220 results found
Probert AF, Wegmann D, Volery L, et al., 2022, Identifying, reducing, and communicating uncertainty in community science: a focus on alien species, BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, ISSN: 1387-3547
Fischer SH, DeOliveira JAA, Mumford JD, et al., 2022, Exploring a relative harvest rate strategy for moderately data-limited fisheries management, ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol: 00, ISSN: 1054-3139
Moderately data-limited fisheries can be managed with simple empirical management procedures without analytical stock assessments. Often, control rules adjust advised catches by the trend of an abundance index. We explored an alternative approach where a relative harvest rate, defined by the catch relative to a biomass index, is used and the target level derived from analysing historical catch length data. This harvest rate rule was tested generically with management strategy evaluation. A genetic algorithm was deployed as an optimisation procedure to tune the parameters of the control rule to meet maximum sustainable yield and precautionary management objectives. Results indicated that this method could outperform trend-based strategies, particularly when optimised, achieving higher long-term yields while remaining precautionary. However, optimum harvest rate levels can be narrow and challenging to find because they depend on historical exploitation and life history characteristics. Misspecification of target levels can have a detrimental impact on management. Nevertheless, harvest rates appear to be a suitable management option for moderately data-limited resources, and their application has modest data requirements. Harvest rate strategies are especially suitable for stocks for which case-specific analyses can be conducted.
Connolly JB, Mumford JD, Glandorf DCM, et al., 2022, Recommendations for environmental risk assessment of gene drive applications for malaria vector control, MALARIA JOURNAL, Vol: 21
QUINLAN MM, MUMFORD JD, BENEDICT MQ, et al., 2022, Can there be a common, risk-based framework for decisions around live insect trade?, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 219-227, ISSN: 0253-1933
A network of scientists involved in shipment of live insects has met and generated a series of articles on issues relatedto live insect transport. The network is diverse, covering large-scale commercial interests, government operated areawide control programmes, biomedical research and many smaller applications, in research, education and privateuses. Many insect species have a record of safe transport, pose minimal risks and are shipped frequently betweencountries. The routine shipments of the most frequently used insect model organism for biomedical research,Drosophila melanogaster, is an example. Successful large-scale shipments from commercial biocontrol and pollinatorsuppliers also demonstrate precedents for low-risk shipment categories, delivered in large volumes to high qualitystandards. Decision makers need access to more information (publications or official papers) that details actual risksfrom the insects themselves or their possible contaminants, and should propose proportionate levels of management.There may be harm to source environments when insects are collected directly from the wild, and there may be harmhttps://doi.org/10.20506/rst.41.1.3319Scientific and Technical Review 41 (1) 2022 220to receiving environments. Several risk frameworks include insects and various international coordinating bodies,with experience of guidance on relevant risks, exist. All stakeholders would benefit from an integrated overview ofguidance for insect shipping, with reference to types of risk and categories of magnitude, without trying for a singleapproach requiring universal agreement. Proposals for managing uncertainty and lack of data for smaller or infrequent shipments, for example, must not disrupt trade in large volumes of live insects, which are already supportingstrategic objectives in several sectors.
