18 results found
Cooke J, Llor C, Hopstaken R, et al., 2020, Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care: narrative review of C reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care testing (POCT) and antibacterial use in patients who present with symptoms of RTI., BMJ Open Respir Res, Vol: 7
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to be a global problem and continues to be addressed through national strategies to improve diagnostics, develop new antimicrobials and promote antimicrobial stewardship. Patients who attend general (ambulatory) practice with symptoms of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are invariably assessed by some sort of clinical decision rule (CDR). However, CDRs rely on a cluster of non-specific clinical observations. A narrative review of the literature was undertaken to ascertain the value of C reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care testing (POCT) to guide antibacterial prescribing in adult patients presenting to general practitioner (GP) practices with symptoms of RTI. Studies that were included were Cochrane reviews, systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised trials, controlled before and after studies, cohort studies and economic evaluations. An overwhelming number of studies demonstrated that the use of CRP tests in patients presenting with RTI symptoms reduces index antibacterial prescribing. GPs and patients report a good acceptability for a CRP POCT and economic evaluations show cost-effectiveness of CRP POCT over existing RTI management in primary care. POCTs increase diagnostic precision for GPs in the better management of patients with RTI. With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, patients will expect greater precision in diagnosing and managing their illnesses. Adopting systems that markedly reduce antibiotic consumption is a no-brainer for governments that are struggling to address the rise in AMR.
Dryden MS, Cooke J, Salib RJ, et al., 2017, Reactive oxygen: a novel antimicrobial mechanism for targeting biofilm-associated infection, Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Vol: 8, Pages: 186-191, ISSN: 2213-7165
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a novel therapeutic strategy for topical or local application to wounds, mucosa or internal structures where there may be heavy bacterial bioburden with biofilm and chronic inflammation. Bacterial biofilms are a significant problem in clinical settings owing to their increased tolerance towards conventionally prescribed antibiotics and their propensity for selection of further antibacterial resistance. There is therefore a pressing need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies that can improve antibiotic efficacy towards biofilms. ROS has been successful in treating chronic wounds and in clearing multidrug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and carbapenemase-producing isolates from wounds and vascular line sites. There is significant antifungal activity of ROS against planktonic and biofilm forms. Nebulised ROS has been evaluated in limited subjects to assess reductions in bioburden in chronically colonised respiratory tracts. The antibiofilm activity of ROS could have great implications for the treatment of a variety of persistent respiratory conditions. Use of ROS on internal prosthetic devices shows promise. A variety of novel delivery mechanisms are being developed to apply ROS activity to different anatomical sites.
Dryden M, Cooke J, Salib R, et al., 2017, Hot topics in reactive oxygen therapy: Antimicrobial and immunological mechanisms, safety and clinical applications, Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Vol: 8, Pages: 194-198, ISSN: 2213-7165
Bailey C, Cooke J, 2016, J Antimicrob Chemother, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN: 0305-7453
Cooke J, Butler C, Hopstaken R, et al., 2015, Narrative review of primary care point of-care testing (POCT) and antibacterial use in respiratory tract infection (RTI), BMJ OPEN RESPIRATORY RESEARCH, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2052-4439
Bailey C, Tully M, Cooke J, 2015, Perspectives of clinical microbiologists on antimicrobial stewardship programmes within NHS trusts in England, Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, Vol: 4
Bailey C, Tully M, Cooke J, 2015, An investigation into the content validity of the Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for NHS Trusts (ASAT v15a) using cognitive interviews with antimicrobial pharmacists, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Vol: 40, Pages: 208-212, ISSN: 0269-4727
Keers RN, Williams SD, Cooke J, et al., 2015, Understanding the causes of intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals: a qualitative critical incident study, BMJ Open, Vol: 5, Pages: e005948-e005948, ISSN: 2044-6055
Cooke J, Stephens P, Ashiru-Oredope D, et al., 2015, Longitudinal trends and cross-sectional analysis of English national hospital antibacterial use over 5 years (2008-13): working towards hospital prescribing quality measures, JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, Vol: 70, Pages: 279-285, ISSN: 0305-7453
Cooke J, Dryden M, Patton T, et al., 2015, The antimicrobial activity of prototype modified honeys that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide, BMC Research Notes, Vol: 8, Pages: 20-20, ISSN: 1756-0500
Cooke J, Stephens P, Ashiru-Oredope D, et al., 2014, Antibacterial usage in English NHS hospitals as part of a national Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme, PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 128, Pages: 693-697, ISSN: 0033-3506
Holden MTG, Hsu L-Y, Kurt K, et al., 2013, A genomic portrait of the emergence, evolution, and global spread of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pandemic, Genome Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 653-664, ISSN: 1549-5469
The widespread use of antibiotics in association with high-density clinical care has driven the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria that are adapted to thrive in hospitalized patients. Of particular concern are globally disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones that cause outbreaks and epidemics associated with health care. The most rapidly spreading and tenacious health-care-associated clone in Europe currently is EMRSA-15, which was first detected in the UK in the early 1990s and subsequently spread throughout Europe and beyond. Using phylogenomic methods to analyze the genome sequences for 193 S. aureus isolates, we were able to show that the current pandemic population of EMRSA-15 descends from a health-care-associated MRSA epidemic that spread throughout England in the 1980s, which had itself previously emerged from a primarily community-associated methicillin-sensitive population. The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in this EMRSA-15 subclone in the English Midlands during the mid-1980s appears to have played a key role in triggering pandemic spread, and occurred shortly after the first clinical trials of this drug. Genome-based coalescence analysis estimated that the population of this subclone over the last 20 yr has grown four times faster than its progenitor. Using comparative genomic analysis we identified the molecular genetic basis of 99.8% of the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of the isolates, highlighting the potential of pathogen genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool. We document the genetic changes associated with adaptation to the hospital environment and with increasing drug resistance over time, and how MRSA evolution likely has been influenced by country-specific drug use regimens.
Ashiru-Oredope D, Sharland M, Charani E, et al., 2012, Improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing in the NHS by developing a new Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme: Start Smart-Then Focus, JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, Vol: 67, Pages: I51-I63, ISSN: 0305-7453
Cooke J, Alexander K, Charani E, et al., 2010, Antimicrobial stewardship: an evidence-based, antimicrobial self-assessment toolkit (ASAT) for acute hospitals, JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, Vol: 65, Pages: 2669-2673, ISSN: 0305-7453
Charani E, Cooke J, Holmes A, 2010, Antibiotic stewardship programmes-what's missing?, JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, Vol: 65, Pages: 2275-2277, ISSN: 0305-7453
Charani E, Cooke J, 2008, Promoting prudent use of antibiotics, Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol: 281, ISSN: 0031-6873
Finch R, Cooke J, Charani E, 2008, Will switching lead to increased resistance?, Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol: 280, ISSN: 0031-6873
Cooke J, Davey P, Wickens H, et al., 2007, Improving practice - working together to improve the use of antimicrobials, JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, Vol: 60, Pages: 712-714, ISSN: 0305-7453
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.