281 results found
Edwards TC, Soussi D, Gupta S, et al., 2023, Collaborative team training in virtual reality is superior to individual learning for performing complex open surgery: a randomised controlled trial, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 278, Pages: 850-857, ISSN: 0003-4932
Objective: To assess if multiplayer virtual reality (VR) training was superior to single player training for acquisition of both technical and non-technical skills in learning complex surgery.Summary Background Data: Superior team-work in the operating room (OR) is associated with improved technical performance and clinical outcomes. VR can successfully train OR staff individually, however VR team training has yet to be investigated.Method: Forty participants were randomised to individual or team VR training. Individually-trained participants practiced alongside virtual avatar counterparts, whilst teams trained live in pairs. Both groups underwent five VR training sessions over 6-weeks. Subsequently, they underwent a real-life assessment in which they performed Anterior Approach Total Hip Arthroplasty (AA-THA) surgery on a high-fidelity model with real equipment in a simulated OR. Teams performed together and individually-trained participants were randomly paired up. Videos were marked by two blinded assessors recording the NOTSS, NOTECHS II and SPLINTS scores. Secondary outcomes were procedure time and number of technical errors.Results: Teams outperformed individually-trained participants for non-technical skills in the real-world assessment (NOTSS 13.1±1.5 vs 10.6±1.6, P=0.002, NOTECHS-II score 51.7±5.5 vs 42.3±5.6, P=0.001 and SPLINTS 10±1.2 vs 7.9±1.6, P=0.004). They completed the assessment 28.1% faster (27.2 minutes±5.5 vs 41.8 ±8.9, P<0.001), and made fewer than half the number of technical errors (10.4±6.1 vs 22.6±5.4, P<0.001).Conclusions: Multiplayer training leads to faster surgery with fewer technical errors and the development of superior non-technical skills.
Karia M, Logishetty K, Johal H, et al., 2023, 5 year follow up of a hydroxyapatite coated short stem femoral component for hip arthroplasty: a prospective multicentre study, Scientific Reports, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2045-2322
Short stem, uncemented femoral implants for hip arthroplasty are bone conserving achieving stability through initial metaphyseal press-fit and biological fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the survivorship, mid-term function and health related quality of life outcomes in patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a fully hydroxyapatite coated straight short stem femoral component with up to 5 years follow-up. 668 patients were recruited to a multicentre study investigating the performance of the cementless Furlong Evolution® stem for THA. 137 patients withdrew at various time points. The mean follow-up was 49 months. Clinical (Harris Hip Score (HHS), radiographic and patient-reported outcome measures—Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), were recorded pre-operatively and at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 3 year and 5 year follow ups. At 5-year follow-up, 12 patients underwent revision surgery, representing a cumulative revision rate of 1.8%. Median OHS, HHS and EQ5D scores improved significantly: OHS improved from a pre-operative median of 21 (IQR 14–26) to 47 (IQR 44–48) (p < 0.001). HHS improved from 52 (IQR 40–63) to 98 (IQR 92–100) (p < 0.001) and EQ5D improved from 70 (IQR 50–80) to 85 (IQR 75–95) (p < 0.001). This fully HA-coated straight short femoral stem implant demonstrated acceptable mid-term survivorship and delivered substantial improvements in function and quality of life after THA.
