58 results found
Tian K, Dangarh P, Zhang H, et al., 2024, Role of epithelial barrier function in inducing type 2 immunity following early-life viral infection., Clin Exp Allergy, Vol: 54, Pages: 109-119
BACKGROUND: Preschool wheeze attacks triggered by recurrent viral infections, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. However, mechanisms that lead to asthma following early-life viral wheezing remain uncertain. METHODS: To investigate a causal relationship between early-life RSV infections and onset of type 2 immunity, we developed a neonatal murine model of recurrent RSV infection, in vivo and in silico, and evaluated the dynamical changes of altered airway barrier function and downstream immune responses, including eosinophilia, mucus secretion and type 2 immunity. RESULTS: RSV infection of neonatal BALB/c mice at 5 and 15 days of age induced robust airway eosinophilia, increased pulmonary CD4+ IL-13+ and CD4+ IL-5+ cells, elevated levels of IL-13 and IL-5 and increased airway mucus at 20 days of age. Increased bronchoalveolar lavage albumin levels, suggesting epithelial barrier damage, were present and persisted following the second RSV infection. Computational in silico simulations demonstrated that recurrent RSV infection resulted in severe damage of the airway barrier (epithelium), triggering the onset of type 2 immunity. The in silico results also demonstrated that recurrent infection is not always necessary for the development of type 2 immunity, which could also be triggered with single infection of high viral load or when the epithelial barrier repair is compromised. CONCLUSIONS: The neonatal murine model demonstrated that recurrent RSV infection in early life alters airway barrier function and promotes type 2 immunity. A causal relationship between airway barrier function and type 2 immunity was suggested using in silico model simulations.
Harker JA, Greene TT, Barnett BE, et al., 2023, IL-6 and IL-27 play both distinct and redundant roles in regulating CD4 T-cell responses during chronic viral infection, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1664-3224
The IL-6 cytokine family signals through the common signal transduction molecule gp130 combined with a cytokine-specific receptor. Gp130 signaling on CD4 T cells is vital in controlling chronic infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13), but the precise role of individual members of the IL-6 cytokine family is not fully understood. Transcriptional analysis highlighted the importance of gp130 signaling in promoting key processes in CD4 T cells after LCMV Cl13 infection, particularly genes associated with T follicular helper (Tfh) cell differentiation and IL-21 production. Further, Il27r−/−Il6ra−/− mice failed to generate antibody or CD8 T-cell immunity and to control LCMV Cl13. Transcriptomics and phenotypic analyses of Il27r−/−Il6ra−/− Tfh cells revealed that IL-6R and IL-27R signaling was required to activate key pathways within CD4 T cells. IL-6 and IL-27 signaling has distinct and overlapping roles, with IL-6 regulating Tfh differentiation, IL-27 regulating CD4 T cell survival, and both redundantly promoting IL-21.
