Imperial College London

MrJamesKinross

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Clinical Senior Lecturer in Colorectal Surgery
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 1947j.kinross CV

 
 
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Location

 

1029Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

209 results found

Loeb M, Bartholomew A, Hashmi M, Tarhuni W, Hassany M, Youngster I, Somayaji R, Larios O, Kim J, Missaghi B, Vayalumkal JV, Mertz D, Chagla Z, Cividino M, Ali K, Mansour S, Castellucci LA, Frenette C, Parkes L, Downing M, Muller M, Glavin V, Newton J, Hookoom R, Leis JA, Kinross J, Smith S, Borhan S, Singh P, Pullenayegum E, Conly Jet al., 2022, Medical Masks Versus N95 Respirators for Preventing COVID-19 Among Health Care Workers : A Randomized Trial., Ann Intern Med

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain if medical masks offer similar protection against COVID-19 compared with N95 respirators. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medical masks are noninferior to N95 respirators to prevent COVID-19 in health care workers providing routine care. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04296643). SETTING: 29 health care facilities in Canada, Israel, Pakistan, and Egypt from 4 May 2020 to 29 March 2022. PARTICIPANTS: 1009 health care workers who provided direct care to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. INTERVENTION: Use of medical masks versus fit-tested N95 respirators for 10 weeks, plus universal masking, which was the policy implemented at each site. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was confirmed COVID-19 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. RESULTS: In the intention-to-treat analysis, RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 52 of 497 (10.46%) participants in the medical mask group versus 47 of 507 (9.27%) in the N95 respirator group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.14 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.69]). An unplanned subgroup analysis by country found that in the medical mask group versus the N95 respirator group RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 8 of 131 (6.11%) versus 3 of 135 (2.22%) in Canada (HR, 2.83 [CI, 0.75 to 10.72]), 6 of 17 (35.29%) versus 4 of 17 (23.53%) in Israel (HR, 1.54 [CI, 0.43 to 5.49]), 3 of 92 (3.26%) versus 2 of 94 (2.13%) in Pakistan (HR, 1.50 [CI, 0.25 to 8.98]), and 35 of 257 (13.62%) versus 38 of 261 (14.56%) in Egypt (HR, 0.95 [CI, 0.60 to 1.50]). There were 47 (10.8%) adverse events related to the intervention reported in the medical mask group and 59 (13.6%) in the N95 respirator group. LIMITATION: Potential acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 through household and community exposure, heterogeneity between countries, uncertainty in the estimates of effect, differences in self-reported adherence, differences in baseline antibodies, and between-country differences i

Journal article

Conefrey C, Ochieng C, Hoffman C, Elliott D, Avery K, Bennett J, Blencowe N, Duff S, Kinross J, McNair A, Messenger D, Pullybank A, Singh B, King A, Squire SE, Blazeby J, Main B, Rooshenas Let al., 2022, Managing surgical demand when needs outstrip resource: qualitative investigation of colorectal cancer surgery provision in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic., BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, ISSN: 0007-1323

Journal article

Chrysostomou D, Roberts LA, Marchesi JR, Kinross JMet al., 2022, Gut Microbiota Modulation of Efficacy and Toxicity of Cancer Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy., Gastroenterology

Accumulating evidence not only supports the functional role of the gut microbiome in cancer development and progression but also its role in defining the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents (5-fluorouracil, CTX, Irinotecan, Oxaliplatin, Gemcitabine, Methotrexate) and immunotherapeutic (anti-PD-L1/ anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4) compounds. This evidence is supported in numerous in-vitro, animal and clinical studies which highlight the importance of microbial mechanisms in defining therapeutic responses. The microbiome therefore shapes oncological outcomes, and it is now being leveraged for the development of novel personalised therapeutic approaches in cancer treatment. However, if the microbiome is to be successfully translated into next generation oncological treatments, a new multimodal model of the oncomicrobiome must be conceptualized which incorporates gut microbial co-metabolism of pharmacological agents into cancer care. The objective of this review is therefore to outline the current knowledge on oncological pharmacomicrobiomics and to describe how the multiparametric functions of the gut microbiome influence treatment response across cancer types. The secondary objective is to propose innovative approaches for modulating the gut microbiome in clinical environments which improve therapy efficacy and diminish toxic effects derived from anti-neoplastic agents for patient benefit.

Journal article

Mullish BH, Paizs P, Alexander J, Verigos E, McDonald JAK, Ford L, Maneta-Stavrakaki S, Sani M, Roberts LA, Chrysostomou D, Kinross J, Monaghan T, Marchesi JR, Kao D, Takats Zet al., 2022, Intestinal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection restores microbial arylsulfatases and sulfatide degradation: a novel mechanism of efficacy?, UEG Week 2022, Pages: 823-823

Conference paper

Lewis J, Askari A, Mehta A, Razak Y, Patel P, Misra R, Tilney H, Ahmed T, Ahmed M, Syeed A, Camilleri-Brennan J, Nicholls RJ, Kinross JMet al., 2022, A novel digital rectoscope for the triage of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care: a prospective multicentre feasibility study., BJGP Open, Vol: 6