Karunaseelan K, Nasser R, Cobb J, et al., 2023, Optimal hip capsular release for joint exposure in hip resurfacing via the Direct Anterior Approach: a biomechanical study, The Bone & Joint Journal, ISSN: 2049-4408
Karia M, Boughton O, Mohan S, et al., 2023, Enhancing acetabular reaming accuracy: optimal techniques and a novel reamer design, Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1749-799X
IntroductionSuccessful press-fit implantation relies on an accurately reamed bone cavity. Inaccurate reaming can lead to a suboptimal press-fit risking fracture and cup deformation or excessive micromotion and loosening. Several factors may impact reaming accuracy including the reamer design, the surgeon’s technique and the bone quality. The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of reaming techniques and the accuracy of a novel reamer design.MethodsEighty composite bone models, half high-density and half low-density, were reamed with either a conventional or an additively-manufactured reamer with a novel design employing either a straight or ‘whirlwind’ reaming technique. Reamed cavities were scanned using a 3D laser scanner and the median difference between achieved and expected diameters compared. ResultsThe novel reamer design was more accurate than the unused conventional reamer, using both whirlwind (0.1mm (IQR 0-0.2) vs 0.3mm (IQR 0.3-0.4); p<0.001) and straight techniques (0.3mm (IQR 0.1-1.0) vs 1.2mm (IQR 1-1.6); p=0.001). Whirlwind reaming was more accurate than straight reaming using both conventional (0.3mm (IQR 0.3-0.4) vs 1.2mm (IQR 1-1.6); p<0.0001) and single use reamers (0.1mm (IQR 0-0.2) vs 0.3mm (IQR 0.1-1.0); p=0.007). Reaming errors were higher in low-density bone compared to high-density bone, for both reamer types and reaming techniques tested (0.6mm (IQR 0.3-1.5) vs 0.3mm (IQR 0.1-0.8); p=0.005). ConclusionWe present a novel reamer design that demonstrates superior accuracy to conventional reamers in achieving the desired reaming diameter. Improved reaming accuracy was also demonstrated using both devices and in both bone models, using a ‘whirlwind’ technique. We recommend the use of this novel reamer design employing a ‘whirlwind’ technique to optimise reaming accuracy. Particular attention should be paid towards patients with lower bone quality which may be more susceptible to highe
Alagha MA, Logishetty K, OHanlon C, et al., 2023, Three-dimensional preoperative planning software for hip resurfacing arthroplasty, Bioengineering, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2306-5354
Three-dimensional planning of hip arthroplasty is associated with better visualisation ofanatomical landmarks and enhanced mapping for preoperative implant sizing, which can lead to adecrease in surgical time and complications. Despite the advantages of hip resurfacing arthroplasty(HRA), it is considered a technically challenging procedure and associated with inaccurate implantplacement. This study aimed to examine the validity, reliability, and usability of preoperative 3DHip Planner software for HRA. Fifty random cases of various hip osteoarthritis severity wereplanned twice by two junior trainees using the 3D Hip Planner within a one-month interval. Outcome measures included femoral/cup implant size, stem-shaft angle, and cup inclination angle, andwere assessed by comparing outcomes from 2D and 3D planning. An adapted unified theory ofacceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) survey was used for software usability. Bland–Altmanplots between 3D and 2D planning for stem-shaft and inclination angles showed mean differencesof 0.7 and −0.6, respectively (r = 0.93, p < 0.001). Stem-shaft and inclination angles showed inter-raterreliability biases of around −2° and 3°, respectively. Chi-square and Pearson’s correlation for femoralimplant size showed a significant association between the two assessors (r = 0.91, p < 0.001). The 3Dtest–retest coefficient of repeatability for stem-shaft and inclination angles were around ±2° and ±3°,respectively, with a strong significant association for femoral implant size (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). Surveyanalyses showed that 70–90% agreed that 3D planning improved expectancy in four domains. 3Dhip planner appears to be valid and reliable in preoperative HRA and shows significant potential inoptimising the quality and accuracy of surgical planning.
Tallia F, Heyraud A, Clarke JN, et al., 2023, 3D printed hybrid for articular cartilage regeneration: from design to <i>in vivo</i> studies, Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, ISSN: 1937-3341
Stavri R, Tay T, Wiles CC, et al., 2023, A cross-sectional study of bone nanomechanics in hip fracture and aging, Life, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2075-1729
Bone mechanics is well understood at every length scale except the nano-level. We aimed to investigate the relationship between bone nanoscale and tissue-level mechanics experimentally. We tested two hypotheses: (1) nanoscale strains were lower in hip fracture patients versus controls, and (2) nanoscale mineral and fibril strains were inversely correlated with aging and fracture. A cross-sectional sample of trabecular bone sections was prepared from the proximal femora of two human donor groups (aged 44–94 years): an aging non-fracture control group (n = 17) and a hip-fracture group (n = 20). Tissue, fibril, and mineral strain were measured simultaneously using synchrotron X-ray diffraction during tensile load to failure, then compared between groups using unpaired t-tests and correlated with age using Pearson’s correlation. Controls exhibited significantly greater peak tissue, mineral, and fibril strains than the hip fracture (all p < 0.05). Age was associated with a decrease in peak tissue (p = 0.099) and mineral (p = 0.004) strain, but not fibril strain (p = 0.260). Overall, hip fracture and aging were associated with changes in the nanoscale strain that are reflected at the tissue level. Data must be interpreted within the limitations of the observational cross-sectional study design, so we propose two new hypotheses on the importance of nanomechanics. (1) Hip fracture risk is increased by low tissue strain, which can be caused by low collagen or mineral strain. (2) Age-related loss of tissue strain is dependent on the loss of mineral but not fibril strain. Novel insights into bone nano- and tissue-level mechanics could provide a platform for the development of bone health diagnostics and interventions based on failure mechanisms from the nanoscale up.