Harker JA, Lloyd CM, 2023, T helper 2 cells in asthma, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 220, ISSN: 0022-1007
Pyle C, Patel D, Peiro T, et al., 2022, MMP-12 supports pulmonary B cell follicle formation and local antibody responses during asthma, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 206, Pages: 1424-1428, ISSN: 1073-449X
Elliott T, Cheeseman HM, Evans AB, et al., 2022, Enhanced immune responses following heterologous vaccination with self-amplifying RNA and mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1553-7366
The optimal vaccination strategy to boost responses in the context of pre-existing immune memory to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein is an important question for global public health. To address this, we explored the SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immune responses to a novel self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine followed by a UK authorised mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) in individuals with and without previous COVID-19, and compared these responses with those who received an authorised vaccine alone. 35 subjects receiving saRNA (saRNA group) as part of the COVAC1 clinical trial and an additional 40 participants receiving an authorised SARS-CoV-2 vaccine only (non-saRNA group) were recruited. Antibody responses were measured by ELISA and a pseudoneutralisation assay for wildtype, Delta and Omicron variants. Cellular responses were measured by IFN-ƴ ELISpot and an activation induced marker (AIM) assay. Approximately 50% in each group had previous COVID-19 prior to vaccination, confirmed by PCR or antibody positivity on ELISA. All of those who received saRNA subsequently received a full course of an authorised vaccine. The majority (83%) of those receiving saRNA who were COVID-19 naïve at baseline seroconverted following the second dose, and those with previous COVID-19 had an increase in antibody titres two weeks following saRNA vaccination (median 27-fold), however titres were lower when compared to mRNA vaccination. Two weeks following the 2nd authorised mRNA vaccine dose, binding and neutralising antibody titres were significantly higher in the saRNA participants with previous COVID-19, compared to non-saRNA, or COVID-19 naive saRNA participants. Cellular responses were again highest in this group, with a higher proportion of spike specific CD8+ than CD4+ T cells when compared to those receiving the mRNA vaccine only. These findings suggest an immunological benefit of increased antigen exposure, both from natural infection and vaccination, particularly e
Mary R, Chalmin F, Accogli T, et al., 2022, Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D<sub>2</sub> Synthase Controls Tfh/Th2 Communication and Limits Tfh Antitumor Effects, CANCER IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH, Vol: 10, Pages: 900-916, ISSN: 2326-6066
Vijayakumar B, Boustani K, Ogger P, et al., 2022, Immuno-proteomic profiling reveals aberrant immune cell regulation in the airways of individuals with ongoing post-COVD-19 respiratory disease, Immunity, Vol: 55, Pages: 542-556.e5, ISSN: 1074-7613
Some patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19 suffer respiratory symptoms that persist for many months. We delineated the immune-proteomic landscape in the airway and peripheral blood of healthy controls and post-COVID-19 patients 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge. Post-COVID-19 patients showed abnormal airway (but not plasma) proteomes, with elevated concentration of proteins associated with apoptosis, tissue repair and epithelial injury versus healthy individuals. Increased numbers of cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed in individuals with greater airway dysfunction, while increased B cell numbers and altered monocyte subsets were associated with more widespread lung abnormalities. 1 year follow-up of some post-COVID-19 patients indicated that these abnormalities resolved over time. In summary, COVID-19 causes a prolonged change to the airway immune landscape in those with persistent lung disease, with evidence of cell death and tissue repair linked to ongoing activation of cytotoxic T cells.
Boustani K, Ghai P, Invernizzi R, et al., 2022, Autoantibodies are present in the bronchoalveolar lavage but not circulation in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2312-0541
Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (fILD) has previously been associated with the presence of autoantibody. While studies have focused on systemic autoimmunity, the role of local autoantibodies in the airways remains unknown. We therefore extensively characterised the airway and peripheral autoantibody profiles in patients with fILD and assessed association with disease severity and outcome.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected from a cohort of fILD patients and total BAL antibody concentrations were quantified. An autoantigen microarray was used to measure IgG and IgA autoantibodies against 122 autoantigens in BAL from 40 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 20 chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP), 20 connective tissue disease-associated ILD (CTD-ILD) patients and 20 controls.A subset of patients with fILD but not healthy controls had a local autoimmune signature in their BAL that was not present systemically, regardless of disease. The proportion of patients with IPF with a local autoantibody signature was comparable to that of CTD-ILD, which has a known autoimmune pathology, identifying a potentially novel subset of patients. The presence of an airway autoimmune signature was not associated with reduced survival probability or changes in lung function
Uwadiae FI, Harker JA, 2022, T Follicular Helper Cells in Asthma Through Murine Models of Allergic Airway Disease., Methods Mol Biol, Vol: 2380, Pages: 235-254
The development of allergen-specific IgE is one of the hallmark symptoms of allergic diseases, including asthma. T follicular helper cells (TFH) are a subset of CD4+ T cells that play a critical role in T-dependent antibody responses, including the generation of allergen-specific IgE. However, the role that TFH play in the pathogenesis of allergic disease is not completely understood especially as TFH produce IL-4 and IL-21 which are known to promote and prevent class switch recombination to IgE respectively. Here we describe methods of investigating TFH biology in the context of allergic airway inflammation, including how to set up mouse models of allergic airway disease, flow cytometric analysis of mouse TFH and detection of allergic-specific antibodies.
