991 results found
HOLMES E, NICHOLSON JK, BONNER FW, et al., 1992, MAPPING THE BIOCHEMICAL TRAJECTORY OF NEPHROTOXICITY BY PATTERN-RECOGNITION OF NMR URINALYSIS, NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Vol: 5, Pages: 368-372, ISSN: 0952-3480
ANTHONY ML, GARTLAND KPR, BEDDELL CR, et al., 1992, CEPHALORIDINE-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN THE FISCHER-344 RAT - PROTON NMR SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF URINE AND PLASMA IN RELATION TO CONVENTIONAL CLINICAL CHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS OF NEPHRONAL DAMAGE, ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 66, Pages: 525-537, ISSN: 0340-5761
SANINS SM, TIMBRELL JA, ELCOMBE C, et al., 1992, PROTON NMR SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES ON THE METABOLISM AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HYDRAZINE INVIVO, ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 66, Pages: 489-495, ISSN: 0340-5761
RAZZAK MA, GLEN RC, 1992, APPLICATIONS OF RULE-INDUCTION IN THE DERIVATION OF QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY-RELATIONSHIPS, JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-AIDED MOLECULAR DESIGN, Vol: 6, Pages: 349-383, ISSN: 0920-654X
SPRAUL M, HOFMANN M, DVORTSAK P, et al., 1992, LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH HIGH-FIELD PROTON NMR FOR PROFILING HUMAN URINE FOR ENDOGENOUS COMPOUNDS AND DRUG METABOLITES, JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, Vol: 10, Pages: 601-605, ISSN: 0731-7085
HOYLE VR, GILBERT PJ, TROKE JA, et al., 1992, STUDIES ON THE BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF THE ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITOR 2,7-DIFLUOROSPIROFLUORENE-9,5'-IMIDAZOLIDINE-2',4'-DIONE (AL-1576, HOE-843) - DETECTION OF DEUTERIUM-GLUCARIC AND DEUTERIUM-GLUCURONIC ACID EXCRETION BY HIGH-RESOLUTION H-1-NMR AND C-13 NMR-SPECTROSCOPY, BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 44, Pages: 231-241, ISSN: 0006-2952
FOXALL PJD, PRICE RG, JONES JK, et al., 1992, HIGH-RESOLUTION PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF CYST FLUIDS FROM PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA, Vol: 1138, Pages: 305-314, ISSN: 0006-3002
Stamler R, Shipley M, Elliott P, et al., 1992, Higher blood pressure in adults with less education. Some explanations from INTERSALT., Hypertension, Vol: 19, Pages: 237-241, ISSN: 0194-911X
An inverse association between social class and disease has frequently been reported; education, an indicator of social class, was negatively related to blood pressure in several studies. Reasons are not clear. INTERSALT, an international study on electrolytes and blood pressure, obtained data on years of education for 10,079 adults in 52 centers in 32 countries. Data presented here are for 47 centers, omitting five where the population in the sample had no education or no differences in educational level. Regression coefficients were calculated for the education-blood pressure association in each center. An inverse association was found for men in 28 centers and for women in 38. Center coefficients were combined to give a studywide estimate of that association. When adjusted only for age, systolic pressure in men was 1.3 mm Hg higher for 10 fewer years of education (p less than 0.05) and for women 4.5 mm Hg higher (p less than 0.001). However, when adjusted also for five lifestyle factors (24-hour sodium and potassium excretion, body mass index, alcohol intake, and smoking), these estimates were reduced by about one half, and the inverse association was no longer significant for men. Similar findings were obtained for diastolic pressure. Those with less education had on average higher sodium excretion, lower potassium excretion, greater body mass, and higher alcohol intake, all factors tending to increase blood pressure. Improvement of these factors, which help explain the differences in blood pressure related to years of education, has the potential to reduce the blood pressure disadvantage associated with lower socioeconomic status.
