a web crawler extraction methodology. This data pipeline uses a novel curation methodology that adopts a human-in-the-loop approach for the characterization of quality, relevance, and key evidence across a range of scientific literature sources.Results:REDASA (Realtime Data Synthesis and Analysis) is now one of the world’s largest and most up-to-date sources of COVID-19–related evidence; it consists of 104,000 documents. By capturing curators’ critical appraisal methodologies through the discrete labeling and rating of information, REDASA rapidly developed a foundational, pooled, data science data set of over 1400 articles in under 2 weeks. These articles provide COVID-19–re

Working paper

Pi L, Expert P, Clarke JM, Jauneikaite E, Costelloe CEet al., 2021, Electronic health record enabled track and trace in an urban hospital network: implications for infection prevention and control

<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Healthcare-associated infections represent one of the most significant challenges for modern medicine as they can significantly impact patients’lives. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) pose the greatest clinical threat, given the high levels of resistance to carbapenems, which are considered as agents of ‘last resort’ against life-threatening infections. Understanding patterns of CPE infection spreading in hospitals is paramount to design effective infection control protocols to mitigate the presence of CPE in hospitals. We used patient electronic health records from three urban hospitals to: i) track microbiologically confirmed carbapenemase producing <jats:italic>Escherichia coli</jats:italic> (CP-Ec) carriers and ii) trace the patients they shared place and time with until their identification. We show that yearly contact networks in each hospital consistently exhibit a core-periphery structure, highlighting the presence of a core set of wards where most carrier-contact interactions occured before being distributed to peripheral wards. We also identified functional communities of wards from the general patient movement network. The contact networks projected onto the general patient movement community structure showed a comprehensive coverage of the hospital. Our findings highlight that infections such as CP-Ec infections can reach virtually all parts of hospitals through first-level contacts.</jats:p>

Journal article

Sounderajah V, Clarke J, Yalamanchili S, Acharya A, Markar SR, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2021, A national survey assessing public readiness for digital health strategies against COVID-19 within the United Kingdom, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 2045-2322

There is concern that digital public health initiatives used in the management of COVID-19 may marginalise certain population groups. There is an overlap between the demographics of groups at risk of digital exclusion (older, lower social grade, low educational attainment and ethnic minorities) and those who are vulnerable to poorer health outcomes from SARS-CoV-2. In this national survey study (n=2040), we assessed how the UK population; particularly these overlapping groups, reported their preparedness for digital health strategies. We report, with respect to using digital information to make health decisions, that those over 60 are less comfortable (net comfort: 57%) than those between 18-39 (net comfort: 78%) and lower social grades are less comfortable (net comfort: 63%) than higher social grades (net comfort: 75%). With respect to a preference for digital over non-digital sources in seeking COVID-19 health information, those over 60 (net preference: 21%) are less inclined than those between 18-39 (net preference: 60%) and those of low educational attainment (net preference: 30%) are less inclined than those of high educational attainment (net preference: 52%). Lastly, with respect to distinguishing reliable digital COVID-19 information, lower social grades (net confidence: 55%) are less confident than higher social grades (net confidence: 68%) and those of low educational attainment (net confidence: 51%) are less confident than those of high educational attainment (net confidence: 71%). All reported differences are statistically significant (p<0.01) following multivariate regression modelling. This study suggests that digital public health approaches to COVID-19 have the potential to marginalise groups who are concurrently at risk of digital exclusion and poor health outcomes from SARS-CoV-2.

Journal article

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