Maslivec A, Halewood C, Clarke S, et al., 2023, Hip resurfacing arthroplasty in women: A novel ceramic device enables near normal gait function, Gait and Posture, Vol: 103, Pages: 166-171, ISSN: 0966-6362
BackgroundGait function improves after Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) but is not restored to normal levels. Metal-on-metal Resurfacing Arthroplasty (MoM-HRA) is an alternative to THA and has shown to restore normal levels gait function and physical activity but has been restricted to men owing to problems of metal-ion release. Ceramic HRA (cHRA) removes the cobalt-chrome bearing surfaces, thereby eliminating these specific metal-ion concerns and aiming to be safe for females.Research questionIs there a difference in gait function of female cHRA patients compared to female THA using subjective and objective measures?MethodsFifteen unilateral cHRA and 15 unilateral THA, age and BMI matched, completed patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) (Oxford Hip Score, EQ5d and MET score) and underwent gait analysis using an instrumented treadmill pre- (2–10 weeks) and post-operatively (52–74 weeks). Maximum walking speed (MWS), Vertical GRF of the stance phase, GRF symmetry index (SI) and spatiotemporal gait measures were recorded. Patients were compared to age, gender and BMI healthy controls (CON).ResultsThere were no differences in PROMs or gait function between groups pre-operatively. Post- operatively, cHRA had a higher MET score (11.2 vs 7.1, p = 0.02) and a higher MWS (6.2 vs 6.8 km/hr, p = 0.003) compared to THA. cHRA had a similar GRF profile to CON, whereas THA had a reduced push-off force at 70–77 % of the stance phase compared to CON. At faster walking speeds of 6 km/hr walking speed, THA displayed an asymmetric GRF profile (SI<4.4 %) whereas the cHRA patients continued to display a symmetrical gait profile. cHRA was able to increase step length from pre-op levels (63 vs 66 cm, p = 0.02) and produced a larger step length compared to THA (73 vs 79 cm, p = 0.02).SignificanceFemale cHRA returned to levels of gait function and activity similar to healthy controls unlike female THA.
Patel A, Edwards T, Jones G, et al., 2023, Metabolic equivalent of task (MET) scores avoid the ceiling effect observed with conventional patient reported outcome scores following knee arthroplasty, Bone & Joint Open, Vol: 4, Pages: 129-137, ISSN: 2633-1462
Aims : The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) score examines patient performance in relation toenergy expenditure before and after knee arthroplasty. This study assesses it’s use in a kneearthroplasty population in comparison with the widely used Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and EuroQol5d Index (EQ-5D) which are reported to be limited by ceiling effects.Method: One-hundred and sixteen patients with OKS, EQ-5D and MET scores before, and at least sixmonths following unilateral primary knee arthroplasty were identified from a database. Procedureswere performed by a single surgeon between 2014 & 2019 consecutively. Scores were analysed fornormality, skewness, kurtosis and the presence of ceiling/floor effects. Concurrent validity betweenthe MET score, OKS and EQ-5D was assessed using Spearman’s rank.Results: Post-operatively the OKS and EQ-5D demonstrated negative skews in distribution, with highkurtosis at six months and one year. The OKS demonstrated a ceiling effect at one year (15.7%) postoperatively. The EQ-5D demonstrated a ceiling effect at six months (30.2%) and one year (39.8%)post-operatively. The MET score did not demonstrate a skewed distribution or ceiling effect either atsix months or one year post-operatively. Weak-moderate correlations were noted between the METscore and conventional scores at six-months and one-year post-operatively.Conclusion: In contrast to the OKS and EQ-5D, the MET score was normally distributed postoperatively with no ceiling effect. It is worth consideration as an arthroplasty outcome measure,particularly for patients with high expectations.
