11 results found
Ansari S, Abdel-Malek M, Kenkre J, et al., 2021, The use of whole blood capillary samples to measure 15 analytes for a home-collect biochemistry service during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A proposed model from North West London Pathology, ANNALS OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, ISSN: 0004-5632
Kenkre J, Ahmed A, Purkayastha S, et al., 2021, Who will benefit from bariatric surgery for diabetes? A protocol for an observational cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055
Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are pandemic diseases that lead to a great deal of morbidity and mortality. The most effective treatment for obesity and T2DM is bariatric or metabolic surgery; it can lead to long-term diabetes remission with 4 in 10 of those undergoing surgery having normal blood glucose on no medication 1 year postoperatively. However, surgery carries risks and, additionally, due to resource limitations, there is a restricted number of patients who can access this treatment. Moreover, not all those who undertake surgery respond equally well metabolically. The objective of the current research is to prospectively investigate predictors of T2DM response following metabolic surgery, including those directly involved in its aetiopathogenesis such as fat distribution and genetic variants. This will inform development of a clinically applicable model to help prioritise this therapy to those predicted to have remission.Methods and analysis A prospective multicentre observational cohort study of adult patients with T2DM and obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients will be comprehensively assessed before surgery to determine their clinical, metabolic, psychological, genetic and fat distribution profiles. A multivariate logistic regression model will be used to assess the value of the factors derived from the preoperative assessment in terms of prediction of diabetes remission.Ethics and dissemination Formal ethics review was undertaken with a favourable opinion (UK HRA RES reference number 18/LO/0931). The dissemination plan is to present the results at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals as well as to lay media and to patient organisations.Trial registration details ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03842475.
Ilesanmi I, Tharakan G, Alexiadou K, et al., 2021, Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Increases Glycemic Variability and Time in Hypoglycemia in Patients With Obesity and Prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study, DIABETES CARE, Vol: 44, Pages: 614-617, ISSN: 0149-5992
Izzi-Engbeaya C, Distaso W, Amin A, et al., 2021, Adverse outcomes in COVID-19 and diabetes – a retrospective cohort study from three London Teaching hospitals, BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2052-4897
INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes mellitus admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have poorer outcomes. However, the drivers for this are not fully elucidated. We performed detailed characterisation of COVID-19 patients to determine clinical and biochemical factors that may be the drivers of poorer outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 889 consecutive inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 9th March 2020 and 22nd April 2020 in a large London NHS Trust. Unbiased multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine variables that were independently and significantly associated with increased risk of death and/or ICU admission within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 62% of patients in our cohort were of non-White ethnic backgrounds and the diabetes prevalence was 38%. 323 (36%) patients met the primary outcome of death/admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Male gender, lower platelet count, advancing age and higher Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score (but not diabetes) independently predicted poor outcomes on multivariate analysis. Antiplatelet medication was associated with a lower risk of death/ICU admission. Factors that were significantly and independently associated with poorer outcomes in patients with diabetes were co-existing ischaemic heart disease, increasing age and lower platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of a diverse patient population, comorbidity (i.e. diabetes with ischaemic heart disease; increasing CFS score in older patients) were major determinants of poor outcomes with COVID-19. Antiplatelet medication should be evaluated in randomised clinical trials amongst high-risk patient groups.
Behary P, Tharakan G, Alexiadou K, et al., 2019, Combined GLP-1, oxyntomodulin, and peptide YY improves body weight and glycemia in obesity and prediabetes/type 2 diabetes: a randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 42, Pages: 1446-1453, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) augments postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), and peptide YY (PYY). Subcutaneous infusion of these hormones ("GOP"), mimicking postprandial levels, reduces energy intake. Our objective was to study the effects of GOP on glycemia and body weight when given for 4 weeks to patients with diabetes and obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-blinded mechanistic study, obese patients with prediabetes/diabetes were randomized to GOP (n = 15) or saline (n = 11) infusion for 4 weeks. We also studied 21 patients who had undergone RYGB and 22 patients who followed a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) as unblinded comparators. Outcomes measured were 1) body weight, 2) fructosamine levels, 3) glucose and insulin during a mixed meal test (MMT), 4) energy expenditure (EE), 5) energy intake (EI), and 6) mean glucose and measures of glucose variability during continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: GOP infusion was well tolerated over the 4-week period. There was a greater weight loss (P = 0.025) with GOP (mean change -4.4 [95% CI -5.3, -3.5] kg) versus saline (-2.5 [-4.1, -0.9] kg). GOP led to a greater improvement (P = 0.0026) in fructosamine (-44.1 [-62.7, -25.5] µmol/L) versus saline (-11.7 [-18.9, -4.5] µmol/L). Despite a smaller weight loss compared with RYGB and VLCD, GOP led to superior glucose tolerance after a mixed-meal stimulus and reduced glycemic variability compared with RYGB and VLCD. CONCLUSIONS: GOP infusion improves glycemia and reduces body weight. It achieves superior glucose tolerance and reduced glucose variability compared with RYGB and VLCD. GOP is a viable alternative for the treatment of diabetes with favorable effects on body weight.
