6 results found
Pearson I, Halder JB, Basanez M-G, et al., 2017, THE EFFICACY OF PREVENTATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS FOR THE TREATMENT OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND MODEL-BASED META-ANALYSIS, 65th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Tropical-Medicine-and-Hygiene (ASTMH), Publisher: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE, Pages: 344-345, ISSN: 0002-9637
Halder JB, Jule AM, Vaillant M, et al., 2017, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTH TREATMENT EFFICACY STUDIES AND THE CASE FOR SHARING INDIVIDUAL PATIENT DATA, 65th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Tropical-Medicine-and-Hygiene (ASTMH), Publisher: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE, Pages: 542-542, ISSN: 0002-9637
Halder JB, Benton J, Julé AM, et al., 2017, Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing., PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1935-2727
BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT) by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale) which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD) permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance. METHODOLOGY: We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, tran
Clare FC, Halder JB, Daniel O, et al., 2016, Climate forcing of an emerging pathogenic fungus across a montane multi-host community, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 371, ISSN: 1471-2970
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection. We found a robust temporal association between the timing of the spring thaw and Bd infection in two host species, where we show that an early onset of spring forced high prevalences of infection. A third highly susceptible species (the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans) maintained a high prevalence of infection independent of time of spring thaw. Our data show that perennially overwintering midwife toad larvae may act as a year-round reservoir of infection with variation in time of spring thaw determining the extent to which infection spills over into sympatric species. We used future temperature projections based on global climate models to demonstrate that the timing of spring thaw in this region will advance markedly by the 2050s, indicating that climate change will further force the severity of infection. Our findings on the effect of annual variability on multi-host infection dynamics show that the community-level impact of fungal infectious disease on biodiversity will need to be re-evaluated in the face of climate change.
Zhang X, Halder J, White RP, et al., 2014, Climate change increases risk of fusarium ear blight on wheat in central China, ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Vol: 164, Pages: 384-395, ISSN: 0003-4746
Halder JB, 2011, Fusarium Ear Blight in UK Winter Wheat: Weather-based prediction and assessment of risk under climate change, Fusarium Ear Blight in UK Winter Wheat: Weather-based prediction and assessment of risk under climate changeMPhil to PhD transfer report
This report describes work towards predicting the risk of a fungal disease affecting crops, Fusarium Ear Blight, in the UK under climate change. Winter wheat, the crop most grown in the UK, has been increasingly affected in recent years; predictions are desired as to whether climate change will change this risk. Initially, a statistical approach was taken to produce a model predicting a Fusarium toxin in UK winter wheat using weather variables within the growing season. This model will be refined and used with predicted weather under climate change to produce estimates of risk in the 2050s. Practical work was also undertaken to investigate the relationship between weather and airborne fungal DNA (i.e. representing spores) in the time period surrounding the susceptible growth stages of the crop, which may provide support for the statistical model. Further modelling work is planned using machine learning approaches to model the bioclimatic envelope of the Fusarium-causing species is planned. This may complement the statistical model and aid further predictions under climate change of distribution of the fungi. Finally, sources for isolates of fungi are being identified with the aim of carrying out population genetics studies on these, which may lead to insights on the possible evolution of the fungi under climate change.
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