TUGNAIT M, GHAURI FY, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1992, METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUOROQUINOLONES IN URINE BY H-1 AND F-19 NMR, 9TH INTERNATIONAL BIOANALYTICAL FORUM : BIOANALYSIS OF DRUGS, INCLUDING ANTI-ALLERGIES AND ANTI-ASTHMATICS, Publisher: ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, Pages: 291-296
Ghauri FY, Blackledge CA, Glen RC, et al., 1992, An approach to a metabolic expert system: structure-metabolism relationships for benzoic acids in the rat, Methodological Surveys in Biochemistry and Analysis, Editors: Reid, Wilson, Pages: 21-28
Wilson ID, Nicholson JK, Ghauri FYK, et al., 1991, Use of high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the analysis of biological fluids, Analytical Proceedings, Vol: 28, Pages: 217-223, ISSN: 0144-557X
LIU ML, FARRANT RD, GLEN RC, et al., 1991, STUDIES OF TAUTOMERISM AND PROTONATION IN 2-ARYL-1H-IMIDAZO[1,2-A]IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES USING H-1 AND C-13 NMR, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 29, Pages: 1147-1151, ISSN: 0749-1581
PREECE NE, NICHOLSON JK, TIMBRELL JA, 1991, IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL HYDRAZINE METABOLITES BY N-15-NMR, BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 41, Pages: 1319-1324, ISSN: 0006-2952
GARTLAND KPR, BEDDELL CR, LINDON JC, et al., 1991, APPLICATION OF PATTERN-RECOGNITION METHODS TO THE ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF TOXICOLOGICAL DATA DERIVED FROM PROTON NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF URINE, MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 39, Pages: 629-642, ISSN: 0026-895X
Cutler JA, Follmann D, Elliott P, et al., 1991, An overview of randomized trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure, Hypertension, Vol: 17, ISSN: 0194-911X
To test for effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and to provide precise estimates of their magnitude, we conducted an overview of randomized clinical trials that aimed to reduce the intake of sodium in human subjects. We excluded from pooled analyses trials with confounded designs, those that compared intake levels beyond the usual range in the population, and those without published reports. Two reviewers abstracted information in duplicate and differences were reconciled. Twenty-three trials with outcome data from an aggregate of 1,536 subjects were included. Data were pooled both separately for hypertensive and nonnotensive subjects and for all trials combined. With the use of sample size weighting, blood pressure reductions (net of controls) were 4.9±13/2.6±0.8 mm Hg (systolic and diastolic, respectively, with 95% confidence limits) in hypertensive subjects and 1.7 ±1.0/1.0 ±0.7 mm Hg in nonnotensive subjects. The combined blood pressure reductions were 2.9±0.8/1.6±0.5 mm Hg. These changes were associated with mean reduction of urinary sodium excretion ranging from 16 to 171 mmol/24 hr for individual trials. A dose-response relation across trials was found, both in nonnotensive and in hypertensive subjects. These results indicate that sodium reduction lowers mean blood pressure in both hypertensive and nonnotensive individuals for periods of at least several months. The findings are highly consistent with results of observational epidemiological studies and have implications for preventive strategies of blood pressure control. © 1991 American Heart Association, Inc.
HOLMES E, BONNER FW, GARTLAND KPR, et al., 1991, PROTON NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE URINALYSIS AND CLINICAL CHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE PROGRESSION AND RECOVERY OF NEPHROTOXIC LESIONS INDUCED IN RATS BY BROMOETHANAMINE AND HGCL2, 4TH INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON NEPHROTOXICITY, IN HONOR OF KARL ULLRICH ON HIS 65TH BIRTHDAY, Publisher: MARCEL DEKKER, Pages: 513-518
TUGNAIT M, GHAURI FYK, WILSON ID, et al., 1991, NMR-MONITORED SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION OF PHENOLPHTHALEIN GLUCURONIDE ON PHENYLBORONIC ACID AND C18 BONDED PHASES, JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, Vol: 9, Pages: 895-899, ISSN: 0731-7085
FOXALL PJD, BENDING MR, GARTLAND KPR, et al., 1991, ACUTE-RENAL-FAILURE FOLLOWING ACCIDENTAL CUTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF PHENOL, 4TH INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON NEPHROTOXICITY, IN HONOR OF KARL ULLRICH ON HIS 65TH BIRTHDAY, Publisher: MARCEL DEKKER, Pages: 55-59
Elliott P, 1991, Observational studies of salt and blood pressure., Pages: I3-I8, ISSN: 0194-911X
The observational data relating salt and blood pressure (excluding INTERSALT) are reviewed. Important methodological difficulties and biases are inherent to both across- and within-population studies and confuse their interpretation. Across-population studies are positive but rely on data drawn from the international literature based on a variety of unstandardized field methods; they are prone to unmeasured (ecological) confounding. Within-population studies generally lack statistical power and are subject to major regression-dilution bias (because of considerable day-to-day variation in sodium intake), which could conceal true correlations between sodium and blood pressure. Nevertheless, an overview of reported studies that used 24-hour urine excretion to quantify intake shows positive and highly significant correlations between sodium and blood pressure for both men and women and for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. These results are consistent with the INTERSALT findings and those from trials of sodium restriction.
