227 results found
Lawson J, Martin G, Guha P, et al., 2023, Effect of mixed reality on delivery of emergency medical care in a simulated environment: a pilot randomized cross-over trial, JAMA Network Open, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2574-3805
Importance Mixed-reality (MR) technology has the potential to enhance care delivery, but there remains a paucity of evidence for its efficacy and feasibility.Objective To assess the efficacy and feasibility of MR technology to enhance emergency care delivery in a simulated environment.Design, Setting, and Participants This pilot randomized crossover trial was conducted from September to November 2021 at a single center in a high-fidelity simulated environment with participants block randomized to standard care (SC) or MR-supported care (MR-SC) groups. Participants were 22 resident-grade physicians working in acute medical and surgical specialties prospectively recruited from a single UK Academic Health Sciences Centre. Data were analyzed from September to December 2022.Intervention Participants resuscitated a simulated patient who was acutely unwell, including undertaking invasive procedures. Participants completed 2 scenarios and were randomly assigned to SC or MR-SC for the first scenario prior to crossover. The HoloLens 2 MR device provided interactive holographic content and bidirectional audiovisual communication with senior physicians in the MR-SC group.Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was error rate assessed via the Imperial College Error Capture (ICECAP) multidimensional error-capture tool. Secondary outcomes included teamwork (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery [OTAS]; range, 0-6 and Teamwork Skills Assessment for Ward Care [T-SAW-C]; range, 1-5), scenario completion, stress and cognitive load (NASA Task Load Index [NASA-TLX; range 0-100]), and MR device user acceptability.Results A total of 22 physicians (15 males [68.2%]; median [range] age, 28 [25-34] years) were recruited. MR technology significantly reduced the mean (SD) number of errors per scenario compared with SC (5.16 [3.34] vs 8.30 [3.09] errors; P = .003), with substantial reductions in procedural (0.79 [0.75] vs 1.52 [1.20] errors; P =
Vande Voorde J, Steven RT, Najumudeen AK, et al., 2023, Metabolic profiling stratifies colorectal cancer and reveals adenosylhomocysteinase as a therapeutic target., Nat Metab, Vol: 5, Pages: 1303-1318
The genomic landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC) is shaped by inactivating mutations in tumour suppressors such as APC, and oncogenic mutations such as mutant KRAS. Here we used genetically engineered mouse models, and multimodal mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to study the impact of common genetic drivers of CRC on the metabolic landscape of the intestine. We show that untargeted metabolic profiling can be applied to stratify intestinal tissues according to underlying genetic alterations, and use mass spectrometry imaging to identify tumour, stromal and normal adjacent tissues. By identifying ions that drive variation between normal and transformed tissues, we found dysregulation of the methionine cycle to be a hallmark of APC-deficient CRC. Loss of Apc in the mouse intestine was found to be sufficient to drive expression of one of its enzymes, adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY), which was also found to be transcriptionally upregulated in human CRC. Targeting of AHCY function impaired growth of APC-deficient organoids in vitro, and prevented the characteristic hyperproliferative/crypt progenitor phenotype driven by acute deletion of Apc in vivo, even in the context of mutant Kras. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of AHCY reduced intestinal tumour burden in ApcMin/+ mice indicating its potential as a metabolic drug target in CRC.