Garner AJ, Dandridge OW, van Arkel RJ, et al., 2023, Medial bicompartmental arthroplasty patients display more normal gait and improved satisfaction, compared to matched total knee arthroplasty patients, Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol: 31, Pages: 830-838, ISSN: 0942-2056
PurposeMedial bicompartmental arthroplasty, the combination of ipsilateral medial unicompartmental and patellofemoral arthroplasty, is an alternative to total knee arthroplasty for patients with medial tibiofemoral and severe patellofemoral arthritis, when the lateral tibiofemoral compartment and anterior cruciate ligament are intact. This study reports the gait and subjective outcomes following medial bicompartmental arthroplasty.MethodsFifty-five subjects were measured on the instrumented treadmill at top walking speeds, using standard metrics of gait. Modular, single-stage, medial bicompartmental arthroplasty subjects (n = 16) were compared to age, body mass index, height- and sex-matched healthy (n = 19) and total knee arthroplasty (n = 20) subjects. Total knee arthroplasty subjects with pre-operative evidence of tricompartmental osteoarthritis or anterior cruciate ligament dysfunction were excluded. The vertical component of ground reaction force and temporospatial measurements were compared using Kruskal–Wallis, then Mann–Whitney test with Bonferroni correction (α = 0.05). Oxford Knee and EuroQoL EQ-5D scores were compared.ResultsObjectively, the medial bicompartmental arthroplasty top walking speed of 6.7 ± 0.8 km/h was 0.5 km/h (7%) slower than that of healthy controls (p = 0.2), but 1.3 km/h (24%) faster than that of total knee arthroplasty subjects (5.4 ± 0.6 km/h, p < 0.001). Medial bicompartmental arthroplasty recorded more normal maximum weight acceptance (p < 0.001) and mid-stance forces (p = 0.03) than total knee arthroplasty subjects, with 11 cm (15%) longer steps (p < 0.001) and 21 cm (14%) longer strides (p = 0.006). Subjectively, medial bicompartmental arthroplasty subjects reported Oxford Knee Scores of median 41 (interquartile range 38.8&nd
Garner AJ, Dandridge OW, van Arkel RJ, et al., 2023, The compartmental approach to revision of partial knee arthroplasty results in nearer-normal gait and improved patient reported outcomes compared to total knee arthroplasty, Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy, Vol: 31, Pages: 1143-1152, ISSN: 0942-2056
PURPOSE: This study investigated the gait and patient reported outcome measures of subjects converted from a partial knee arthroplasty to combined partial knee arthroplasty, using a compartmental approach. Healthy subjects and primary total knee arthroplasty patients were used as control groups. METHODS: Twenty-three patients converted from partial to combined partial knee arthroplasty were measured on the instrumented treadmill at top walking speeds, using standard gait metrics. Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 22) and primary posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty subjects (n = 23) where surgery were performed for one or two-compartment osteoarthritis. Groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. At the time of gait analysis, combined partial knee arthroplasty subjects were median 17 months post-revision surgery (range 4-81 months) while the total knee arthroplasty group was median 16 months post-surgery (range 6-150 months). Oxford Knee Scores and EuroQol-5D 5L scores were recorded at the time of treadmill assessment, and results analysed by question and domain. RESULTS: Subjects revised from partial to combined partial knee arthroplasty walked 16% faster than total knee arthroplasty (mean top walking speed 6.4 ± 0.8 km/h, vs. 5.5 ± 0.7 km/h p = 0.003), demonstrating nearer-normal weight-acceptance rate (p < 0.001), maximum weight-acceptance force (p < 0.006), mid-stance force (p < 0.03), contact time (p < 0.02), double support time (p < 0.009), step length (p = 0.003) and stride length (p = 0.051) compared to primary total knee arthroplasty. Combined partial knee arthroplasty subjects had a median Oxford Knee Score of 43 (interquartile range 39-47) vs. 38 (interquartile range 32-41, p < 0.
Clarke SG, Logishetty K, Halewood C, et al., 2023, Low dose CT-based spatial analysis (CTSA) to measure implant migration after ceramic hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA): a phantom study, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Vol: 237, Pages: 359-367, ISSN: 0954-4119
Implant migration is a predictor of arthroplasty survivorship. It is crucial to monitor the migration of novel hip prostheses within premarket clinical investigations. RSA is the gold standard method, but requires calibrated radiographs using specialised equipment. A commercial computed tomography micromotion analysis solution is a promising alternative but is not yet available for use with monobloc ceramic implants. This study aimed to develop and validate a CT-based spatial analysis (CTSA) method for use with ceramic implants. A phantom study was undertaken to assess accuracy and precision. A ceramic hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) and 20 tantalum beads were implanted into a synthetic hip model and mounted onto a 6-degree of freedom motion stage. The hip was repeatedly scanned with a low dose CT protocol, with imposed micromovements. Data were interrogated using a semiautomated technique. The effective radiation dose for each scan was estimated to be 0.25 mSv. For the head implant, precision ranged between 0.11 and 0.28 mm for translations and 0.34°-0.42° for rotations. For the cup implant, precision ranged between 0.08 and 0.11 mm and 0.19° and 0.42°. For the head, accuracy ranged between 0.04 and 0.18 mm for translations and 0.28°-0.46° for rotations. For the cup, accuracy ranged between 0.04 and 0.08 mm and 0.17° and 0.43°. This in vitro study demonstrates that low dose CTSA of a ceramic HRA is similar in accuracy to RSA. CT is ubiquitous, and this method may be an alternative to RSA to measure prosthesis migration.