Cutler JA, Follmann D, Elliott P, et al., 1991, An overview of randomized trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure., Pages: I27-I33, ISSN: 0194-911X
To test for effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and to provide precise estimates of their magnitude, we conducted an overview of randomized clinical trials that aimed to reduce the intake of sodium in human subjects. We excluded from pooled analyses trials with confounded designs, those that compared intake levels beyond the usual range in the population, and those without published reports. Two reviewers abstracted information in duplicate and differences were reconciled. Twenty-three trials with outcome data from an aggregate of 1,536 subjects were included. Data were pooled both separately for hypertensive and normotensive subjects and for all trials combined. With the use of sample size weighting, blood pressure reductions (net of controls) were 4.9 +/- 1.3/2.6 +/- 0.8 mm Hg (systolic and diastolic, respectively, with 95% confidence limits) in hypertensive subjects and 1.7 +/- 1.0/1.0 +/- 0.7 mm Hg in normotensive subjects. The combined blood pressure reductions were 2.9 +/- 0.8/1.6 +/- 0.5 mm Hg. These changes were associated with mean reduction of urinary sodium excretion ranging from 16 to 171 mmol/24 hr for individual trials. A dose-response relation across trials was found, both in normotensive and in hypertensive subjects. These results indicate that sodium reduction lowers mean blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals for periods of at least several months. The findings are highly consistent with results of observational epidemiological studies and have implications for preventive strategies of blood pressure control.
Stamler J, Rose G, Elliott P, et al., 1991, Findings of the International Cooperative INTERSALT Study., Hypertension, Vol: 17, Pages: I9-15, ISSN: 0194-911X
INTERSALT, an international cooperative study on electrolytes and other factors related to blood pressure, found, in within-population analyses involving 10,079 persons, a significant positive association between 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure and between the sodium/potassium ratio and systolic blood pressure. These significant findings were derived from analyses for individuals from all 52 centers and from the 48 centers remaining when persons from four low sodium centers were excluded. Potassium excretion of individuals was significantly and independently related inversely to their systolic blood pressure. For men and women, both separate and combined, the relation between sodium and systolic blood pressure was stronger for older than younger adults, perhaps reflecting the result of longer exposure with age or diminished capacity to handle a sodium load. Relations between electrolyte excretion and diastolic blood pressure in individuals were weaker than for systolic blood pressure. Body mass index and heavy alcohol consumption of individuals were strongly and independently related to blood pressure. In cross-population analyses with n = 52 or n = 48, sample median sodium excretion was significantly and independently related to the slope of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with age. Other ecological analyses yielded inconsistent results. Four isolated populations showed low sodium excretion, low sodium/potassium excretion, low body mass index, and low alcohol consumption; sample median blood pressures were low, there was little or no upward slope of blood pressure with age, and high blood pressure was rare or nonexistent.