Pyle CJ, Labeur-Iurman L, Groves HT, et al., 2021, Enhanced IL-2 in early life limits the development of TFH and protective antiviral immunity, Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol: 218, ISSN: 0022-1007
T follicular helper cell (TFH)-dependent antibody responses are critical for long-term immunity. Antibody responses are diminished in early life, limiting long-term protective immunity and allowing prolonged or recurrent infection, which may be important for viral lung infections that are highly prevalent in infancy. In a murine model using respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), we show that TFH and the high-affinity antibody production they promote are vital for preventing disease on RSV reinfection. Following a secondary RSV infection, TFH-deficient mice had significantly exacerbated disease characterized by delayed viral clearance, increased weight loss, and immunopathology. TFH generation in early life was compromised by heightened IL-2 and STAT5 signaling in differentiating naive T cells. Neutralization of IL-2 during early-life RSV infection resulted in a TFH-dependent increase in antibody-mediated immunity and was sufficient to limit disease severity upon reinfection. These data demonstrate the importance of TFH in protection against recurrent RSV infection and highlight a mechanism by which this is suppressed in early life.
Niogret J, Berger H, Rebe C, et al., 2021, Follicular helper-T cells restore CD8+-dependent antitumor immunity and anti-PD-L1/PD-1 efficacy, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2051-1426
BACKGROUND: T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are essential to shape B cell response during germinal center formation. Tfh accumulation has been reported in various human cancers, with positive or negative prognostic roles. However, the mechanisms explaining the accumulation of Tfh and their role in cancer remain obscure. METHODS: In vitro differentiated and mouse cell sorted Tfh phenotype was evaluated by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Antitumor effect of Tfh was evaluated by adoptive transfer in different tumor-bearing mice models. The involvement of immune cells, cytokines and chemokines was evaluated, using depleting antibodies. Chemokines and cytokines expression and production were evaluated by qPCR and ELISA. In human, the impact of immune cells and chemokines on survival was evaluated by analyzing transcriptomic data from public databases and from our own patient cohorts. RESULTS: In this study, we show that Tfh exert an antitumor immune effect in a CD8+-dependent manner. Tfh produce interleukin-21, which sustains proliferation, viability, cytokine production and cytotoxic functions of exhausted T cells. The presence of Tfh is required for efficacy of antiprogrammed cell death ligand-1 therapy. Tfh accumulate in the tumor bed and draining lymph nodes in different mouse cancer models. This recruitment is due to the capacity of transforming growth factor β to drive Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 13 expression, a chemoattractant of Tfh, by intratumor CD8+ T cells. Accumulation of Tfh and exhausted CD8+ T cells predicts cancer outcome in various cancer types. In patients treated with anti-programmed cell death-1 mAb, accumulation of Tfh and CD8+ at the tumor site is associated with outcome. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that CD8+/Tfh crosstalk is important in shaping antitumor immune response generated by immunotherapy.