Bonicelli A, Tay T, Cobb JP, et al., 2023, Association between nanoscale strains and tissue level nanoindentation properties in age-related hip-fractures, JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 138, ISSN: 1751-6161
Behforootan S, Thorniley M, Minonzio J-G, et al., 2022, Can guided wave ultrasound predict bone mechanical properties at the femoral neck in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty?, JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 136, ISSN: 1751-6161
Preston B, Harris S, Villet L, et al., 2022, The medial condylar wall is a reliable landmark to kinematically align the femoral component in medial UKA: an in-silico study, KNEE SURGERY SPORTS TRAUMATOLOGY ARTHROSCOPY, Vol: 30, Pages: 3220-3227, ISSN: 0942-2056
Edwards T, Gupta S, Soussi D, et al., 2022, 1019 Collaborative Surgical Team Training in Virtual Reality Is Superior to Individual Learning: A Randomised Controlled Trial, ASiT Surgical Conference, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0007-1323
Ng KC, Bankes M, El Daou H, et al., 2022, Capsular mechanics after periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol: 104, Pages: 1015-1023, ISSN: 0021-9355
Background: Hip dysplasia is characterized by insufficient acetabular coverage around the femoral head, which leads to instability, pain, and injury. Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) aims to restore acetabular coverage and function, but its effects on capsular mechanics and joint stability are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PAO on capsular mechanics and joint range of motion in dysplastic hips.Methods: Twelve cadaveric dysplastic hips (denuded to bone and capsule) were mounted onto a robotic tester and tested in multiple positions: (1) full extension, (2) neutral 0°, (3) flexion of 30°, (4) flexion of 60°, and (5) flexion of 90°. In each position, the hips underwent internal and external rotation, abduction, and adduction using 5 Nm of torque. Each hip then underwent PAO to reorient the acetabular fragment, preserving the capsular ligaments, and was retested.Results: The PAO reduced internal rotation in flexion of 90° (∆IR = –5°; p = 0.003), and increased external rotation in flexion of 60° (∆ER = +7°; p = 0.001) and flexion of 90° (∆ER = +11°; p = 0.001). The PAO also reduced abduction in extension (∆ABD = –10°; p = 0.002), neutral 0° (∆ABD = –7°; p = 0.001), and flexion of 30° (∆ABD = –8°; p = 0.001), but increased adduction in neutral 0° (∆ADD = +9°; p = 0.001), flexion of 30° (∆ADD = +11°; p = 0.002), and flexion of 60° (∆ADD = +11°; p = 0.003).Conclusions: PAO caused reductions in hip abduction and internal rotation but greater increases in hip adduction and external rotation. The osseous acetabular structure and capsule both play a role in the balance between joint mobility and stability after PAO.
Stoddart J, Garner A, Tuncer M, et al., 2022, The risk of tibial eminence avulsion fracture with bi-unicondylar knee arthroplasty - a finite element analysis, Bone & Joint Research, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2046-3758
Aims: To determine the risk of tibial eminence avulsion intraoperatively for bi-unicondylar knee arthroplasty (Bi-UKA) with consideration to the effect of implant positioning, overstuffing, and sex, compared to the risk for isolated medial UKA (UKA-M) and bi-cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty (BCR-TKA).Methods: Two experimentally validated finite element models of tibia were implanted. Intraoperative loads were applied through the condyles, ACL, MCL and LCL, and the risk of fracture (ROF) was evaluated in the spine as the ratio of the 95th percentile maximum principal elastic strains over the tensile yield strain of proximal tibial bone.Results: Peak tensile strains occurred on the anterior portion of the medial sagittal cut in all simulations. Lateral translation of the medial implant in Bi-UKA had the largest increase in ROF of any of the implant positions (43%). Overstuffing the joint by 2mm had a much larger effect, resulting in a 6-fold increase in ROF. Bi-UKA had ~10% increased ROF compared to UKA-M for both the male and female models, though the smaller, less dense female model had a 1.5 times greater ROF compared to the male model. Removal of anterior bone akin to BCR-TKA doubled ROF compared to Bi-UKA.Conclusion: Tibial eminence avulsion fracture has a similar risk associated with Bi-UKA to UKA-M. The risk is higher for a smaller and less dense tibiae. To minimise risk, it is most important to avoid overstuffing the joint, followed by correctly positioning the medial implant, taking care not to narrow the bony island anteriorly.