MUMFORD JD, QUINLAN MM, 2022, Introduction, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 15-28, ISSN: 0253-1933
OLIVA CF, CHAND R, PRUDHOMME J, et al., 2022, International live insect trade: a survey of stakeholders, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 29-65, ISSN: 0253-1933
There are significant numbers of transboundary shipments of live insects for pollination, pest management, industrialprocesses, research and other uses, but data collection and analysis have proved difficult. The World Organisation forAnimal Health and Collectif TIS (Technique de l’Insecte Stérile), a French think tank, carried out a stakeholder surveyto understand the nature of the live insect trade and potential challenges to safety and efficiency. Target respondentshad experience in the areas of biocontrol, sterile insect technique, entomological research and regulatory affairs.Although the survey was sent globally, the responses were unintentionally biased towards Europe, where interest ishigh, since this region is developing a comprehensive framework to promote the use of beneficial insects to replacepesticides.The survey also explored respondents’ knowledge of several international agreements on the movement and riskmanagement of beneficial or invasive insects. Knowledge of the various regulations was generally poor, and respondents highlighted a perceived lack of clarity regarding live insect shipments in the existing international regulationsand guidelines. Almost two-thirds of participants reported reluctance by carriers to accept live insects for shipment,and three-quarters described occasional to systematic delays that resulted in a reduction of quality or viability. Somerespondents reported that they instead hand-carry live insects, mostly in small quantities.Participants described being directly involved in trade covering 70 species of live insects and ticks transportedamong 37 countries, with volumes ranging from fewer than ten insects to over a million per shipment. Of these, 30%were potential vectors of pathogens to humans or animals, 42% were potential plant pest species (including someused for biocontrol), and 17% were classical biocontrol agents.The results of this survey begin to define the current scope, scale and issues for t
QUINLAN MM, MUMFORD JD, MESSORI S, et al., 2022, Issues and gaps in international guidance and national regulatory systems affecting international live insect trade, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 198-210, ISSN: 0253-1933
International trade in live insects involves the shipping of many different species, for various purposes, with a varietyof handling requirements regulated by numerous authorities with varying objectives. The diversity of factors at playhas both created and been subject to a complex regulatory landscape. A review of global production, shipping and useexperiences from a range of perspectives has shown gaps and inconsistencies in international guidance and nationalimplementation. Private carriers add another layer of uncertainty that is disproportionate to risks, resulting in variablepractices and charges.Many benefits can come from international trade in insects, including pollinator services, control of pests and of disease vectors, and enhanced international scientific research and innovation. These benefits will be better achievedthrough a more evidence-based and efficient approach to regulating trade. This change in approach will in turn require an improved and widely accepted risk-management landscape for insect trade.
MUMFORD JD, QUINLAN MM, 2022, Opportunities and recommendations for improved international shipment of live insects, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, Vol: 41, Pages: 228-250, ISSN: 0253-1933
While the information on live insect shipments provided in this thematic issue of the Scientific and Technical Reviewcould not be exhaustive, it clearly represents a broad variety of trade, of substantial value, involving many stakeholdersthroughout the world. The contributions to this issue demonstrate that most of the trade in insects is carried out safelyand efficiently. The concerns related to shipping insects described within this issue fall broadly into four categories:risks to human, animal and environmental health; delays and loss of quality; refusal of carriage; and high and variablecosts. Some opportunities for improvements to insect shipping for diverse stakeholders are shown across these fourareas of concern, with specific recommendations and a general call for further collaboration among stakeholders.
Devos Y, Mumford JD, Bonsall MB, et al., 2022, Risk management recommendations for environmental releases of gene drive modified insects, BIOTECHNOLOGY ADVANCES, Vol: 54, ISSN: 0734-9750
Fischer SH, De Oliveira JAA, Mumford JD, et al., 2021, Using a genetic algorithm to optimize a data-limited catch rule (vol 78, pg 1311, 2021), ICES JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE, Vol: 78, Pages: 3013-3014, ISSN: 1054-3139
Thomine E, Mumford J, Rusch A, et al., 2021, Using crop diversity to lower pesticide use: Socio-ecological approaches, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 804, ISSN: 0048-9697
Fischer SH, De Oliveira JAA, Mumford JD, et al., 2021, Application of explicit precautionary principles in data-limited fisheries management, ICES JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE, Vol: 78, Pages: 2931-2942, ISSN: 1054-3139
Devos Y, Bonsall MB, Firbank LG, et al., 2021, Gene Drive-Modified Organisms: Developing Practical Risk Assessment Guidance, TRENDS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 39, Pages: 853-856, ISSN: 0167-7799
Fischer SH, De Oliveira JAA, Mumford JD, et al., 2021, Using a genetic algorithm to optimize a data-limited catch rule, ICES Journal of Marine Science: journal du conseil, Vol: 78, Pages: 1311-1323, ISSN: 1054-3139
Many data-limited fish stocks worldwide require management advice. Simple empirical management procedures have been used to manage data-limited fisheries but do not necessarily ensure compliance with maximum sustainable yield objectives and precautionary principles. Genetic algorithms are efficient optimization procedures for which the objectives are formalized as a fitness function. This optimization can be included when testing management procedures in a management strategy evaluation. This study explored the application of a genetic algorithm to an empirical catch rule and found that this approach could substantially improve the performance of the catch rule. The optimized parameterization and the magnitude of the improvement were dependent on the specific stock, stock status, and definition of the fitness function. The genetic algorithm proved to be an efficient and automated method for tuning the catch rule and removed the need for manual intervention during the optimization process. Therefore, we conclude that the approach could also be applied to other management procedures, case-specific tuning, and even data-rich stocks. Finally, we recommend the phasing out of the current generic ICES “2 over 3” advice rule in favour of case-specific catch rules of the form tested here, although we caution that neither works well for fast-growing stocks.