Kinross J, 2023, Microbiome is the key to preventing anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery, Gut, ISSN: 0017-5749
Alexander J, Posma J, Scott A, et al., 2023, Pathobionts in the tumour microbiota predict survival following resection for colorectal cancer, Microbiome, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2049-2618
Background and aimsThe gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to map the CRC mucosal microbiota and metabolome and define the influence of the tumoral microbiota on oncological outcomes.MethodsA multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted of CRC patients undergoing primary surgical resection in the UK (n = 74) and Czech Republic (n = 61). Analysis was performed using metataxonomics, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), targeted bacterial qPCR and tumour exome sequencing. Hierarchical clustering accounting for clinical and oncological covariates was performed to identify clusters of bacteria and metabolites linked to CRC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to ascertain clusters associated with disease-free survival over median follow-up of 50 months.ResultsThirteen mucosal microbiota clusters were identified, of which five were significantly different between tumour and paired normal mucosa. Cluster 7, containing the pathobionts Fusobacterium nucleatum and Granulicatella adiacens, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR = 0.0002). Additionally, tumoral dominance of cluster 7 independently predicted favourable disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.031). Cluster 1, containing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, was negatively associated with cancer (PFDR = 0.0009), and abundance was independently predictive of worse disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.0009). UPLC-MS analysis revealed two major metabolic (Met) clusters. Met 1, composed of medium chain (MCFA), long-chain (LCFA) and very long-chain (VLCFA) fatty acid species, ceramides and lysophospholipids, was negatively associated with CRC (PFDR = 2.61 × 10−11); Met 2, composed of phosphatidylcholine species, nucleosides and amino acids, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR&
Stackhouse AA, Rafi D, Walls R, et al., 2023, Knowledge attainment and engagement among medical students: a comparison of three forms of online learning, Advances in Medical Education and Practice, Vol: 14, Pages: 373-380, ISSN: 1179-7258
Objective: This study compared knowledge attainment and student enjoyment and engagement between clinical case vignette, patient-testimony videos and mixed reality (MR) teaching via the Microsoft HoloLens 2, all delivered remotely to third year medical students. The feasibility of conducting MR teaching on a large scale was also assessed.Setting & Participants: Medical students in Year 3 at Imperial College London participated in three online teaching sessions, one in each format. All students were expected to attend these scheduled teaching sessions and to complete the formative assessment. Inclusion of their data used as part of the research trial was optional.Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was performance on a formative assessment, which served to compare knowledge attainment between three forms of online learning. Moreover, we aimed to explore student engagement with each form of learning via a questionnaire, and also feasibility of applying MR as a teaching tool on a large scale. Comparisons between performances on the formative assessment between the three groups were investigated using a repeated measures two-way ANOVA. Engagement and enjoyment were also analysed in the same manner.Results: A total of 252 students participated in the study. Knowledge attainment of students using MR was comparable with the other two methods. Participants reported higher enjoyment and engagement (p< 0.001) for the case vignette method, compared with MR and video-based teaching. There was no difference in enjoyment or engagement ratings between MR and the video-based methods.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the implementation of MR is an effective, acceptable, and feasible way of teaching clinical medicine to undergraduate students on a large scale. However, case-based tutorials were found to be favoured most by students. Future work could further explore the best uses for MR teaching within the medical curriculum.
Martin G, Guha P, Lawson J, et al., 2023, Can mixed reality technologies teach surgical skills better than traditional methods? A prospective randomised feasibility study, BMC Medical Education, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1472-6920
BackgroundBasic surgical skills teaching is often delivered with didactic audio-visual content, and new digital technologies may allow more engaging and effective ways of teaching to be developed. The Microsoft HoloLens 2 (HL2) is a multi-functional mixed reality headset. This prospective feasibility study sought to assess the device as a tool for enhancing technical surgical skills training.MethodsA prospective randomised feasibility study was conducted. 36 novice medical students were trained to perform a basic arteriotomy and closure using a synthetic model. Participants were randomised to receive a structured surgical skills tutorial via a bespoke mixed reality HL2 tutorial (n = 18), or via a standard video-based tutorial (n = 18). Proficiency scores were assessed by blinded examiners using a validated objective scoring system and participant feedback collected.ResultsThe HL2 group showed significantly greater improvement in overall technical proficiency compared to the video group (10.1 vs. 6.89, p = 0.0076), and a greater consistency in skill progression with a significantly narrower range of scores (SD 2.48 vs. 4.03, p = 0.026). Participant feedback showed the HL2 technology to be more interactive and engaging with minimal device related problems experienced.ConclusionsThis study has demonstrated that mixed reality technology may provide a higher quality educational experience, improved skill progression and greater consistency in learning when compared to traditional teaching methodologies for basic surgical skills. Further work is required to refine, translate, and evaluate the scalability and applicability of the technology across a broad range of skills-based disciplines.