Edwards T, Guest B, Garner A, et al., 2022, The metabolic equivalent of task score: a useful metric for comparing high functioning hip arthroplasty patients, Bone & Joint Research, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2046-3758
Aims: This study investigates the use of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) score in a young hip arthroplasty population and its ability to capture additional benefit beyond the ceiling effect of conventional patient reported outcomes.Patients & Method: Oxford Hip Score (OHS), EuroQol-5D index (EQ-5D), and the MET were recorded in 221 primary hip arthroplasty procedures pre-operatively and at 1-year. The distribution was examined reporting the presence of ceiling & floor effects. Validity was assessed correlating the MET with the other scores using Spearman’s rank and determining responsiveness. A subgroup of 93 patients scoring 48/48 on the OHS were analysed by age, sex, BMI and pre-operative MET using the other metrics to determine if differences could be established despite scoring identically on the OHS.Results: From our electronic database of 751 hip arthroplasty procedures, 117 primary total hip and 104 hip resurfacing arthroplasty operations were included. Mean age was 59.4 ± 11.3. Post-operatively the OHS and EQ-5D demonstrate significant negatively skewed distributions with ceiling effects of 41% and 53%, respectively. The MET was normally distributed post-operatively with no ceiling effect. Weak-moderate significant correlations were found between the MET and the other two metrics. In the 48/48 subgroup, no differences were found comparing groups with the EQ-5D, however significantly higher MET scores were demonstrated for patients aged <60 (12.7 vs 10.6, p=0.008), male patients (12.5 vs 10.8, p=0.024) and those with pre-operative MET scores >6 (12.6 vs 11.0, p=0.040). Conclusion: The MET is normally distributed in patients following hip arthroplasty, recording levels of activity which are undetectable using the OHS.
van der Straeten C, 2022, Hip resurfacing arthroplasty in young patients: international high-volume centres' report on the outcome of 11,382 metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasties in patients ≤50 years at surgery, HIP INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 32, Pages: 353-362, ISSN: 1120-7000
Dandridge O, Garner A, Amis A, et al., 2022, Variation in the patellar tendon moment arm identified with an improved measurement framework, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Vol: 40, Pages: 799-807, ISSN: 0736-0266
The mechanical advantage of the knee extensor mechanism depends heavily on the patellar tendon moment arm (PTMA). Understanding which factors contribute to its variation may help improve functional outcomes following arthroplasty. This study optimized PTMA measurement, allowing us to quantify the contribution of different variables. The PTMA was calculated about the instantaneous helical axis of tibiofemoral rotation from optical tracked kinematics. A fabricated knee model facilitated calculation optimization, comparing four data smoothing techniques (raw, Butterworth filtering, generalized cross-validated cubic spline-interpolation and combined filtering/interpolation). The PTMA was then measured for 24 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, under physiologically based loading and extension rates. Combined filtering/interpolation enabled sub-mm PTMA calculation accuracy throughout the range of motion (root-mean-squared error 0.2 mm, max error 0.4 mm), whereas large errors were measured for raw, filtered-only and interpolated-only techniques at terminal flexion/extension. Before scaling, the mean PTMA was 46 mm; PTMA magnitude was consistently larger in males (mean differences: 5 to 10 mm, p < .05) and was strongly related to knee size: larger knees have a larger PTMA. However, while scaling eliminated sex differences in PTMA magnitude, the peak PTMA occurred closer to terminal extension in females (female 15°, male 29°, p = .01). Knee size accounted for two-thirds of the variation in PTMA magnitude, but not the flexion angle where peak PTMA occurred. This substantial variation in angle of peak PTMA has implications for the design of musculoskeletal models and morphotype-specific arthroplasty. The developed calculation framework is applicable both in vivo and vitro for accurate PTMA measurement.
Riviere C, Sivaloganathan S, Villet L, et al., 2022, Kinematic alignment of medial UKA is safe: a systematic review, KNEE SURGERY SPORTS TRAUMATOLOGY ARTHROSCOPY, Vol: 30, Pages: 1082-1094, ISSN: 0942-2056
Munford M, Liddle A, Stoddart J, et al., 2022, Total and partial knee replacement implants that maintain native load transfer in the Tibia, Bone and Joint Research, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 2046-3758
Aims:Unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (UKA and TKA) are successful treatments for osteoarthritis, but the solid metal implants disrupt the natural distribution of stress and strain which can lead to bone loss over time. This generates problems if the implant needs to be revised. This study investigates whether titanium lattice UKA and TKA implants can maintain natural load transfer in the proximal tibia. Methods:In a cadaveric model, UKA and TKA procedures were performed on 8 fresh-frozen knee specimens, using conventional (solid) and titanium lattice tibial implants. Stress at the bone-implant interfaces were measured and compared to the native knee.Results:Titanium lattice implants were able to restore the mechanical environment of the native tibia for both UKA and TKA designs. Maximum stress at the bone-implant interface ranged from 1.2-3.3 MPa compared to 1.3-2.7 MPa for the native tibia. The conventional solid UKA and TKA implants reduced the maximum stress in the bone by a factor of 10 and caused >70% of bone surface area to be underloaded compared to the native tibia. Conclusions:Titanium lattice implants maintained the natural mechanical loading in the proximal tibia after UKA and TKA, but conventional solid implants did not. This is an exciting first step towards implants that maintain bone health, but such implants also have to meet fatigue and micromotion criteria to be clinically viable.