Juzenaite G, Secklehner J, Vuononvirta J, et al., 2021, Lung marginated and splenic murine resident neutrophils constitute pioneers in tissue-defense during systemic E. coli challenge, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1664-3224
The rapid response of neutrophils throughout the body to a systemic challenge is a critical first step in resolution of bacterial infection such as Escherichia coli (E. coli). Here we delineated the dynamics of this response, revealing novel insights into the molecular mechanisms using lung and spleen intravital microscopy and 3D ex vivo culture of living precision cut splenic slices in combination with fluorescent labelling of endogenous leukocytes. Within seconds after challenge, intravascular marginated neutrophils and lung endothelial cells (ECs) work cooperatively to capture pathogens. Neutrophils retained on lung ECs slow their velocity and aggregate in clusters that enlarge as circulating neutrophils carrying E. coli stop within the microvasculature. The absolute number of splenic neutrophils does not change following challenge; however, neutrophils increase their velocity, migrate to the marginal zone (MZ) and form clusters. Irrespective of their location all neutrophils capturing heat-inactivated E. coli take on an activated phenotype showing increasing surface CD11b. At a molecular level we show that neutralization of ICAM-1 results in splenic neutrophil redistribution to the MZ under homeostasis. Following challenge, splenic levels of CXCL12 and ICAM-1 are reduced allowing neutrophils to migrate to the MZ in a CD29-integrin dependent manner, where the enlargement of splenic neutrophil clusters is CXCR2-CXCL2 dependent. We show directly molecular mechanisms that allow tissue resident neutrophils to provide the first lines of antimicrobial defense by capturing circulating E. coli and forming clusters both in the microvessels of the lung and in the parenchyma of the spleen.
Harker JA, Lloyd CM, 2021, Overlapping and distinct features of viral and allergen immunity in the human lung, IMMUNITY, Vol: 54, Pages: 617-631, ISSN: 1074-7613
Harker JA, Johansson C, 2021, Rapidly deployable mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection add flexibility to the COVID-19 toolbox, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol: 64, Pages: 7-9, ISSN: 1044-1549
Harker JA, Pallett LJ, 2020, Immunological fortification at our barrier prgans: protecting us as we age (vol 160, pg 103, 2020), Immunology, Vol: 160, Pages: 394-394, ISSN: 0019-2805
Efstathiou C, Abidi SH, Harker J, et al., 2020, Revisiting respiratory syncytial virus's interaction with host immunity, towards novel therapeutics, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1420-682X
Every year there are > 33 million cases of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-related respiratory infection in children under the age of five, making RSV the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants. RSV is a global infection, but 99% of related mortality is in low/middle-income countries. Unbelievably, 62 years after its identification, there remains no effective treatment nor vaccine for this deadly virus, leaving infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients at high risk. The success of all pathogens depends on their ability to evade and modulate the host immune response. RSV has a complex and intricate relationship with our immune systems, but a clearer understanding of these interactions is essential in the development of effective medicines. Therefore, in a bid to update and focus our research community’s understanding of RSV’s interaction with immune defences, this review aims to discuss how our current knowledgebase could be used to combat this global viral threat.
Harker JA, Pallett LJ, 2020, Immunological fortification at our barrier organs: Protecting us as we age, Immunology, Vol: 160, Pages: 103-105, ISSN: 0019-2805
Our barrier surfaces are fundamental in protecting us from the outside world and segregating key biological processes. The immunological fortifications found at these sites therefore possess many distinct qualities, which are discussed in Immunology 's series of reviews on Barrier Immunity. Together these reviews showcase novel biological processes identified through the use of state‐of‐the‐art technologies, and specifically highlight how these change throughout our lives.