BACKGROUND: Access to community rectoscopy might help to ease the burden on hospital services and reduce costs for the NHS. To assess this, a prospective multicentre observational phase I feasibility study of a novel digital rectoscope and telestration software for the triage of lower gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms was undertaken. AIM: To determine if digital rectoscopy is feasible, acceptable, and clinically safe. DESIGN & SETTING: Evaluation of clinician case reports and patient questionnaires from patients recruited from five primary care centres. METHOD: Adults meeting 2-week wait (2WW) criteria for suspected lower GI cancer, suspected new diagnosis, or flare-up of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were enrolled. Examinations were performed by primary care practitioners using the LumenEye rectoscope. The CHiP platform allowed immediate remote review by secondary care. A prospective analysis was performed of patient and clinician experiences, diagnostic accuracy, and cost. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were recruited and 110 underwent the procedure (46 [42%] females and 64 [58%] males). No serious adverse events were reported. Eighty-two (74.5%) patients reported that examination was more comfortable than expected, while 104 (94.5%) felt the intervention was most convenient if delivered in the community. Clinicians were confident of their assessment in 100 (87.7%) examinations. Forty-eight (42.1%) patients subsequently underwent colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or computed tomography virtual colonoscopy (CTVC). The overall sensitivity and specificity of LumenEye in identifying rectal pathology was 90.0% and 88.9%. It was 100% and 100% for cancer, and 83.3% and 97.8% for polyps. Following LumenEye examination, 19 (17.3%) patients were discharged, with projected savings of 11 305 GBP. CONCLUSION: Digital rectoscopy in primary care is safe, acceptable, and can reduce referrals. A phase III randomised controlled trial is indicated to define its utility in r

Journal article

Minty I, Lawson J, Guha P, Luo X, Malik R, Cerneviciute R, Kinross J, Martin Get al., 2022, The use of mixed reality technology for the objective assessment of clinical skills: a validation study, BMC Medical Education, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1472-6920

BackgroundMixed Reality technology may provide many advantages over traditional teaching methods. Despite its potential, the technology has yet to be used for the formal assessment of clinical competency. This study sought to collect validity evidence and assess the feasibility of using the HoloLens 2 mixed reality headset for the conduct and augmentation of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs).MethodsA prospective cohort study was conducted to compare the assessment of undergraduate medical students undertaking OSCEs via HoloLens 2 live (HLL) and recorded (HLR), and gold-standard in-person (IP) methods. An augmented mixed reality scenario was also assessed.Results13 undergraduate participants completed a total of 65 OSCE stations. Overall inter-modality correlation was 0.81 (p=0.01), 0.98 (p=0.01) and 0.82 (p=0.01) for IP vs. HLL, HLL vs. HLR and IP vs. HLR respectively. Skill based correlations for IP vs. HLR were assessed for history taking (0.82, p=0.01), clinical examination (0.81, p=0.01), procedural (0.88, p=0.01) and clinical skills (0.92, p=0.01), and assessment of a virtual mixed reality patient (0.74, p=0.01). The HoloLens device was deemed to be usable and practical (Standard Usability Scale (SUS) score = 51.5), and the technology was thought to deliver greater flexibility and convenience, and have the potential to expand and enhance assessment opportunities. ConclusionsHoloLens 2 is comparable to traditional in-person examination of undergraduate medical students for both live and recorded assessments, and therefore is a valid and robust method for objectively assessing performance. The technology is in its infancy, and users need to develop confidence in its usability and reliability as an assessment tool. However, the potential to integrate additional functionality including holographic content, automated tracking and data analysis, and to facilitate remote assessment may allow the technology to enhance, expand and standardise examinati

Journal article

Lam K, Abramoff M, Balibrea J, Bishop S, Brady R, Callcut R, Chand M, Collins J, Diener M, Eisenmann M, Fermont K, Galvao Neto M, Hager G, Hinchliffe R, Horgan A, Jannin P, Langerman A, Logishetty K, Mahadik A, Maier-Hein L, Martin Antona E, Mascagni P, Mathew R, Mueller-Stich B, Neumuth T, Nickel F, Park A, Pellino G, Rudzicz F, Shah S, Slack M, Smith M, Soomro N, Speidel S, Stoyanov D, Tilney H, Wagner M, Darzi A, Kinross J, Purkayastha Set al., 2022, A Delphi consensus statement for digital surgery, npj Digital Medicine, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2398-6352

The use of digital technology is increasing rapidly across surgical specialities, yet there is noconsensus for the term ‘digital surgery’. This is critical as digital health technologies present technical, governance, and legal challenges which are unique to the surgeon and surgical patient. We aim to define the term digital surgery and the ethical issues surrounding its clinical application, and to identify barriers and research goals for future practice. 38 international experts, across the fields of surgery, AI, industry, law, ethics and policy, participated in a four-round Delphi exercise. Issues were generated by an expert panel and public panel through a scoping questionnaire around key themes identified from the literature and voted upon in two subsequent questionnaire rounds. Consensus was defined if >70% of the panel deemed the statement important and <30% unimportant. A final online meeting was held to discuss consensus statements. The definition of digital surgery as the use of technology for the enhancement of preoperative planning, surgical performance, therapeutic support, or training, to improve outcomes and reduce harm achieved 100% consensus agreement. We highlight key ethical issues concerning data, privacy, confidentiality and public trust, consent, law; litigation and liability, and commercial partnerships within digital surgery and identify barriers and research goals for future practice. Developers and users of digital surgery must not only have an awareness of the ethical issues surrounding digital applications in healthcare, but also the ethical considerations unique to digital surgery. Future research into these issues must involve all digital surgery stakeholders including patients.