Elliott P, 1991, Sodium and blood pressure: a review of the evidence from controlled trials of sodium reduction and epidemiological studies., Pages: 3-10, ISSN: 0023-2173
Evidence from controlled trials of sodium reduction and epidemiological studies are consistent in showing that lower urinary sodium excretion is associated with lower blood pressures (BPs) and quantitatively they give similar estimates of effect. An overview of randomised controlled trials gave the estimate that a reduction in sodium excretion averaging 70 to 75 mmol per day lowered BP in hypertensives by 4.9 mmHg systolic and 2.6 mmHg diastolic (p less than .001), and by 1.7 mmHg (p less than .001) and 1.0 mmHg (p less than .01) respectively in normotensives. An overview of within-population epidemiological studies, after correction for intra-individual variability in sodium excretion, gave a pooled (simple) regression estimate that 100 mmol lower sodium was associated with BP lower by 3.7 mmHg systolic and 2.0 mmHg diastolic (p less than .001); and the corrected pooled within-centre regression estimate from INTERSALT, with adjustment for age and sex, was that 100 mmol lower sodium was associated with BP lower by 3.5 mmHg systolic and 1.5 mmHg diastolic (p less than .001), reducing to 2.2 mmHg (p less than .001) and 0.1 mmHg respectively after adjustment for other confounders. Across the centres in INTERSALT, average sodium excretion was positively and significantly related to slope of BP with age, such that 100 mmol lower sodium was associated with a 9 mmHg lower rise in systolic BP from age 25 to age 55 (p less than .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Gartland KPR, Beddell CR, Lindon JC, et al., 1991, Computer pattern recognition analysis of PMR spectroscopic data from urine obtained from rats in various nephrotoxicity states., Nephrotoxicity: Mechanisms, Early Diagnosis and Therapeutic Management, Editors: Bach, Gregg, Wilks, Delacruz, New York, Publisher: Marcel Dekker, Pages: 519-524
Gartland KPR, Sweatman BC, Beddell CR, et al., 1991, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance urinanalysis studies on the biochemical effects of a nephrotoxic dose of uranyl nitrate in the Fischer 344 rat, Nephrotoxicity: Mechanisms, Early Diagnosis and Therapeutic Management, Editors: Bach, Gregg, Wilks, Delacruz, New York, Publisher: Marcel Dekker, Pages: 525-530
POWELL JJ, GARTLAND KPR, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1990, BILE, PANCREATIC-JUICE, AND SMALL-BOWEL SECRETIONS CONTAIN ENDOGENOUS METAL-BINDING LIGANDS, GUT, Vol: 31, Pages: A1197-A1197, ISSN: 0017-5749
BARRACLOUGH P, BLACK JW, CAMBRIDGE D, et al., 1990, INOTROPIC A RING SUBSTITUTED SULMAZOLE AND ISOMAZOLE ANALOGS, JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 33, Pages: 2231-2239, ISSN: 0022-2623
Gartland KP, Sanins SM, Nicholson JK, et al., 1990, Pattern recognition analysis of high resolution 1H NMR spectra of urine. A nonlinear mapping approach to the classification of toxicological data., NMR Biomed, Vol: 3, Pages: 166-172, ISSN: 0952-3480
A computer-based pattern recognition (PR) approach has been applied to the interpretation of 1H NMR generated urinalysis data in a variety of experimental toxicity states in the rat. 1H NMR signal intensities for each endogenous metabolite in urine were regarded as coordinates in multi-dimensional space and analysed using computer pattern recognition methods through which the dimensionality was reduced for display and categorization purposes. Initially 17 metabolic dimensions were used which were defined by the scored relative concentrations of a variety of urinary metabolites detected in 1H NMR spectra. By employing the unsupervised learning methods of 2- and 3-dimensional nonlinear mapping (NLM) different types of toxin (hepatotoxins, cortical and papillary nephrotoxins) could be classified according to NMR-detectable biochemical effects in the urine. The robustness of the classification methods, and the influence of the addition of new scored biochemical data reflecting dose response situations, nutritional effects on toxicity, sex differences in biochemical response to toxins and addition of a new toxin class (testicular toxin) to the pattern recognition analysis were also evaluated. We find that the initial training set maps are fundamentally stable to the addition of all data types and that the PR methods correctly 'predicted' the toxicological effects of the test compounds. These results confirm the power and wide applicability of linked PR and 1H NMR urinalysis as an approach to the generation and classification of acute toxicological data.
, 1990, Regression dilution bias., Lancet, Vol: 335, Pages: 1230-1231, ISSN: 0140-6736
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