Logishetty K, Edwards T, Ponniah HS, et al., 2022, How to prioritise patients and redesign care to safely resume planned surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. A clinical validation study, Bone & Joint Open, Vol: 2, Pages: 134-140, ISSN: 2633-1462
Background and Purpose: Restarting planned surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic is a clinical and societal priority, but it is unknown whether it can be done safely and include high-risk or complex cases. We developed a Surgical Prioritization and Allocation Guide (SPAG). Here, we validate its effectiveness and safety in COVID-free sites. Patients and Methods: A multidisciplinary Surgical Prioritisation Committee developed the SPAG, incorporating procedural urgency, shared decision making, patient safety and biopsychosocial factors; and applied it to 1142 adult patients awaiting orthopaedic surgery. Patients were stratified into four priority groups and underwent surgery at three COVID-free sites – including one with access to a High Dependency Unit (HDU) or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and specialist resources. Safety was assessed by the number of patients requiring inpatient postoperative HDU/ICU admission, contracting COVID-19 within 14 days postoperatively, and mortality within 30 days postoperatively. Results: 1142 patients were included, 47 declined surgery. 110 were deemed high-risk or requiring specialist resources. In the 10-week study period, 28 high-risk patients underwent surgery, during which 68% of Priority 2 (P2, surgery within 1 month) patients underwent surgery, and 15% of P3 (<3 months) and 16% of P4 (>3 months) groups. Of the 1032 low-risk patients, 322 patients underwent surgery. Twenty-one P3 and P4 patients were expedited to ‘Urgent’ based on biopsychosocial factors identified by the SPAG. During the study period, 91% of the Urgent group, 52% of P2, 36% of P3, and 26% of P4 underwent surgery. No patients died or were admitted to HDU/ICU, or contracted COVID-19. Interpretation: Our widely generalisable model enabled the restart of planned surgery during the CO
Musbahi O, Syed L, Le Feuvre P, et al., 2021, Public patient views of artificial intelligence in healthcare: A nominal group technique study, Digital Health, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2055-2076
Objectives: The beliefs of laypeople and medical professionals often diverge with regards to disease, and technology has had a positive impact on how research is conducted. Surprisingly, given the expanding worldwide funding and research into Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in healthcare, there is a paucity of research exploring the public patient perspective on this technology. Our study sets out to address this knowledge gap, by applying the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) to explore patient public views on AI. Methods: A Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was used involving four study groups with seven participants in each group. This started with a silent generation of ideas regarding the benefits and concerns of AI in Healthcare. This was followed by a group discussion. Then a round-robin process was conducted until no new ideas were generated. Participants then ranked their top five benefits and top five concerns regarding the use of AI in healthcare. A final group consensus was reached. Results: Twenty-Eight participants were recruited with the mean age of 47 years. The top five benefits were: Faster health services, Greater accuracy in management, AI systems available 24/7, reducing workforce burden, and equality in healthcare decision making. The top five concerns were: Data cybersecurity, bias and quality of AI data, less human interaction, algorithm errors and responsibility, and limitation in technology. Conclusion: This is the first formal qualitative study exploring patient public views on the use of AI in healthcare, and highlights that there is a clear understanding of the potential benefits delivered by this technology. Greater patient public group involvement, and a strong regulatory framework is recommended.