Journal article

Patel R, Suwa Y, Kinross J, von Roon A, Woods AJ, Darzi A, Singh H, Leff DRet al., 2022, Neuroenhancement of surgeons during robotic suturing, Surgical Endoscopy: surgical and interventional techniques, Vol: 36, Pages: 4803-4814, ISSN: 0930-2794

BackgroundThe initial phases of robotic surgical skills acquisition are associated with poor technical performance, such as low knot-tensile strength (KTS). Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) can improve force and accuracy in motor tasks but research in surgery is limited to open and laparoscopic tasks in students. More recently, robotic surgery has gained traction and is now the most common approach for certain procedures (e.g. prostatectomy). Early-phase robotic suturing performance is dependent on prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, and this study aimed to determine whether performance can be improved with prefrontal tDCS.MethodsFifteen surgical residents were randomized to either active then sham tDCS or sham then active tDCS, in two counterbalanced sessions in a double-blind crossover study. Within each session, participants performed a robotic suturing task repeated in three blocks: pre-, intra- and post-tDCS. During the intra-tDCS block, participants were randomized to either active tDCS (2 mA for 15 min) to the PFC or sham tDCS. Primary outcome measures of technical quality included KTS and error scores.ResultsSignificantly faster completion times were observed longitudinally, regardless of active (p < 0.001) or sham stimulation (p < 0.001). KTS was greater following active compared to sham stimulation (median: active = 44.35 N vs. sham = 27.12 N, p < 0.001). A significant reduction in error scores from “pre-” to “post-” (p = 0.029) were only observed in the active group.ConclusiontDCS could reduce error and enhance KTS during robotic suturing and warrants further exploration as an adjunct to robotic surgical training.

Journal article

Kinross J, 2022, Probiotics and synbiotics reduce infective complications from colorectal surgery, TECHNIQUES IN COLOPROCTOLOGY, Vol: 26, Pages: 687-689, ISSN: 1123-6337

Journal article

Lam K, Nazarian S, Gadi N, Hakky S, Moorthy K, Tsironis C, Ahmed A, Kinross JM, Purkayastha Set al., 2022, Patient perspectives on surgeon-specific outcome reports in bariatric surgery, Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: 704-713, ISSN: 1550-7289

BACKGROUND: Surgeon specific outcome reports (SSOR) in the UK can be accessed freely by the general public to promote transparency and informed decision-making. However, the views amongst bariatric patients concerning these data are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine patient awareness, views and priorities for outcome reporting in bariatric surgery, and to provide recommendations for future surgeon-specific outcome reporting through the United Kingdom National Bariatric Surgery Registry. SETTING: Bariatric surgical unit in a UK university teaching hospital. METHODS: We adapted a previously validated questionnaire and surveyed the views of 150 patients in a single bariatric surgical unit. We collected data concerning awareness, views, and future priorities for outcome reporting. RESULTS: A full 73% of participants were unaware they could access SSOR. Of the participants that were unaware, 75% stated that they would have accessed SSOR had they been aware they could. Of the participants that had previously accessed SSOR, 86% stated they understood the data, although 61% indicated it did not influence their choice of surgeon. The majority of participants favored public release of outcome reports at the surgeon-level (75%) and hospital-level (83%). The 3 main priorities indicated by participants for future outcome reporting were complication rates (91%), patient reported outcome measures (90%), and reoperation rate (89%), all at the surgeon level. CONCLUSION: Patient awareness of outcome reporting is poor. Efforts must be made to increase awareness of SSOR. Patients should be incorporated as key stakeholders in determining future outcome reporting in bariatric surgery.

Journal article

Sivananthan A, Gueroult A, Zijlstra G, Martin G, Baheerathan A, Pratt P, Darzi A, Patel N, Kinross Jet al., 2022, A feasibility trial of HoloLens 2™; Using mixed reality headsets to deliver remote bedside teaching during COVID-19, JMIR Formative Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2561-326X

BackgroundCOVID-19 has had a catastrophic impact measured in human lives. Medical education has also been impacted: appropriately stringent infection control policies have precluded medical trainees from attending clinical teaching. Lecture-based education has been easily transferred to a digital platform, but bedside teaching has not. This study aims to assess the feasibility of using a mixed reality (MR) headset to deliver remote bedside teaching.MethodsTwo MR sessions were led by senior doctors wearing the HoloLens™ headset. The trainers selected patients requiring their specialist input. The headset allowed bi-directional audio-visual communication between the trainer and trainee doctors. Trainee doctor conceptions of bedside teaching, impact of COVID-19 on bedside teaching and the MR sessions were evaluated using pre- and post-round questionnaires, using Likert scales. Data related to clinician exposure to at risk patients and use of PPE were collected.ResultsPre-questionnaire respondents (n=24) strongly agreed that bedside teaching is key to educating clinicians (7, IQR 6-7). Post-session questionnaires showed that overall users subjectively agreed the MR session was helpful to their learning (6, IQR 5.25 – 7) and that it was worthwhile (6, IQR 5.25 – 7). Mixed-reality versus in-person teaching led to a 79.5% reduction in cumulative clinician exposure time and 83.3% reduction in PPE use. ConclusionsThis study is proof of principle that HoloLens™ can be used effectively to deliver clinical bedside teaching This novel format confers significant advantages in terms of: minimising exposure of trainees to COVID-19; saving PPE; enabling larger attendance; and convenient accessible real-time clinical training.