Devos Y, Mumford JD, Bonsall MB, et al., 2021, Potential use of gene drive modified insects against disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species poses new challenges for risk assessment, CRITICAL REVIEWS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 42, Pages: 254-270, ISSN: 0738-8551
Connolly JB, Mumford JD, Fuchs S, et al., 2021, Systematic identification of plausible pathways to potential harm via problem formulation for investigational releases of a population suppression gene drive to control the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in West Africa, MALARIA JOURNAL, Vol: 20
Mumford J, 2021, Design and evaluation of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique, Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-wide Integrated Pest Management, Editors: Dyck, Hendrichs, Robinson, New York, NY, USA, Publisher: CRC Press, Pages: 731-752, ISBN: 9781003035572
Area-wide integrated pest management is designed for specific purposes, and an economic evaluation should determine its performance against those purposes. The sterile insect technique is used for eradication, suppression, containment and prevention, each of which has different performance measures. Eradication or suppression of insect pest populations using the sterile insect technique (SIT), together with other area-wide control measures, may require significant initial capital investments to achieve long-term returns in subsequent periods. It may also raise questions about the distribution of benefits or the justification of public or private pest control efforts, given long-term uncertainties about the pest challenge and the potential of new control options. A consistent and transparent evaluation is needed to analyse the benefits and costs of such projects and to demonstrate their value, or in some cases to assess appropriate contributions to the costs by the various stakeholders who gain the benefits. Suppression must be compared with expected losses and costs in alternative conditions without SIT application, either from recent experience prior to implementation of the SIT or with similar areas without SIT treatment. Preventive SIT should reduce the frequency of outbreaks compared with experience prior to the application of the SIT or in similar areas elsewhere without SIT use. This chapter outlines the process of benefit/cost analysis, in which itemized future costs and benefits are compared in terms of present values. It also provides a review and examples of the application of benefit/cost analysis to the SIT. A checklist of benefit/cost analysis inputs and some example benefit/cost outputs are also presented.
EFSA Panelon Genetically Modified Organisms GMO, Naegeli H, Bresson J-L, et al., 2020, Adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives., EFSA J, Vol: 18, Pages: e06297-e06297
Advances in molecular and synthetic biology are enabling the engineering of gene drives in insects for disease vector/pest control. Engineered gene drives (that bias their own inheritance) can be designed either to suppress interbreeding target populations or modify them with a new genotype. Depending on the engineered gene drive system, theoretically, a genetic modification of interest could spread through target populations and persist indefinitely, or be restricted in its spread or persistence. While research on engineered gene drives and their applications in insects is advancing at a fast pace, it will take several years for technological developments to move to practical applications for deliberate release into the environment. Some gene drive modified insects (GDMIs) have been tested experimentally in the laboratory, but none has been assessed in small-scale confined field trials or in open release trials as yet. There is concern that the deliberate release of GDMIs in the environment may have possible irreversible and unintended consequences. As a proactive measure, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has been requested by the European Commission to review whether its previously published guidelines for the risk assessment of genetically modified animals (EFSA, 2012 and 2013), including insects (GMIs), are adequate and sufficient for GDMIs, primarily disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species, for deliberate release into the environment. Under this mandate, EFSA was not requested to develop risk assessment guidelines for GDMIs. In this Scientific Opinion, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) concludes that EFSA's guidelines are adequate, but insufficient for the molecular characterisation (MC), environmental risk assessment (ERA) and post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of GDMIs. While the MC,ERA and PMEM of GDMIs can build on the existing risk assessment framework for GMIs that do not contain engineered gene driv
Quinlan MM, Leach A, Mumford J, 2020, Classification of objectives in Systems Approaches to manage horticultural biosecurity risks for market access, Crop Protection, Pages: 105286-105286, ISSN: 0261-2194
Systems Approach is a method for management of pest risk used in international trade. It consists of a combination of independent phytosanitary measures which either reduce the risk directly or provide additional information to reduce the uncertainty and support decision making. Control points within a system allow pest managers to effectively respond to real time information and adjust the application of measures, if the performance of the system up to that point is not adequate. The ability to adjust a system during trade or after learning more about the pest or trade is one of the key advantages of Systems Approach. Our research group found that identification of specific objectives for each measure in a system enhances understanding of the overall risk and supports design or evaluation of risk management plans. While some terminology, tools and frameworks vary globally, this paper seeks further harmonization in order to better implement Systems Approach and achieve safe trade.