Dandridge O, Garner A, Jeffers JRT, et al., 2021, Validity of repeated-measures analyses of in vitro arthroplasty kinematics and kinetics, Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 129, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 0021-9290
In vitro models of arthroplasty enable pre-clinical testing and inform clinical decision making. Repeated-measures comparisons maximise resource efficiency, but their validity without testing order randomisation is not known. This study aimed to identify if there were any large testing order effects for cadaveric models of knee and hip arthroplasty. First, the effect of testing order on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) biomechanics was assessed. Extension moments for TKAs (N=3) implanted into the native knee (TKA-only) were compared to a dataset of TKAs (N=24) tested after different combinations of partial knee arthroplasty (TKA-last). The effect of repeatedly testing the same knee five times over 36 hours on patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics was also quantified. Second, the effect of testing order on capsular ligament function after total hip arthroplasty (THA) was assessed. Randomisation was removed from a previously published dataset to create increasing and decreasing head size groups, which were compared with t-tests.All three TKA-only extension moments fell within the 95% CI of the TKA-last knees across the full range of knee flexion/extension. Repeated testing resulted in root-mean-squared kinematics errors within 1 mm, 1°, or < 5 % of total range of motion. Following THA, smaller head-size resulted in greater laxity in both the increasing (p=0.01) and decreasing (p<0.001) groups. Testing order did not have large effects on either knee or hip arthroplasty biomechanics measured with in vitro cadaveric models.
Garner A, Dandridge O, Amis A, et al., 2021, Bi-unicondylar arthroplasty: a biomechanics and clinical outcomes study, Bone & Joint Research, Vol: 10, Pages: 723-733, ISSN: 2046-3758
Aims Bi-Unicondylar Arthroplasty (Bi-UKA) is a bone and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) preserving alternative to Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) when the patellofemoral joint is preserved. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes and biomechanics of Bi-UKA. Methods Bi-UKA subjects (N = 22) were measured on an instrumented treadmill, using standard gait metrics, at top walking speeds. Age, sex and BMI-matched healthy (N = 24) and primary TKA (N = 22) subjects formed control groups. TKA subjects with pre-operative patellofemoral or tricompartmental arthritis or ACL dysfunction were excluded. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) were compared. Bi-UKA then TKA were performed on eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees, to investigate knee extensor efficiency under controlled laboratory conditions, using a repeated measures study design. Results Bi-UKA walked 20% faster than TKA (Bi-UKA 6.70.9km/h, TKA 5.60.7km/h p<0.001), exhibiting nearer-normal vertical Ground Reaction Forces in maximum weight-acceptance and mid-stance, with longer step and stride lengths compared to TKA (p<0.05). Bi-UKAsubjects reported higher OKS (p=0.004) and EQ-5D (p<0.001). In vitro, Bi-UKA generated the same extensor moment as native knees at low flexion angles, whilst reduced extensor moment was measured following TKA (p<0.003). Conversely, at higher flexion angles, the extensor moment of TKA was normal. Over the full range, the extensor mechanism was more efficient following Bi-UKA than TKA (p<0.05). Conclusion Bi-UKA had more normal gait characteristics and improved patient reported outcomes, compared to matched TKA subjects. This can, in part, be explained by differences in extensor efficiency.
Edwards TC, Coombs AW, Szyszka B, et al., 2021, Cognitive task analysis-based training in surgery: a meta-analysis, BJS OPEN, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2474-9842
Garner A, Dandridge O, Amis A, et al., 2021, Partial and combined partial knee arthroplasty: greater anterior-posterior stability than posterior-cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty, The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol: 36, Pages: 3765-3772.e4, ISSN: 0883-5403
BackgroundLittle is known regarding anterior-posterior stability after anterior cruciate ligament–preserving partial (PKA) and combined partial knee arthroplasty (CPKA) compared to standard posterior cruciate–retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA).MethodsThe anterior-posterior tibial translation of twenty-four cadaveric knees was measured, with optical tracking, while under 90N drawer with the knee flexed 0-90°. Knees were tested before and after PKA, CPKA (medial and lateral bicompartmental and bi-unicondylar), and then posterior cruciate–retaining TKA. The anterior-posterior tibial translations of the arthroplasty states, at each flexion angle, were compared to the native knee and each other with repeated measures analyses of variance and post-hoc t-tests.ResultsUnicompartmental and bicompartmental arthroplasty states had similar laxities to the native knee and to each other, with ≤1-mm differences throughout the flexion range (P ≥ .199). Bi-unicondylar arthroplasty resulted in 6- to 8-mm increase of anterior tibial translation at high flexion angles compared to the native knee (P ≤ .023 at 80-90°). Meanwhile, TKA exhibited increased laxity across all flexion angles, with increased anterior tibial translation of up to 18 ± 6 mm (P < .001) and increased posterior translation of up to 4 ± 2 mm (P < .001).ConclusionsIn a cadaveric study, anterior-posterior tibial translation did not differ from native laxity after PKA and CPKA. Posterior cruciate ligament–preserving TKA demonstrated increased laxity, particularly in anterior tibial translation.
Edwards TC, Patel A, Szyszka B, et al., 2021, The Impact of Using A Virtual Reality Surgical Curriculum to Train Scrub Practitioners in Complex Orthopaedic Surgery, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0007-1323
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