Journal article

Lam K, Chen J, Wang Z, Iqbal F, Darzi A, Lo B, Purkayastha S, Kinross Jet al., 2022, Machine learning for technical skill assessment in surgery: a systematic review, npj Digital Medicine, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2398-6352

Accurate and objective performance assessment is essential for both trainees and certified surgeons. However, existing methods can be time consuming, labor intensive and subject to bias. Machine learning (ML) has the potential to provide rapid, automated and reproducible feedback without the need for expert reviewers. We aimed to systematically review the literature and determine the ML techniques used for technical surgical skill assessment and identify challenges and barriers in the field. A systematic literature search, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, was performed to identify studies detailing the use of ML for technical skill assessment in surgery. Of the 1896 studies that were retrieved, 66 studies were included. The most common ML methods used were Hidden Markov Models (HMM, 14/66), Support Vector Machines (SVM, 17/66) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, 17/66). 40/66 studies used kinematic data, 19/66 used video or image data, and 7/66 used both. Studies assessed performance of benchtop tasks (48/66), simulator tasks (10/66), and real-life surgery (8/66). Accuracy rates of over 80% were achieved, although tasks and participants varied between studies. Barriers to progress in the field included a focus on basic tasks, lack of standardization between studies, and lack of datasets. ML has the potential to produce accurate and objective surgical skill assessment through the use of methods including HMM, SVM, and ANN. Future ML-based assessment tools should move beyond the assessment ofbasic tasks and towards real-life surgery and provide interpretable feedback with clinical value for the surgeon.

Journal article

Ramaboli M, Nesengani L, Katsidzira L, Haller D, Kinross J, Ocvirk S, O'Keefe SJDet al., 2022, Interactions between the environmental and human microbiota in the preservation of health and genesis of disease: symposium report, CURRENT OPINION IN GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 146-155, ISSN: 0267-1379

Journal article

Roberts DC, Chidambaram S, Kinross JM, 2022, The role of the colonic microbiota and bile acids in colorectal cancer, CURRENT OPINION IN GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 179-188, ISSN: 0267-1379

Journal article

Challoner BR, Woolston A, Lau D, Buzzetti M, Fong C, Barber LJ, Anandappa G, Crux R, Assiotis I, Fenwick K, Begum R, Begum D, Lund T, Sivamanoharan N, Sansano HB, Domingo-Arada M, Tran A, Eccles B, Ellis R, Falk S, Hill M, Krell D, Murugaesu N, Nolan L, Potter V, Saunders M, Shiu K-K, Guettler S, Alexander JL, Lázare-Iglesias H, Kinross J, Murphy J, Loga KV, Cunningham D, Chau I, Starling N, Ruiz-Bañobre J, Dhillon T, Gerlinger Met al., 2022, Genetic and immune landscape evolution defines subtypes of MMR deficient colorectal cancer

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Mismatch repair deficient colorectal cancers have high mutation loads and many respond to immune checkpoint-inhibitors. We investigated how genetic and immune landscapes co-evolve in these tumors. All cases had high truncal mutation loads. Driver aberrations showed a clear hierarchy despite pervasive intratumor heterogeneity: Those in WNT/βCatenin, mitogen-activated protein kinase and TGFβ receptor family genes were almost always truncal. Immune evasion drivers were predominantly subclonal and showed parallel evolution. Pan-tumor evolution, subclonal evolution, and evolutionary stasis of genetic immune evasion drivers defined three MMRd CRC subtypes with distinct T-cell infiltrates. These immune evasion drivers have been implicated in checkpoint-inhibitor resistance. Clonality and subtype assessments are hence critical for predictive immunotherapy biomarker development. Cancer cell PD-L1 expression was conditional on loss of the intestinal homeobox transcription factor CDX2. This explains infrequent PD-L1 expression by cancer cells and likely contributes to the high recurrence risk of MMRd CRCs with impaired CDX2 expression.</jats:p>

Journal article

Kanneganti A, Tan BY, Nik Ab Rahman NH, Leow AS, Denning M, Goh ET, Lim LJ, Sia C-H, Chua YX, Kinross J, Tan M, Tan LF, Wan YM, Sharma AK, Danuaji R, Komal Kumar RN, Sheng CK, Kheng CP, Abdul Karim SS, Abdul Ghani MN, Mahmud S, Chan YH, Sharma VK, Sim K, Ooi SBet al., 2022, Safety attitudes, burnout and wellbeing among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: an Indo-Pacific regional cross-sectional study., Singapore Med J, ISSN: 0037-5675

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact in Asia and has placed significant burden on already stretched healthcare systems. We examined the impact of COVID-19 on safety attitudes among healthcare workers (HCWs) as well as their associated demographic and occupational factors, and measures of burnout, depression and anxiety. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study utilising snowball sampling was performed involving doctors, nurses and allied health professions from 23 hospitals in Singapore, Malaysia, India and Indonesia between 29 May 2020 and 13 July 2020. This survey collated demographic data and workplace conditions and included three validated questionnaires: Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ); Oldenburg Burnout Inventory; and Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale. We performed multivariate mixed model regression to assess for independent associations with the SAQ Total Percentage Agree Rates (PAR). RESULTS: We obtained 3,163 responses. A SAQ Total PAR of 35.7%, 15.0%, 51.0% and 3.3% was calculated among respondents from Singapore, Malaysia, India and Indonesia, respectively. Burnout scores were highest among respondents from Indonesia and lowest in respondents from India at 70.9%-85.4% versus 56.3%-63.6%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that meeting burnout and depression thresholds, and shifts lasting ≥ 12 hours were significantly associated with lower SAQ Total PAR. CONCLUSION: Addressing factors contributing to high burnout and depression, and placing strict limits on work hours per shift may contribute significantly towards improving safety culture among HCWs and should remain priorities as this pandemic continues.