Paine H, Jones F, Kinross J, 2023, Preparing the Bowel (Microbiome) for Surgery: Surgical Bioresilience., Clin Colon Rectal Surg, Vol: 36, Pages: 138-145, ISSN: 1531-0043
The preparation of the bowel for radical surgery is a corner stone of elective colorectal practice. The evidence for this intervention is of variable quality and it is often contradictory, yet there is now a global move toward the adoption of oral antibiotic therapy for the reduction of perioperative infective complications, such as surgical site infections. The gut microbiome is a critical mediator of the systemic inflammatory response to surgical injury, wound healing, and perioperative gut function. The loss of critical microbial symbiotic functions caused by bowel preparation and surgery has an adverse impact on surgical outcomes, yet the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly defined. In this review, the evidence for bowel preparation strategies is critically appraised in the context of the gut microbiome. The impact of antibiotic therapy on the surgical gut microbiome and the importance of the intestinal "resistome" to surgical recovery is described. Data to support the augmentation of the microbiome through diet, probiotic and symbiotic approaches, as well as fecal transplantation are also appraised. Finally, we propose a novel strategy of bowel preparation defined as " surgical bioresilience " and define areas or prioritization in this emerging field. This describes the optimization of surgical intestinal homeostasis and core surgical exposome-microbiome interactions that regulate the wound immune microenvironment, the systemic inflammatory response to surgical injury, and gut function across the perioperative time course.
, 2023, Erratum to: Managing surgical demand when needs outstrip resource: qualitative investigation of colorectal cancer surgery provision in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic., Br J Surg, Vol: 110
Zwezerijnen-Jiwa FH, Sivov H, Paizs P, et al., 2023, A systematic review of microbiome-derived biomarkers for early colorectal cancer detection., Neoplasia, Vol: 36
Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiome in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and that it can serve as a biomarker for early diagnosis. This review aims to give an overview of the current status of published studies regarding the microbiome as a screening tool for early CRC detection. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE in August 2022. Studies assessing the efficacy of microbiome-derived biomarkers based on noninvasive derived samples were included. Not relevant studies or studies not specifying the stage of CRC or grouping them together in the analysis were excluded. The risk of bias for screening tools was performed using the QUADAS-2 checklist. A total of 28 studies were included, ranging from 2 to 462 for CRC and 18 to 665 advanced adenoma patient inclusions, of which only two investigated the co-metabolome as biomarker. The diagnostic performance of faecal bacteria-derived biomarkers had an AUC ranging from 0.28-0.98 for precursor lesions such as advanced adenomas and 0.54-0.89 for early CRC. Diagnostic performance based on the co-metabolome showed an AUC ranging from 0.69 - 0.84 for precursor lesions and 0.65 - 0.93 for early CRC. All models improved when combined with established clinical early detection markers such as gFOBT. A high level of heterogeneity was seen in the number of inclusions and methodology used in the studies. The faecal and oral gut microbiome has the potential to complement existing CRC screening tools, however current evidence suggests that this is not yet ready for routine clinical use.
Chrysostomou D, Roberts LA, Marchesi JR, et al., 2023, Gut Microbiota Modulation of Efficacy and Toxicity of Cancer Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy, GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 164, Pages: 198-213, ISSN: 0016-5085
Ford L, Chalau V, Naguleswaran A, et al., 2023, Feasibility Analysis of iEndoscope for Real-Time Data Driven Pathology Using Novel MS and Optical Technology, Mass Spectrometry and Advances in the Clinical Lab
Atanda O, West J, Stables T, et al., 2023, Flow rate accuracy of infusion devices within healthcare settings: a systematic review, Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2042-0986
Background:One in five patients admitted to the hospital treated with intravenous (IV) fluid therapy suffer complications due to inappropriate administration. Errors have been reported in 13–84% of the preparation and administration of IV medications. The safe delivery of IV fluids requires precise rate administration.Objectives:This systematic review aims to determine the accuracy of infusion sets and devices and examine the factors that affect the flow rate accuracy of devices.Data Sources and Methods:Six databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of systematic reviews) were systematically searched. Search terms included infusion pumps, infusion devices, flow rate accuracy, fluid administration rate, gravity-led infusion set and fluid balance. Studies were included if they examined infusion devices’ flow rate accuracy and drop rates for fluids or non-oncological drugs. Findings were tabulated and synthesised qualitatively. The quality of the studies was examined based on the design of the studies due to their heterogeneity.Results:Eight studies were included: Four studies were conducted on human subjects in the hospital environment; studies recruited 182 participants between the ages of 18 and 94 years. Two studies examined flow rate accuracy in recruited patients across 509 observations and 2387 drip hours. No trials prospectively assessed the accuracy of infusion pumps in the clinical domain, and no studies were reported on patient safety outcomes. Four studies examined the impact of mechanical and physiological factors on the flow rate accuracies of infusion devices. Height and back pressure simulated vibrating conditions, the viscosity of IV fluid and the positions of patients were reported to have a significant impact on infusion volume and flow rates of infusion devices. Additionally, giving sets that vary from the manufacturer’s specifications are reported to increase error percent by 10–20