Harker JA, Snelgrove RJ, 2020, A Not-So-Good Way to Die? Respiratory Syncytial Virus-induced Necroptotic Cell Death Promotes Inflammation and Type 2-mediated Pathology, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 201, Pages: 1321-1323, ISSN: 1073-449X
Foster W, Grime C, Tan H-L, et al., 2020, Enhanced frequency and function of follicular T cells in the tonsils of house dust mite sensitized children, Allergy, Vol: 75, Pages: 1240-1243, ISSN: 0105-4538
Beloueche-Babari M, Casals Galobart T, Delgado-Goni T, et al., 2020, Monocarboxylate transporter 1 blockade with AZD3965 inhibits lipid biosynthesis and increases tumour immune cell infiltration, British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 122, Pages: 895-903, ISSN: 0007-0920
BackgroundMonocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is a regulator of cell metabolism and a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Understanding the changes in tumour function accompanying MCT1 inhibition will better characterise the anti-tumour effects of MCT1 inhibitors, potentially enabling the identification of pharmacodynamic biomarkers for the clinical development of these agents.MethodsWe assessed the impact of the MCT1 inhibitor AZD3965 on tumour metabolism and immune cell infiltration as key determinants of tumour biological function in the MCT1-dependent Raji B cell lymphoma model.ResultsTreatment of Raji xenograft-bearing severe combined immunodeficiency mice with AZD3965 led to inhibition of tumour growth paralleled with a decrease in tumour choline, as detected by non-invasive in vivo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This effect was attributed to inhibition of phosphocholine de novo synthesis following decreased choline kinase α protein and messenger RNA expression that correlated with the AZD3965-induced build-up in intracellular lactate. These changes were concomitant with increased tumour immune cell infiltration involving dendritic and natural killer cells.ConclusionsOur data provide new insights into the metabolic and cellular changes that occur in the tumour microenvironment following MCT1 blockade, which may contribute to the anti-tumour activity of AZD3965 and could have potential as pharmacodynamic biomarkers of MCT1 inhibition.
Wong K, Harker J, Dolgoter A, et al., 2019, T cell-intrinsic IL6R signaling is required for optimal ICOS expression and viral control during chronic infection, Journal of Immunology, ISSN: 1550-6606
The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an integral role not only in innate inflammatory responses but also in the activation and differentiation of lymphocyte subsets. Here, by using a conditional knockout model with selective IL-6 receptor deletion in T cells (IL6R-cKO), we demonstrated that T cell-specific IL6R signaling is essential for viral control during persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection. Strikingly, we observed that in contrast to previous studies with ubiquitous IL-6 deletion or blockade, specific IL6R deletion in T cells did not affect T follicular helper (Tfh) accumulation unless IL6R-deficient T cells were competing with wildtype cells in mixed bone marrow chimeras. On the other hand, Tfh cells from IL6R-cKO infected mice exhibited reduced ICOS expression in both chimeric and non-chimeric settings, and this sole identifiable Tfh defect was associated with reduced germinal centres, compromised immunoglobulin switch and low avidity of LCMV-specific antibodies despite intact IL6R expression in B cells. We posit that IL6R cis-signaling is absolutely required for appropriate ICOS expression in Tfh cells and provides a competitive advantage for Tfh accumulation, enabling generation of optimal B cell and antibody responses, and ultimately viral control during in vivo chronic infection.
Uwadiae F, Pyle C, Walker S, et al., 2019, Targeting the ICOS/ICOS-L pathway in a mouse model of established allergic asthma disrupts T follicular helper cell responses and ameliorates disease, Allergy, Vol: 74, Pages: 650-662, ISSN: 0105-4538
BackgroundAllergic asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation and remodelling of the airways, associated with dysregulated type 2 immune responses and allergen‐specific IgE. T follicular helper cells (TFH) are crucial in T‐dependent B cell responses and have been implicated in allergic airway disease (AAD). TFH, unlike other CD4+ T cells are uniquely reliant on continuous ICOS signalling to maintain their phenotype after T cell priming, therefore disrupting this signal can impair TFH responses. However, the contribution of TFH to disease during chronic aero‐allergen exposure and the therapeutic potential of targeting these cells has not been evaluated.MethodsTo establish AAD, female BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to house dust mite or Alternaria alternata three times a week for up to 5 weeks. To examine the impact of TFH on AAD, mice were allergen exposed for 5 weeks and co‐administered anti‐ICOS‐Ligand targeted antibodies, 3 times for the last 2 weeks.ResultsTFH were first observed in the lung draining lymph nodes and with further exposure were also found locally within the lungs. TFH accumulated with sustained allergen exposure, alongside germinal centre (GC) B cells. Blockade of ICOS signalling after AAD establishment successfully depleted TFH but did not affect the differentiation of other CD4+ T cell subsets. This reduced GC responses, allergen‐specific IgE, inflammation, pulmonary IL‐13 and airway hyper‐responsiveness.ConclusionsTFH are crucial in the regulation of AAD and the ICOS/ICOS‐L pathway could represent a novel therapeutic target in allergic asthma.