Journal article

Harewood R, Wooldrage K, Robbins EC, Kinross J, von Wagner C, Cross AJet al., 2022, Adenoma characteristics associated with post-polypectomy proximal colon cancer incidence: a retrospective cohort study, British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0007-0920

BackgroundColorectal cancer (CRC) screening is less effective at reducing cancer incidence in the proximal colon compared to the distal colorectum. We aimed to identify adenoma characteristics associated with proximal colon cancer (PCC).MethodsEndoscopy and pathology data for patients with ≥1 adenoma detected at baseline colonoscopy were obtained from 17 UK hospitals between 2001 and 2010. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCC, and, for comparison, distal CRC incidence, by adenoma characteristics.ResultsAmong 18,431 patients, 152 and 105 developed PCC and distal CRC, respectively, over a median follow-up of 9.8 years. Baseline adenoma characteristics positively associated with PCC incidence included number (≥3 vs. < 3: aHR 2.10, 95% CI: 1.42–3.09), histology (tubulovillous/villous vs. tubular: aHR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.10–2.35) and location (any proximal vs. distal only: aHR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.20–2.42), for which there was borderline evidence of heterogeneity by subsite (p = 0.055). Adenoma dysplasia (high vs. low grade) was associated with distal CRC (aHR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.44–4.04), but not PCC (p-heterogeneity = 0.023).ConclusionsBaseline adenoma number, histology and proximal location were independently associated with PCC and may be important to identify patients at higher risk for post-polypectomy PCC.

Journal article

Mahajan AP, Inniss DA, Benedict MD, Dennis AA, Kantor T, Salavitabar A, Stegink C, Nelson J, Kinross J, Cohen MSet al., 2022, International Mixed Reality Immersive Experience: Approach via Surgical Grand Rounds, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, Vol: 234, Pages: 25-31, ISSN: 1072-7515

Journal article

Lam K, Lo FPW, An Y, Darzi A, Kinross JM, Purkayastha S, Lo Bet al., 2022, Deep learning for instrument detection and assessment of operative skill in surgical videos, IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics

Surgical performance has been shown to be directly related to patient outcomes. There is significant variation in surgical performance and therefore a need to measure operative skill accurately and reliably. Despite this, current means of surgical performance assessment rely on expert observation which is labor-intensive, prone to rater bias and unreliable. We present an automatic approach to surgical performance assessment through the tracking of instruments in endoscopic video. We annotate the spatial bounds of surgical instruments in 2600 images and use this new dataset to train Mask R-CNN, a state-of-the-art instance segmentation framework. We show that we can successfully achieve spatial detection of surgical instruments by generating a pixel-by-pixel mask over the detected instrument and achieving an overall mAP of 0.839 for an IoU of 0.5. We leverage the results from our instrument detection framework to assess surgical performance through the generation of instrument trajectory maps and instrument metrics such as moving distance, smoothness of instrument movement and concentration of instrument movement.

Journal article

Lewis JA, Khan S, Tilney HS, Wilson JM, Vitone LJ, Souvatzi M, Singh B, Kinross JMet al., 2021, An observational analysis of a novel digital rectoscope., Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, Vol: 64, Pages: e728-e734, ISSN: 0012-3706

BACKGROUND: This is an analysis of the first 50 in-human uses of a novel digital rigid sigmoidoscope. The technology provides digital image capture, telemedicine capabilities, improved ergonomics, and the ability to biopsy under pneumorectum while maintaining the low cost of conventional rigid sigmoidoscopy. The primary outcome was adverse events, and the secondary outcome was diagnostic view. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: Fifty patients underwent outpatient (n = 25) and surgical rectal assessment (n = 25), with a mean age of 60 years. This included 31 men and 19 women with 12 different clinical use indications. No adverse events were reported, and no defects were reported with the instrumentation. Satisfactory diagnoses were obtained in 48 (96%) of 50 uses, images were captured in 48 (96%) of 50 uses, and biopsies were successfully taken in 13 uses (26%). No adverse events were recorded. Independent reviewers of recorded videos agreed on the quality and diagnostic value of the images with a κ of 0.225 (95% CI, 0.144-0.305) when assessing whether the target pathology was adequately visualized. IMPACT OF INNOVATION: The improved views afforded by digital rectoscopy facilitated a satisfactory clinical diagnosis in 96% of uses. The device was successfully deployed in the operating room and outpatients irrespective of bowel preparation method, where it has the potential to replace flexible sigmoidoscopy for specific use cases. The technology provides a high-quality image and video that can be securely recorded for documentation and medicolegal purposes with agreement between blinded users despite a lack of standardized training and heterogenous pathology. We perceive significant impact of this technology for the assessment of colorectal anastomoses, the office management of colitis, "watch and wait," and for diagnostic support in rectal cancer diagnosis. The technology has significant potential to facilitate proctoring and training, and it now requires prospectiv