Machutta K, Xiao J, Winters CA, et al., 2022, Defeating cancel culture in surgical site infection research: a plea to include microbial cultures and antibiotic sensitivity data., Surgical Infections, Vol: 23, Pages: 902-907, ISSN: 1096-2964
Background: Despite advances in infection control measures, surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a real and present danger to patients. In most studies addressing SSI prevention measures, recommendations are often made in the absence of information such as culture results, the antibiotic agents used for prophylaxis, and antibiotic sensitivity data. The aim of this study is to document this latter claim by reviewing studies published in the last five years in highly read and cited surgical journals. Methods: A systematic review evaluating SSIs from four highly cited surgical journals, Annals of Surgery, the British Journal of Surgery, JAMA Surgery, and the Journal of the American College of Surgeons was conducted for articles published between 2016 and 2021. We focused our analysis on the following key features: how SSI is defined; bacterial culture information; antibiotic sensitivity data; and identification of the antibiotic chosen for prophylaxis. We hypothesized that, in most cases among the journals queried, this information would be unavailable. Results: Of the 71 studies included, 32 diagnosed SSIs based on criteria developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention while five provided no definition of SSI. Of the 27 articles recommending increasing antibiotic usage, only one study performed antibiotic sensitivity testing to guide the antibiotic choice. Of 71 studies reviewed, only one reported all key features we considered to be important for SSI antibiotic decision-making; 46 reported none of the key features. Conclusions: Among publications addressing SSIs in four highly cited surgical journals, key information regarding diagnosis and with which to base antibiotic recommendations, is routinely unavailable.
Loeb M, Bartholomew A, Hashmi M, et al., 2022, Medical masks versus N95 respirators for preventing COVID-19 among health care workers: a randomized trial, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol: 175, Pages: 1629-1638, ISSN: 0003-4819
Background:It is uncertain if medical masks offer similar protection against COVID-19 compared with N95 respirators.Objective:To determine whether medical masks are noninferior to N95 respirators to prevent COVID-19 in health care workers providing routine care.Design:Multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04296643).Setting:29 health care facilities in Canada, Israel, Pakistan, and Egypt from 4 May 2020 to 29 March 2022.Participants:1009 health care workers who provided direct care to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.Intervention:Use of medical masks versus fit-tested N95 respirators for 10 weeks, plus universal masking, which was the policy implemented at each site.Measurements:The primary outcome was confirmed COVID-19 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test.Results:In the intention-to-treat analysis, RT-PCR–confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 52 of 497 (10.46%) participants in the medical mask group versus 47 of 507 (9.27%) in the N95 respirator group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.14 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.69]). An unplanned subgroup analysis by country found that in the medical mask group versus the N95 respirator group RT-PCR–confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 8 of 131 (6.11%) versus 3 of 135 (2.22%) in Canada (HR, 2.83 [CI, 0.75 to 10.72]), 6 of 17 (35.29%) versus 4 of 17 (23.53%) in Israel (HR, 1.54 [CI, 0.43 to 5.49]), 3 of 92 (3.26%) versus 2 of 94 (2.13%) in Pakistan (HR, 1.50 [CI, 0.25 to 8.98]), and 35 of 257 (13.62%) versus 38 of 261 (14.56%) in Egypt (HR, 0.95 [CI, 0.60 to 1.50]). There were 47 (10.8%) adverse events related to the intervention reported in the medical mask group and 59 (13.6%) in the N95 respirator group.Limitation:Potential acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 through household and community exposure, heterogeneity between countries, uncertainty in the estimates of effect, differences in self-reported adherence, differences in baseline antibodies, and between-country differences in cir
Conefrey C, Ochieng C, Hoffman C, et al., 2022, Managing surgical demand when needs outstrip resource: qualitative investigation of colorectal cancer surgery provision in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic., BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 110, Pages: 92-97, ISSN: 0007-1323
Lam K, Lo FP-W, An Y, et al., 2022, Deep Learning for Instrument Detection and Assessment of Operative Skill in Surgical Videos, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL ROBOTICS AND BIONICS, Vol: 4, Pages: 1068-1071
Mullish BH, Paizs P, Alexander J, et al., 2022, Intestinal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection restores microbial arylsulfatases and sulfatide degradation: a novel mechanism of efficacy?, UEG Week 2022, Pages: 823-823
Lewis J, Askari A, Mehta A, et al., 2022, A novel digital rectoscope for the triage of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care: a prospective multicentre feasibility study., BJGP Open, Vol: 6