Kenkre JS, Bassett JH, 2018, The bone remodelling cycle, Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, Vol: 55, Pages: 308-327, ISSN: 1758-1001
The bone remodelling cycle replaces old and damaged bone and is a highly regulated, lifelong process essential for preserving bone integrity and maintaining mineral homeostasis. During the bone remodelling cycle osteoclastic resorption is tightly coupled to osteoblastic bone formation. The remodelling cycle occurs within the Basic Multicellular Unit and comprises five co-ordinated steps; activation, resorption, reversal, formation and termination. These steps occur simultaneously but asynchronously at multiple different locations within the skeleton. Study of rare human bone disease and animal models have helped to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the bone remodelling cycle. The key signalling pathways controlling osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation are Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor-ĸΒ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/ Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and canonical Wnt signalling. Cytokines, growth factors and prostaglandins act as paracrine regulators of the cycle whereas endocrine regulators include parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, calcitonin, growth hormone (GH), glucocorticoids, sex hormones, androgens and thyroid hormone. Disruption of the bone remodelling cycle and any resulting imbalance between bone resorption and formation leads to metabolic bone disease, most commonly osteoporosis. The advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying bone remodelling have also provided targets for pharmacological interventions which include antiresorptive and anabolic therapies. This review will describe the remodelling process and its regulation, discuss osteoporosis and summarize the commonest pharmacological interventions used in its management.
Tharakan G, Behary P, Wewer Albrechtsen NJ, et al., 2017, Roles of increased glycemic variability, GLP-1 and glucagon in hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass., European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol: 177, Pages: 455-464, ISSN: 0804-4643
Objective Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery is currently the most effective treatment for diabetes and obesity. An increasingly recognized complication of RYGB surgery is postprandial hypoglycemia (PPH). The pathophysiology of PPH remains unclear with multiple mechanisms suggested including nesidioblastosis, altered insulin clearance and increased glucagon-like-1 peptide (GLP-1) secretion. Whilst many PPH patients respond to dietary modification, some have severely disabling symptoms. Multiple treatments have been trialled ranging from acarbose, to both GLP-1 agonists and antagonists, even to reversal of RYGB. A greater understanding of the pathophysiology of PPH could guide the development of new therapeutic strategies. Methods We studied a cohort of PPH patients at the Imperial Weight Center. We performed continuous glucose monitoring to characterize their altered glycemic variability. We also performed a mixed meal test (MMT) and measured gut hormone concentrations. Results We found increased glycemic variability in our cohort of PPH patients, specifically a higher Mean Amplitude Glucose Excursion (MAGE) score of 4.9. We also demonstrated significantly greater and earlier increases in insulin and GLP-1 concentration in patients who had hypoglycemia in response to an MMT (MMT Hypo) relative to those that did not (MMT Non-Hypo). There was a significantly increased glucagon secretion in the MMT Hypo group versus the Non-hypo group. No significant differences in oxyntomodulin, GIP or peptide YY secretion were seen between these two groups. Conclusion An early peak in GLP-1 and glucagon, due to post-operative L-cell hypertrophy and aberrant processing of proglucagon, may trigger an exaggerated insulinotropic response to eating in patients with PPH.
Kenkre JS, 2015, Reassessment of fracture risk in women after 3 years of treatment with zoledronic acid: when is it reasonable to discontinue treatment?, Ann Clin Biochem, Vol: 52
Cegla J, Troke RC, Jones B, et al., 2014, Coinfusion of low-dose GLP-1 and glucagon in man results in a reduction in food intake, Diabetes, Vol: 63, Pages: 3711-3720, ISSN: 0012-1797
Obesity is a growing epidemic, and current medical therapies have proven inadequate. Endogenous satiety hormones provide an attractive target for the development of drugs that aim to cause effective weight loss with minimal side effects. Both glucagon and GLP-1 reduce appetite and cause weight loss. Additionally, glucagon increases energy expenditure. We hypothesized that the combination of both peptides, administered at doses that are individually subanorectic, would reduce appetite, while GLP-1 would protect against the hyperglycemic effect of glucagon. In this double-blind crossover study, subanorectic doses of each peptide alone, both peptides in combination, or placebo was infused into 13 human volunteers for 120 min. An ad libitum meal was provided after 90 min, and calorie intake determined. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry at baseline and during infusion. Glucagon or GLP-1, given individually at subanorectic doses, did not significantly reduce food intake. Coinfusion at the same doses led to a significant reduction in food intake of 13%. Furthermore, the addition of GLP-1 protected against glucagon-induced hyperglycemia, and an increase in energy expenditure of 53 kcal/day was seen on coinfusion. These observations support the concept of GLP-1 and glucagon dual agonism as a possible treatment for obesity and diabetes.
Kenkre J, Tan T, Bloom S, 2013, Treating the obese diabetic, EXPERT REVIEW OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 6, Pages: 171-183, ISSN: 1751-2433
Izzi-Engbeaya C, Distaso W, Amin A, et al., Severe COVID-19 and Diabetes - A Retrospective Cohort Study from Three London Teaching Hospitals
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Patients with diabetes mellitus admitted to hospital with COVID-19 caused by infection with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have poorer outcomes. However, the drivers for this are not fully elucidated. We performed a retrospective cohort study, including detailed pre-hospital and presenting clinical and biochemical factors of 889 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in three constituent hospitals of a large London NHS Trust. 62% of patients with severe COVID-19 were of non-White ethnic backgrounds and the prevalence of diabetes was 38%. 323 (36%) patients met the primary outcome of death or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 30 days of diagnosis. Male gender, advancing age and the Clinical Frailty Scale, an established measure of multimorbidity, independently predicted poor outcomes on multivariate analysis. Diabetes did not confer an independent risk for adverse outcomes in COVID-19, although patients with diabetes and ischaemic heart disease were at particular risk. Additional risk factors which significantly and independently associated with poorer outcomes in patients with diabetes were age, male gender and lower platelet count. Antiplatelet medication was associated with a lower risk of death/ICU admission and should be evaluated in randomised clinical trials amongst high risk patient groups.</jats:p>
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