Journal article

Beatty JW, Clarke JM, Sounderajah V, Acharya A, Rabinowicz S, Martin G, Warren LR, Yalamanchili S, Scott AJ, Burgnon E, Purkayastha S, Markar S, Kinross JM, PANSURG-PREDICT Collaborativeet al., 2021, Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency adult surgical patients and surgical services: an international multi-center cohort study and department survey., Annals of Surgery, Vol: 274, Pages: 904-912, ISSN: 0003-4932

OBJECTIVES: The PREDICT study aimed to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected surgical services and surgical patients and to identify predictors of outcomes in this cohort. BACKGROUND: High mortality rates were reported for surgical patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic. However, the indirect impact of the pandemic on this cohort is not understood, and risk predictors are yet to be identified. METHODS: PREDICT is an international longitudinal cohort study comprising surgical patients presenting to hospital between March and August 2020, conducted alongside a survey of staff redeployment and departmental restructuring. A subgroup analysis of 3176 adult emergency patients, recruited by 55 teams across 18 countries is presented. RESULTS: Among adult emergency surgical patients, all-cause in-hospital mortality (IHM) was 3 6%, compared to 15 5% for those with COVID-19. However, only 14 1% received a COVID-19 test on admission in March, increasing to 76 5% by July.Higher Clinical Frailty Scale scores (CFS >7 aOR 18 87), ASA grade above 2 (aOR 4 29), and COVID-19 infection (aOR 5 12) were independently associated with significantly increased IHM.The peak months of the first wave were independently associated with significantly higher IHM (March aOR 4 34; April aOR 4 25; May aOR 3 97), compared to non-peak months.During the study, UK operating theatre capacity decreased by a mean of 63 6% with a concomitant 27 3% reduction in surgical staffing. CONCLUSION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted surgical patients, both directly through co-morbid infection and indirectly as shown by increasing mortality in peak months, irrespective of COVID-19 status.Higher CFS scores and ASA grades strongly predict outcomes in surgical patients and are an important risk assessment tool during the pandemic.

Journal article

Clifford RE, Harji D, Poynter L, Jackson R, Adams R, Fearnhead NS, Vimalachandran D, ReCaP Steering Committee and Collaboratorset al., 2021, Rectal cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic (ReCaP): multicentre prospective observational study, British Journal of Surgery, Vol: 108, Pages: 1270-1273, ISSN: 0007-1323

Journal article

Mahajan AP, Inniss DA, Benedict MD, Dennis AA, Kantor T, Kinross JM, Cohen MSet al., 2021, The First International Surgical Grand Rounds Using Immersive Mixed Reality Headset Devices, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, Vol: 233, Pages: S116-S116, ISSN: 1072-7515

Journal article

Khatri C, Ward AE, Nepogodiev D, Ahmed I, Chaudhry D, Dhaif F, Bankhad-Kendall B, Kaafarani H, Bretherton C, Mahmood A, Marais L, Parsons N, Bhangu A, Metcalfe A, Parsons N, Khatri C, Siaw-Acheampong K, Chaudhry D, Dawson BE, Evans JP, Glasbey JC, Gujjuri RR, Heritage E, Jones CS, Kamarajah SK, Khatri C, Keatley JM, Lawday S, Li E, Mckay SC, Nepogodiev D, Pellino G, Tiwari A, Simoes JFF, Trout IM, Venn ML, Wilkin RJW, Bhangu A, Ademuyiwa AO, Agarwal A, Al Ameer E, Alderson D, Alser O, Arnaud AP, Augestad KM, Bankhead-Kendall B, Benson RA, Chakrabortee S, Blanco-Colino R, Brar A, Bravo AM, Breen KA, Buarque IL, Caruana E, Cunha MF, Davidson GH, Desai A, Di Saverio S, Edwards J, Elhadi M, Farik S, Fiore M, Fitzgerald JE, Ford S, Gallo G, Ghosh D, Gomes GMA, Griffiths E, Halkias C, Harrison EM, Hutchinson P, Isik A, Kaafarani H, Kolias A, Lawani I, Lederhuber H, Leventoglu S, Loffler MW, Martin J, Mashbari H, Mazingi D, Mohan H, Moore R, Moszkowicz D, Ng-Kamstra JS, Metallidis S, Moug S, Niquen M, Ntirenganya F, Outani O, Pata F, Pinkney TD, Pockney P, Radenkovic D, Ramos-De la Medina A, Roberts K, Santos I, Schache A, Schnitzbauer A, Stewart GD, Shaw R, Shu S, Soreide K, Spinelli A, Sundar S, Tabiri S, Townend P, Tsoulfas G, van Ramshorst G, Vidya R, Vimalachandran D, Wright N, Simoes JFF, Mak JKC, Kulkarni R, Sharma N, Nankivell P, Tirotta F, Parente A, Breik O, Kisiel A, Cato LD, Saeed S, Bhangu A, Griffiths E, Pathanki AM, Ford S, Desai A, Almond M, Kamal M, Chebaro A, Lecolle K, Truant S, El Amrani M, Zerbib P, Pruvot FR, Mathieu D, Surmei E, Mattei L, Marin H, Dudek J, Singhal T, El-Hasani S, Nehra D, Walters A, Cuschieri J, Davidson GH, Ho M, Wade RG, Johnstone J, Bourke G, Brunelli A, Elkadi H, Otify M, Pompili C, Burke JR, Bagouri E, Chowdhury M, Abual-Rub Z, Kaufmann A, Munot S, Lo T, Young A, Kowal M, Wall J, Peckham-Cooper A, Winter SC, Belcher E, Stavroulias D, Di Chiara F, Wallwork K, Qureishi A, Lami M, Sravanam S, Mastoridis S, Shah K, Chidambaram S, Smet al., 2021, Outcomes after perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with proximal femoral fractures: an international cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives Studies have demonstrated high rates of mortality in people with proximal femoral fracture and SARS-CoV-2, but there is limited published data on the factors that influence mortality for clinicians to make informed treatment decisions. This study aims to report the 30-day mortality associated with perioperative infection of patients undergoing surgery for proximal femoral fractures and to examine the factors that influence mortality in a multivariate analysis.Setting Prospective, international, multicentre, observational cohort study.Participants Patients undergoing any operation for a proximal femoral fracture from 1 February to 30 April 2020 and with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection (either 7 days prior or 30-day postoperative).Primary outcome 30-day mortality. Multivariate modelling was performed to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality.Results This study reports included 1063 patients from 174 hospitals in 19 countries. Overall 30-day mortality was 29.4% (313/1063). In an adjusted model, 30-day mortality was associated with male gender (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.13, p<0.001), age >80 years (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.31, p=0.013), preoperative diagnosis of dementia (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.16, p=0.005), kidney disease (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.55, p=0.005) and congestive heart failure (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.48, p=0.025). Mortality at 30 days was lower in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.6 (0.42 to 0.85), p=0.004). There was no difference in mortality in patients with an increase to delay in surgery (p=0.220) or type of anaesthetic given (p=0.787).Conclusions Patients undergoing surgery for a proximal femoral fracture with a perioperative infection of SARS-CoV-2 have a high rate of mortality. This study would support the need for providing these patients with individualised medical and anaesthetic care, including medical optimisation before t