Fellenor J, Barnett J, Potter C, et al., 2020, ‘Real without being concrete’: the ontology of public concern and its significance for the Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF), Journal of Risk Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 20-34, ISSN: 1366-9877
Public concern is a pivotal notion in the risk perception, communication and management literature. It is, for example, a central concept with regard to the social amplification of risk, and as a justification for policy attention. Despite its ubiquity, the notion of public concern remains a ‘black box’ presenting a poorly understood state of affairs as a reified matter-of-fact. Paying attention to the deployment and metrics of public concern, and the work it is required to do, will enhance the power of approaches to understanding risk, and policymaking. Thus, the broad purpose of this paper is to unpack the notion of public concern by adopting an ontological yet critical perspective, drawing on a range of literature that considers ontology. We reflect on how publics and public concern have been conceptualised with regard to the dichotomies of individual/social and private/public, given that they imply different levels and dimensions of concern. We draw on empirical work that illuminates the assessment and measurement of public concern and how the public have responded to risk events. Considering public concern through an ontological lens affords a means of drawing renewed critical attention to objects that might otherwise appear finished or ready-made.
Fellenor J, Barnett J, Potter C, et al., 2019, Ash dieback and other tree pests and pathogens: dispersed risk events and the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, Journal of Risk Research, Vol: 22, Pages: 1459-1478, ISSN: 1366-9877
It is widely acknowledged within the risk literature that the mass media play a pivotal role in shaping information about risk events for audiences. While some risk events reflect occurrences specific to particular times and locations, other risk events are more difficult to temporally and spatially situate as they are dispersed across years or months and are not constrained to particular geographic locations. Studies examining the relationship between the social amplification or attenuation of risks and their framing in the media have tended to focus on the former type of event. In this paper, we explore the social amplification of risk in relation to ash dieback disease (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus), a tree health issue that attracted intense media attention in the United Kingdom in 2012, and characterise what we designate as a dispersed risk event. Drawing on the influential Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF), we present a frame analysis of UK national newspaper articles to assess the connection between media coverage of dieback and risk amplification, and the extent to which dieback coverage drew on other tree health issues and objects of media attention. Focusing particularly on the blame frame around dieback, the paper considers the implications of conceptualising dispersed risk events for the SARF and its amplification metaphor. Moreover, given that risk events such as dieback are often associated with policy shifts, we suggest that there is value for risk communicators and policymakers in broadening their focus to incorporate more of the ‘history’ of risk events in order to anticipate likely anchors of public and media attention.Abbreviations: BSE: bovine spongiform encephalopathy; Defra: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs; DED: Dutch elm disease; EAB: Emerald ash borer; EU: European Union; FMD: foot and mouth disease; FC: Forestry Commission; GSBB : Great spruce bark beetle; HCLM: Horse chestnut leaf miner; HTA: Horticultu
Urquhart J, Potter C, Barnett J, et al., 2019, Using Q methodology to explore risk perception and public concern about tree pests and diseases: The case of ash dieback, Forests, Vol: 10, Pages: 761-761, ISSN: 1999-4907
This paper seeks to address the need for a more nuanced understanding of public perceptions of risk-related events by investigating the nature of and drivers for a ‘concerned public’ to an environmental issue, using the case study of the ash dieback outbreak in the UK. Q Methodology, an approach that combines both quantitative and qualitative data through factor analysis to identify different ways of thinking about a particular issue, was used to investigate the subjective response of local publics to ash dieback in East Kent, England, one of the early outbreak locations. Five narratives are identified, distinguishing perceptions of risk and management preferences: (1) call for better biosecurity; (2) resilient nature and techno-scientific solutions; (3) fatalistic; (4) disinterested; and (5) pro-active citizens. Four narratives demonstrated concern about the impacts of ash dieback on woodland ecosystems, but beliefs about whether the disease arrived in the UK on infected imported nursery stock or on windblown spores varied. The results of this study contribute to improving understanding of the drivers of differing public perceptions of tree health risks, an important consideration for designing socially acceptable strategies for managing tree pests and diseases, and other environmental risks, in the future.