BACKGROUND: Access to community rectoscopy might help to ease the burden on hospital services and reduce costs for the NHS. To assess this, a prospective multicentre observational phase I feasibility study of a novel digital rectoscope and telestration software for the triage of lower gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms was undertaken. AIM: To determine if digital rectoscopy is feasible, acceptable, and clinically safe. DESIGN & SETTING: Evaluation of clinician case reports and patient questionnaires from patients recruited from five primary care centres. METHOD: Adults meeting 2-week wait (2WW) criteria for suspected lower GI cancer, suspected new diagnosis, or flare-up of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were enrolled. Examinations were performed by primary care practitioners using the LumenEye rectoscope. The CHiP platform allowed immediate remote review by secondary care. A prospective analysis was performed of patient and clinician experiences, diagnostic accuracy, and cost. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were recruited and 110 underwent the procedure (46 [42%] females and 64 [58%] males). No serious adverse events were reported. Eighty-two (74.5%) patients reported that examination was more comfortable than expected, while 104 (94.5%) felt the intervention was most convenient if delivered in the community. Clinicians were confident of their assessment in 100 (87.7%) examinations. Forty-eight (42.1%) patients subsequently underwent colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or computed tomography virtual colonoscopy (CTVC). The overall sensitivity and specificity of LumenEye in identifying rectal pathology was 90.0% and 88.9%. It was 100% and 100% for cancer, and 83.3% and 97.8% for polyps. Following LumenEye examination, 19 (17.3%) patients were discharged, with projected savings of 11 305 GBP. CONCLUSION: Digital rectoscopy in primary care is safe, acceptable, and can reduce referrals. A phase III randomised controlled trial is indicated to define its utility in r
Minty I, Lawson J, Guha P, et al., 2022, The use of mixed reality technology for the objective assessment of clinical skills: a validation study, BMC Medical Education, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1472-6920
BackgroundMixed Reality technology may provide many advantages over traditional teaching methods. Despite its potential, the technology has yet to be used for the formal assessment of clinical competency. This study sought to collect validity evidence and assess the feasibility of using the HoloLens 2 mixed reality headset for the conduct and augmentation of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs).MethodsA prospective cohort study was conducted to compare the assessment of undergraduate medical students undertaking OSCEs via HoloLens 2 live (HLL) and recorded (HLR), and gold-standard in-person (IP) methods. An augmented mixed reality scenario was also assessed.Results13 undergraduate participants completed a total of 65 OSCE stations. Overall inter-modality correlation was 0.81 (p=0.01), 0.98 (p=0.01) and 0.82 (p=0.01) for IP vs. HLL, HLL vs. HLR and IP vs. HLR respectively. Skill based correlations for IP vs. HLR were assessed for history taking (0.82, p=0.01), clinical examination (0.81, p=0.01), procedural (0.88, p=0.01) and clinical skills (0.92, p=0.01), and assessment of a virtual mixed reality patient (0.74, p=0.01). The HoloLens device was deemed to be usable and practical (Standard Usability Scale (SUS) score = 51.5), and the technology was thought to deliver greater flexibility and convenience, and have the potential to expand and enhance assessment opportunities. ConclusionsHoloLens 2 is comparable to traditional in-person examination of undergraduate medical students for both live and recorded assessments, and therefore is a valid and robust method for objectively assessing performance. The technology is in its infancy, and users need to develop confidence in its usability and reliability as an assessment tool. However, the potential to integrate additional functionality including holographic content, automated tracking and data analysis, and to facilitate remote assessment may allow the technology to enhance, expand and standardise examinati
The use of digital technology is increasing rapidly across surgical specialities, yet there is noconsensus for the term ‘digital surgery’. This is critical as digital health technologies present technical, governance, and legal challenges which are unique to the surgeon and surgical patient. We aim to define the term digital surgery and the ethical issues surrounding its clinical application, and to identify barriers and research goals for future practice. 38 international experts, across the fields of surgery, AI, industry, law, ethics and policy, participated in a four-round Delphi exercise. Issues were generated by an expert panel and public panel through a scoping questionnaire around key themes identified from the literature and voted upon in two subsequent questionnaire rounds. Consensus was defined if >70% of the panel deemed the statement important and <30% unimportant. A final online meeting was held to discuss consensus statements. The definition of digital surgery as the use of technology for the enhancement of preoperative planning, surgical performance, therapeutic support, or training, to improve outcomes and reduce harm achieved 100% consensus agreement. We highlight key ethical issues concerning data, privacy, confidentiality and public trust, consent, law; litigation and liability, and commercial partnerships within digital surgery and identify barriers and research goals for future practice. Developers and users of digital surgery must not only have an awareness of the ethical issues surrounding digital applications in healthcare, but also the ethical considerations unique to digital surgery. Future research into these issues must involve all digital surgery stakeholders including patients.