Journal article

Koller KR, Wilson A, Normolle DP, Nicholson JK, Li JV, Kinross J, Lee FR, Flanagan CA, Merculieff ZT, Iyer P, Lammers DL, Thomas TK, O'Keefe SJDet al., 2021, Dietary fibre to reduce colon cancer risk in Alaska Native people: the Alaska FIRST randomised clinical trial protocol., BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2044-6055

INTRODUCTION: Diet, shown to impact colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, is a modifiable environmental factor. Fibre foods fermented by gut microbiota produce metabolites that not only provide food for the colonic epithelium but also exert regulatory effects on colonic mucosal inflammation and proliferation. We describe methods used in a double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial with Alaska Native (AN) people to determine if dietary fibre supplementation can substantially reduce CRC risk among people with the highest reported CRC incidence worldwide. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Eligible patients undergoing routine screening colonoscopy consent to baseline assessments and specimen/data collection (blood, urine, stool, saliva, breath and colon mucosal biopsies) at the time of colonoscopy. Following an 8-week stabilisation period to re-establish normal gut microbiota post colonoscopy, study personnel randomise participants to either a high fibre supplement (resistant starch, n=30) or placebo (digestible starch, n=30) condition, repeating stool sample collection. During the 28-day supplement trial, each participant consumes their usual diet plus their supplement under direct observation. On day 29, participants undergo a flexible sigmoidoscopy to obtain mucosal biopsy samples to measure the effect of the supplement on inflammatory and proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk, with follow-up assessments and data/specimen collection similar to baseline. Secondary outcome measures include the impact of a high fibre supplement on the oral and colonic microbiome and biofluid metabolome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approvals were obtained from the Alaska Area and University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Boards and Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium and Southcentral Foundation research review bodies. A data safety monitoring board, material transfer agreements and weekly study team meetings provide regular oversight throughout the study. Study findings will first be shared with AN

Journal article

Mason SE, Manoli E, Alexander JL, Poynter L, Ford L, Paizs P, Adebesin A, McKenzie JS, Rosini F, Goldin R, Darzi A, Takats Z, Kinross JMet al., 2021, Lipidomic profiling of colorectal lesions for real-time tissue recognition and risk-stratification using rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry., Annals of Surgery, Vol: 00, ISSN: 0003-4932

OBJECTIVE: Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) is a metabolomic technique analysing tissue metabolites, which can be applied intra-operatively in real-time. The objective of this study was to profile the lipid composition of colorectal tissues using REIMS, assessing its accuracy for real-time tissue recognition and risk-stratification. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Metabolic dysregulation is a hallmark feature of carcinogenesis, however it remains unknown if this can be leveraged for real-time clinical applications in colorectal disease. METHODS: Patients undergoing colorectal resection were included, with carcinoma, adenoma and paired-normal mucosa sampled. Ex vivo analysis with REIMS was conducted using monopolar diathermy, with the aerosol aspirated into a Xevo G2S QToF mass spectrometer. Negatively charged ions over 600-1000m/z were used for univariate and multivariate functions including linear discriminant analysis. RESULTS: 161 patients were included, generating 1013 spectra. Unique lipidomic profiles exist for each tissue type, with REIMS differentiating samples of carcinoma, adenoma and normal mucosa with 93 1% accuracy and 96 1% negative predictive value for carcinoma. Neoplasia (carcinoma or adenoma) could be predicted with 96 0% accuracy and 91 8% negative predictive value. Adenomas can be risk-stratified by grade of dysplasia with 93 5% accuracy, but not histological subtype. The structure of 61 lipid metabolites was identified, revealing that during colorectal carcinogenesis there is progressive increase in relative abundance of phosphatidylglycerols, sphingomyelins and mono-unsaturated fatty acid containing phospholipids. CONCLUSIONS: The colorectal lipidome can be sampled by REIMS and leveraged for accurate real-time tissue recognition, in addition to risk-stratification of colorectal adenomas. Unique lipidomic features associated with carcinogenesis are described.