Mumford JD, Long CA, Weaver SC, et al., 2019, Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporodia: Plasmodiidae) and O'nyong-nyong virus development in a transgenic Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) strain, Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol: 56, Pages: 936-941, ISSN: 0022-2585
Transgenic Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes have been developed that confer sexual sterility on males that carry a transgene encoding a protein which cuts ribosomal DNA. A relevant risk concern with transgenic mosquitoes is that their capacity to transmit known pathogens could be greater than the unmodified form. In this study, the ability to develop two human pathogens in these transgenic mosquitoes carrying a homing endonuclease which is expressed in the testes was compared with its nontransgenic siblings. Infections were performed with Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) and o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) and the results between the transgenic and nontransgenic sibling females were compared. There was no difference observed with ONNV isolate SG650 in intrathoracic infections or the 50% oral infectious dose measured at 14 d postinfection or in mean body titers. Some significant differences were observed for leg titers at the medium and highest doses for those individuals in which virus titer could be detected. No consistent difference was observed between the transgenic and nontransgenic comparator females in their ability to develop P. falciparum NF54 strain parasites. This particular transgene caused no significant effect in the ability of mosquitoes to become infected by these two pathogens in this genetic background. These results are discussed in the context of risk to human health if these transgenic individuals were present in the environment.
Fellenor J, Barnett J, Potter C, et al., 2019, 'I'd like to report a suspicious looking tree': Public concern, public attention and the nature of reporting about ash dieback in the United Kingdom, Public Understanding of Science, Vol: 28, Pages: 339-356, ISSN: 0963-6625
'Public concern', a ubiquitous notion used in descriptive and explanatory modes by policy makers, academics and the media, is often presented as axiomatic. However, the variability with which it is deployed in different contexts, for example, as justification for policy attention or having equivalence with what is considered 'newsworthy', belies this status. This article presents an empirical analysis of emails and phone calls from the UK public to UK government agencies, reporting suspected cases of ash dieback disease - a tree health issue which attracted intense media and policy attention in the United Kingdom in 2012. We challenge the view that public attentiveness is necessarily indicative of public concern, or that media attention can be taken as its proxy. Examination of concern at macro and micro levels reveals heterogeneous processes with multiple dimensions. Understanding the nature of public concern is crucial in enabling more effective policy development and operational responses to risk-related issues.
Baker E, Jeger MJ, Mumford JD, et al., 2019, Enhancing plant biosecurity with citizen science monitoring: comparing methodologies using reports of acute oak decline, Journal of Geographical Systems, Vol: 21, Pages: 111-131, ISSN: 1435-5930
Monitoring of forest pests and diseases is resource-intensive, requiring individual woodlands and trees to be visited and assessed for symptoms. Climate change and increased global connectivity are amplifying the scale of the monitoring challenge, with the number of new plant biosecurity threats increasing each year. Citizen science can increase the scale of pest and disease surveys. However, it is argued that citizen science data can be biased and inaccurate. This study examines potential biases in citizen science data by focusing on the case study of acute oak decline (AOD), a disease syndrome impacting native oaks within the UK associated with the beetle Agrilus biguttatus. Analysis was performed using two contrasting citizen science data set sources: the National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas, which is a repository for citizen science data sets, and Tree Alert, a targeted citizen science project that encouraged landowners and the public to report the occurrence of AOD. For both data sets, detection was more likely in locations with higher Coleoptera reports, suggesting that there are hubs of recorder activity. For the NBN data set, A. biguttatus was more likely to be found in areas where historic parks and gardens were present. For the Tree Alert data set, A. biguttatus was less likely to be found on open access land, indicating that the programme was successful in engaging private landowners. These results indicate that understanding sources of bias within reporting schemes is an important step in data analysis and that the inclusion of structured survey designs would enable the extent of biases to be documented.
Collins CM, Bonds J, Quinlan M, et al., 2019, Effects of removal or reduced density of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.l., on interacting predators and competitors in local ecosystems, Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol: 33, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0269-283X
New genetic control methods for mosquitoes may reduce vector species without direct effects on other species or the physical environment common with insecticides or drainage. Effects on predators and competitors could, however, be a concern as Anopheles gambiae s.l. is preyed upon in all life stages. We overview the literature and assess the strength of the ecological interactions identified. Most predators identified consume many other insect species and there is no evidence that any species preys exclusively on any anopheline mosquito. There is one predatory species with a specialisation on blood‐fed mosquitoes including An. gambiae s.l.. Evarcha culicivora is a jumping spider, known as the vampire spider, found around Lake Victoria. There is no evidence that these salticids require Anopheles mosquitoes and will readily consume blood‐fed Culex. Interspecific competition studies focus on other mosquitoes of larval habitats. Many of these take place in artificial cosms and give contrasting results to semi‐field studies. This may limit their extrapolation regarding the potential impact of reduced An. gambiae numbers. Previous mosquito control interventions are informative and identify competitive release and niche opportunism; so while the identity and relative abundance of the species present may change, the biomass available to predators may not.