Patel R, Suwa Y, Kinross J, et al., 2022, Neuroenhancement of surgeons during robotic suturing, Surgical Endoscopy: surgical and interventional techniques, Vol: 36, Pages: 4803-4814, ISSN: 0930-2794
BackgroundThe initial phases of robotic surgical skills acquisition are associated with poor technical performance, such as low knot-tensile strength (KTS). Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) can improve force and accuracy in motor tasks but research in surgery is limited to open and laparoscopic tasks in students. More recently, robotic surgery has gained traction and is now the most common approach for certain procedures (e.g. prostatectomy). Early-phase robotic suturing performance is dependent on prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, and this study aimed to determine whether performance can be improved with prefrontal tDCS.MethodsFifteen surgical residents were randomized to either active then sham tDCS or sham then active tDCS, in two counterbalanced sessions in a double-blind crossover study. Within each session, participants performed a robotic suturing task repeated in three blocks: pre-, intra- and post-tDCS. During the intra-tDCS block, participants were randomized to either active tDCS (2 mA for 15 min) to the PFC or sham tDCS. Primary outcome measures of technical quality included KTS and error scores.ResultsSignificantly faster completion times were observed longitudinally, regardless of active (p < 0.001) or sham stimulation (p < 0.001). KTS was greater following active compared to sham stimulation (median: active = 44.35 N vs. sham = 27.12 N, p < 0.001). A significant reduction in error scores from “pre-” to “post-” (p = 0.029) were only observed in the active group.ConclusiontDCS could reduce error and enhance KTS during robotic suturing and warrants further exploration as an adjunct to robotic surgical training.
Kinross J, 2022, Probiotics and synbiotics reduce infective complications from colorectal surgery, TECHNIQUES IN COLOPROCTOLOGY, Vol: 26, Pages: 687-689, ISSN: 1123-6337
Paizs P, Roberts D, Danckert N, et al., 2022, Gut microbial co-metabolism influences the tumor microenvironment, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Sani M, Ford L, Simon D, et al., 2022, A prospective pilot study of desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the early detection of colorectal adenoma., Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Lam K, Nazarian S, Gadi N, et al., 2022, Patient perspectives on surgeon-specific outcome reports in bariatric surgery, Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: 704-713, ISSN: 1550-7289
BACKGROUND: Surgeon specific outcome reports (SSOR) in the UK can be accessed freely by the general public to promote transparency and informed decision-making. However, the views amongst bariatric patients concerning these data are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine patient awareness, views and priorities for outcome reporting in bariatric surgery, and to provide recommendations for future surgeon-specific outcome reporting through the United Kingdom National Bariatric Surgery Registry. SETTING: Bariatric surgical unit in a UK university teaching hospital. METHODS: We adapted a previously validated questionnaire and surveyed the views of 150 patients in a single bariatric surgical unit. We collected data concerning awareness, views, and future priorities for outcome reporting. RESULTS: A full 73% of participants were unaware they could access SSOR. Of the participants that were unaware, 75% stated that they would have accessed SSOR had they been aware they could. Of the participants that had previously accessed SSOR, 86% stated they understood the data, although 61% indicated it did not influence their choice of surgeon. The majority of participants favored public release of outcome reports at the surgeon-level (75%) and hospital-level (83%). The 3 main priorities indicated by participants for future outcome reporting were complication rates (91%), patient reported outcome measures (90%), and reoperation rate (89%), all at the surgeon level. CONCLUSION: Patient awareness of outcome reporting is poor. Efforts must be made to increase awareness of SSOR. Patients should be incorporated as key stakeholders in determining future outcome reporting in bariatric surgery.