Lloyd CM, Harker JA, 2018, Epigenetic control of interleukin-9 in asthma, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 379, Pages: 87-89, ISSN: 0028-4793
Harker J, Wong K, Dallari S, et al., 2018, IL-27R signalling mediates early viral containment and impacts innate and adaptive immunity after chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, Journal of Virology, Vol: 92, ISSN: 1098-5514
Chronic viral infections represent a major challenge to host's immune response and a unique network of immunological elements, including cytokines, are required for their containment. By using a model persistent infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) we investigated the role of one such cytokine, interleukin 27 (IL-27), in the control of chronic infection. We found that IL-27R signalling promoted control of LCMV Cl13 as early as day 1 and 5 after infection and that il27p28 transcripts were rapidly elevated in multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells. In particular, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), the most potent type-1-interferon (IFN-I) producing cells, significantly increased il27p28 in a TLR7 dependent fashion. Notably, mice deficient in IL-27 specific receptor (R), WSX-1, exhibited a pleiotropy of innate and adaptive immune alterations after chronic LCMV infection, including compromised NK cell cytotoxicity and antibody responses. While, the majority of these immune alterations appeared cell-extrinsic, cell-intrinsic IL-27R was necessary to maintain early pDC numbers, which, alongside lower IFN-I transcription in CD11b+ DCs and myeloid cells, may explain the compromised IFN-I elevation that we observed early after LCMV Cl13 infection in IL-27R-deficient mice. Together these data highlight the critical role of IL-27 in enabling optimal anti-viral immunity early and late after infection with a systemic persistent virus and suggest that a previously unrecognized positive feedback-loop mediated by IL-27 in pDCs might be involved in this process.
Ling GS, Crawford G, Buang N, et al., 2018, C1q restrains autoimmunity and viral infection by regulating CD8+ T cell metabolism, Science, Vol: 360, Pages: 558-563, ISSN: 0036-8075
Deficiency of C1q, the initiator of the complement classical pathway, is associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Explaining this association in terms of abnormalities in the classical pathway alone remains problematic because C3 deficiency does not predispose to SLE. Here, using a mouse model of SLE, we demonstrate that C1q, but not C3, restrains the response to self-antigens by modulating the mitochondrial metabolism of CD8+ T cells, which can themselves propagate autoimmunity. C1q deficiency also triggers an exuberant effector CD8+ T cell response to chronic viral infection leading to lethal immunopathology. These data establish a link between C1q and CD8+ T cell metabolism and may explain how C1q protects against lupus, with implications for the role of viral infections in the perpetuation of autoimmunity.
Johnson JR, Harker JA, 2017, Allergic Airway Disease: More than Meets the IgE?, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Vol: 57, Pages: 631-632, ISSN: 1044-1549
Greczmiel U, Kräutler NJ, Pedrioli A, et al., 2017, Sustained T follicular helper cell response is essential for control of chronic viral infection., Science Immunology, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2470-9468
During chronic viral infections, both CD8 and CD4 T cell responses are functionally compromised. Alongside exhaustion of CD8 T cells during chronic viral infections, it has also been documented that the CD4 T cells have an increased propensity to differentiate toward CXCR5+ T follicular helper cell (TFH) lineage. Whether these TFH cells contribute to the immune response to chronic viral infection has remained unclear. Using chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in conjunction with an in vivo system where TFH cells can be conditionally ablated, we have established that these TFH cells do in fact play an important protective function. Specifically, we demonstrate that these TFH cells are essential for the late emergence of neutralizing LCMV-specific antibodies that keep viral titers in check and ultimately allow mice to clear the virus. By supporting the generation of neutralizing antibodies, we show that sustained activity of TFH cells promotes control of the chronic infection in face of exhausted CD8 T cell responses.