Journal article

Van Den Heede K, Chidambaram S, Winter Beatty J, Chander N, Markar S, Tolley NS, Palazzo FF, Kinross JK, Di Marco AN, PanSurg Collaborative and the PREDICT-Endocrine Collaborativeet al., 2021, The PanSurg-PREDICT Study: endocrine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, World Journal of Surgery, Vol: 45, Pages: 2315-2324, ISSN: 0364-2313

BACKGROUND: In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients have continued to present with endocrine (surgical) pathology in an environment depleted of resources. This study investigated how the pandemic affected endocrine surgery practice. METHODS: PanSurg-PREDICT is an international, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of emergency and elective surgical patients in secondary/tertiary care during the pandemic. PREDICT-Endocrine collected endocrine-specific data alongside demographics, COVID-19 and outcome data from 11-3-2020 to 13-9-2020. RESULTS: A total of 380 endocrine surgery patients (19 centres, 12 countries) were analysed (224 thyroidectomies, 116 parathyroidectomies, 40 adrenalectomies). Ninety-seven percent were elective, and 63% needed surgery within 4 weeks. Eight percent were initially deferred but had surgery during the pandemic; less than 1% percent was deferred for more than 6 months. Decision-making was affected by capacity, COVID-19 status or the pandemic in 17%, 5% and 7% of cases. Indication was cancer/worrying lesion in 61% of thyroidectomies and 73% of adrenalectomies and calcium 2.80 mmol/l or greater in 50% of parathyroidectomies. COVID-19 status was unknown at presentation in 92% and remained unknown before surgery in 30%. Two-thirds were asked to self-isolate before surgery. There was one COVID-19-related ICU admission and no mortalities. Consultant-delivered care occurred in a majority (anaesthetist 96%, primary surgeon 76%). Post-operative vocal cord check was reported in only 14% of neck endocrine operations. Both of these observations are likely to reflect modification of practice due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected endocrine surgical decision-making, case mix and personnel delivering care. Significant variation was seen in COVID-19 risk mitigation measures. COVID-19-related complications were uncommon. This analysis demonstrates the safety of endocrine surgery during this

Journal article

Bala L, Kinross J, Martin G, Koizia LJ, Kooner AS, Shimshon GJ, Hurkxkens TJ, Pratt PJ, Sam AHet al., 2021, A remote access mixed reality teaching ward round, The Clinical Teacher, Vol: 18, Pages: 386-390, ISSN: 1743-4971

BackgroundHeterogeneous access to clinical learning opportunities and inconsistency in teaching is a common source of dissatisfaction among medical students. This was exacerbated during the COVID‐19 pandemic, with limited exposure to patients for clinical teaching.MethodsWe conducted a proof‐of‐concept study at a London teaching hospital using mixed reality (MR) technology (HoloLens2™) to deliver a remote access teaching ward round.ResultsStudents unanimously agreed that use of this technology was enjoyable and provided teaching that was otherwise inaccessible. The majority of participants gave positive feedback on the MR (holographic) content used (n = 8 out of 11) and agreed they could interact with and have their questions answered by the clinician leading the ward round (n = 9). Quantitative and free text feedback from students, patients and faculty members demonstrated that this is a feasible, acceptable and effective method for delivery of clinical education.DiscussionWe have used this technology in a novel way to transform the delivery of medical education and enable consistent access to high‐quality teaching. This can now be integrated across the curriculum and will include remote access to specialist clinics and surgery. A library of bespoke MR educational resources will be created for future generations of medical students and doctors to use on an international scale.

Journal article

Cardiothoracic Interdisciplinary Research Network and COVIDSurg Collaborative, 2021, Early outcomes and complications following cardiac surgery in patients testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019: An international cohort study., Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Vol: 162, Pages: e355-e372, ISSN: 0022-5223

Journal article

COVIDSurg Collaborative Co-authors, 2021, Machine learning risk prediction of mortality for patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2: the COVIDSurg mortality score, British Journal of Surgery, Vol: 108, Pages: 1274-1292, ISSN: 0007-1323

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic tens of millions of operations have been cancelled1 as a result of excessive postoperative pulmonary complications (51.2 per cent) and mortality rates (23.8 per cent) in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection2. There is an urgent need to restart surgery safely in order to minimize the impact of untreated non-communicable disease.As rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in elective surgery patients range from 1–9 per cent3–8, vaccination is expected to take years to implement globally9 and preoperative screening is likely to lead to increasing numbers of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection will remain a challenge for the foreseeable future.To inform consent and shared decision-making, a robust, globally applicable score is needed to predict individualized mortality risk for patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. The authors aimed to develop and validate a machine learning-based risk score to predict postoperative mortality risk in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Journal article

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