Sivananthan A, Gueroult A, Zijlstra G, et al., 2022, A feasibility trial of HoloLens 2™; Using mixed reality headsets to deliver remote bedside teaching during COVID-19, JMIR Formative Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2561-326X
BackgroundCOVID-19 has had a catastrophic impact measured in human lives. Medical education has also been impacted: appropriately stringent infection control policies have precluded medical trainees from attending clinical teaching. Lecture-based education has been easily transferred to a digital platform, but bedside teaching has not. This study aims to assess the feasibility of using a mixed reality (MR) headset to deliver remote bedside teaching.MethodsTwo MR sessions were led by senior doctors wearing the HoloLens™ headset. The trainers selected patients requiring their specialist input. The headset allowed bi-directional audio-visual communication between the trainer and trainee doctors. Trainee doctor conceptions of bedside teaching, impact of COVID-19 on bedside teaching and the MR sessions were evaluated using pre- and post-round questionnaires, using Likert scales. Data related to clinician exposure to at risk patients and use of PPE were collected.ResultsPre-questionnaire respondents (n=24) strongly agreed that bedside teaching is key to educating clinicians (7, IQR 6-7). Post-session questionnaires showed that overall users subjectively agreed the MR session was helpful to their learning (6, IQR 5.25 – 7) and that it was worthwhile (6, IQR 5.25 – 7). Mixed-reality versus in-person teaching led to a 79.5% reduction in cumulative clinician exposure time and 83.3% reduction in PPE use. ConclusionsThis study is proof of principle that HoloLens™ can be used effectively to deliver clinical bedside teaching This novel format confers significant advantages in terms of: minimising exposure of trainees to COVID-19; saving PPE; enabling larger attendance; and convenient accessible real-time clinical training.
Chrysostomou D, David M, Peres TV, et al., 2022, GUT MICROBIOTA-DERIVED METABOLISM OF 5-FLUOROURACIL AFFECTS DRUG EFFICACY, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S454-S454, ISSN: 0016-5085
Lam K, Chen J, Wang Z, et al., 2022, Machine learning for technical skill assessment in surgery: a systematic review, npj Digital Medicine, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2398-6352
Accurate and objective performance assessment is essential for both trainees and certified surgeons. However, existing methods can be time consuming, labor intensive and subject to bias. Machine learning (ML) has the potential to provide rapid, automated and reproducible feedback without the need for expert reviewers. We aimed to systematically review the literature and determine the ML techniques used for technical surgical skill assessment and identify challenges and barriers in the field. A systematic literature search, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, was performed to identify studies detailing the use of ML for technical skill assessment in surgery. Of the 1896 studies that were retrieved, 66 studies were included. The most common ML methods used were Hidden Markov Models (HMM, 14/66), Support Vector Machines (SVM, 17/66) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, 17/66). 40/66 studies used kinematic data, 19/66 used video or image data, and 7/66 used both. Studies assessed performance of benchtop tasks (48/66), simulator tasks (10/66), and real-life surgery (8/66). Accuracy rates of over 80% were achieved, although tasks and participants varied between studies. Barriers to progress in the field included a focus on basic tasks, lack of standardization between studies, and lack of datasets. ML has the potential to produce accurate and objective surgical skill assessment through the use of methods including HMM, SVM, and ANN. Future ML-based assessment tools should move beyond the assessment ofbasic tasks and towards real-life surgery and provide interpretable feedback with clinical value for the surgeon.
Ramaboli M, Nesengani L, Katsidzira L, et al., 2022, Interactions between the environmental and human microbiota in the preservation of health and genesis of disease: symposium report, CURRENT OPINION IN GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 146-155, ISSN: 0267-1379
Roberts DC, Chidambaram S, Kinross JM, 2022, The role of the colonic microbiota and bile acids in colorectal cancer, CURRENT OPINION IN GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 179-188, ISSN: 0267-1379
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