Peiró T, Patel DF, Akthar S, et al., 2017, Neutrophils drive alveolar macrophage IL-1β release during respiratory viral infection, Thorax, Vol: 73, Pages: 546-556, ISSN: 1468-3296
Background Alveolar macrophages are sentinels of the airways that must exhibit immune restraint to innocuous antigens but elicit a robust inflammatory response to pathogenic threats. How distinction between these dichotomous functions is controlled is poorly defined.Neutrophils are the first responders to infection, and we hypothesised that they may free alveolar macrophages from their hyporesponsive state, promoting their activation. Activation of the inflammasome and interleukin (IL)-1β release is a key early inflammatory event that must be tightly regulated. Thus, the role of neutrophils in defining inflammasome activation in the alveolar macrophage was assessed.Methods Mice were infected with the X31 strain of influenza virus and the role of neutrophils in alveolar macrophage activation established through administration of a neutrophil-depleting (1A8) antibody.Results Influenza elicited a robust IL-1β release that correlated (r=0.6849; p<0.001) with neutrophil infiltrate and was ablated by neutrophil depletion. Alveolar macrophages were shown to be the prominent source of IL-1β during influenza infection, and virus triggered the expression of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and pro-IL-1β in these cells. However, subsequent activation of the inflammasome complex and release of mature IL-1β from alveolar macrophages were critically dependent on the provision of a secondary signal, in the form of antimicrobial peptide mCRAMP, from infiltrating neutrophils.Conclusions Neutrophils are critical for the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in alveolar macrophages during respiratory viral infection. Accordingly, we rationalise that neutrophils are recruited to the lung to confront a viable pathogenic threat and subsequently commit alveolar macrophages to a pro-inflammatory phenotype to combat infection.
Pyle CJ, Uwadiae FI, Swieboda DP, et al., 2017, Early IL-6 signalling promotes IL-27 dependent maturation of regulatory T cells in the lungs and resolution of viral immunopathology., PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1553-7366
Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic, pro-inflammatory cytokine that can promote both innate and adaptive immune responses. In humans with respiratory virus infections, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), elevated concentrations of IL-6 are associated with more severe disease. In contrast the polymorphisms in the Il6 promoter which favour lower IL-6 production are associated with increased risk of both RSV and Rhinovirus infections. To determine the precise contribution of IL-6 to protection and pathology we used murine models of respiratory virus infection. RSV infection resulted in increased IL-6 production both in the airways and systemically which remained heightened for at least 2 weeks. IL-6 depletion early, but not late, during RSV or Influenza A virus infection resulted in significantly increased disease associated with an influx of virus specific TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, whilst not affecting viral clearance. IL-6 acted by driving production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-27 by macrophages and monocytes, which in turn promoted the local maturation of regulatory T cells. Concordantly IL-27 was necessary to regulate TH1 responses in the lungs, and sufficient to limit RSV induced disease. Overall we found that during respiratory virus infection the prototypic inflammatory cytokine IL-6 is a critical anti-inflammatory regulator of viral induced immunopathology in the respiratory tract through its induction of IL-27.
Varricchi G, Harker J, Borriello F, et al., 2016, T follicular helper (Tfh ) cells in normal immune responses and in allergic disorders., Allergy, Vol: 71, Pages: 1086-1094, ISSN: 0105-4538
Follicular helper T cells (Tfh ) are located within germinal centers of lymph nodes. Cognate interaction between Tfh , B cells, and IL-21 drives B cells to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells thereby leading to antibody production. Tfh cells and IL-21 are involved in infectious and autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, vaccination, and cancer. Human peripheral blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells comprise different subsets of Tfh -like cells. Despite the importance of the IgE response in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, little is known about the role of follicular and blood Tfh cells and IL-21 in human and experimental allergic disease. Here, we review recent advances regarding the phenotypic and functional characteristics of both follicular and blood Tfh cells and of the IL-21/IL-21R system in the context of allergic disorders.
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