Mumford J, Leach A, Baranowski P, et al., 2018, An analytical framework for consistent evaluation of pest and disease management technologies, International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP), Publisher: American Phytopathological Society, ISSN: 0031-949X
Burgess MM, Mumford JD, Lavery JV, 2018, Public engagement pathways for emerging GM insect technologies., BMC Proceedings, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1753-6561
Policy and management related to the release of organisms generated by emerging biotechnologies for pest management should be informed through public engagement. Regulatory decisions can be conceptually distinguished into the development of frameworks, the assessment of the release of a specific modified organism, and implementation decisions such as location and timing. Although these decisions are often intertwined in practice, the negotiation takes place at different stages of technology development and suggests different roles for public engagement. Some approaches to public engagement are more appropriate for different purposes and situations, and it is not always obvious how to go about matching the approach to the purpose. In addition to the diverse technologies involved in generating modified organisms, there are diverse publics with particular interests and different kinds of knowledge. Institutional interests range from commercial development to public regulation and future uptake. Contextual features, such as agency mandates, may limit or structure the extent and approach to public engagement. Different convening groups (government agencies, public interest groups, academics, businesses) and the kind of decision that is being considered determine what kind of input is needed and how the engaging groups will be constituted. This paper considers how the context of the release of genetically modified insects for pest control requires expanding approaches to the design of the public engagement.
Goti-Aralucea L, Fitzpatrick M, Doering R, et al., 2018, "Overarching sustainability objectives overcome incompatible directions in the Common Fisheries Policy", Marine Policy, Vol: 91, Pages: 49-57, ISSN: 0308-597X
The lack of clarity in the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) must be addressed to create a more efficient balance across diverse ecological, economic and social dimensions. Particularly economic and social objectives present at an overarching level must be made explicit and addressed in lower level management measures, in order to link them to biological objectives and allow policy to build a balance across types of objectives. Selecting clear objectives is essential, particularly for policy impact assessment. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how more specific high level objectives to managing fisheries can be derived from stakeholders. The paper first reviews the definition of objectives, from a historical and conceptual perspective. Secondly, it discusses the issues of manageability and acceptability, and finally describes an articulation of the high level objectives derived from extensive stakeholder consultations at European and regional level. The results from workshops at the European level to identify objectives were further examined at regional level for the Baltic and North Seas in additional individual consultations. The German case addresses two seas (Baltic and North Seas), has a complex governance structure (due to federalism) and significant roles for the three types of actors (industry, government and environmental NGOs). The analysis suggests that establishing higher level sustainability objectives within the CFP can help diverse interest groups to develop a consensus on management actions to meet complex social goals.
Mumford JD, Leach AW, Benedict MQ, et al., 2018, Maintaining quality of candidate strains of transgenic mosquitoes for studies in containment facilities in disease endemic countries, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: 31-38, ISSN: 1530-3667
Transgenic mosquitoes are being developed as novel components of area-wide approaches to vector-borne disease control. Best practice is to develop these in phases, beginning with laboratory studies, before moving to field testing and inclusion in control programs, to ensure safety and prevent costly field testing of unsuitable strains. The process of identifying and developing good candidate strains requires maintenance of transgenic colonies over many generations in containment facilities. By working in disease endemic countries with target vector populations, laboratory strains may be developed and selected for properties that will enhance intended control efficacy in the next phase, while avoiding traits that introduce unnecessary risks. Candidate strains aiming toward field use must consistently achieve established performance criteria, throughout the process of scaling up from small study colonies to production of sufficient numbers for field testing and possible open release. Maintenance of a consistent quality can be demonstrated by a set of insect quality and insectary operating indicators, measured over time at predetermined intervals. These indicators: inform comparability of studies using various candidate strains at different times and locations; provide evidence of conformity relevant to compliance with terms of approval for regulated use; and can be used to validate some assumptions related to risk assessments covering the contained phase and for release into the environment.
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