993 results found
Marmot MG, Elliott P, 1989, Public health measures for blood pressure control in the whole community., Clin Exp Hypertens A, Vol: 11, Pages: 1171-1186, ISSN: 0730-0077
One approach to the prevention of blood pressure-associated cardiovascular disease is to find increased numbers of "hypertensives" and bring them under treatment. A complementary approach is to attempt to change the blood pressure distribution of the whole population. It can be calculated that, if the association between blood pressure level and mortality were reversible, a reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 5 mmHg in the population mean would be associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular mortality. The assumption of reversibility of risk of coronary heart disease may be more reasonable in the long than in the short term. The evidence from INTERSALT and other studies suggests that readily achievable changes in sodium and potassium intake, in body mass index and in alcohol intake, could lead to average blood pressure change across a whole population of 5 mmHg. A major task for public health is the implementation of such life-style changes among different social class and ethnic groups.
Elliott P, Stamler R, 1988, Manual of operations for "INTERSALT", an international cooperative study on the relation of sodium and potassium to blood pressure., Control Clin Trials, Vol: 9, Pages: 1S-117S, ISSN: 0197-2456
BALES JR, BELL JD, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1988, METABOLIC PROFILING OF BODY-FLUIDS BY PROTON NMR - SELF-POISONING EPISODES WITH PARACETAMOL (ACETAMINOPHEN), MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Vol: 6, Pages: 300-306, ISSN: 0740-3194
WILSON ID, NICHOLSON JK, 1988, SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND NMR-SPECTROSCOPY (SPEC-NMR) FOR THE RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF DRUG METABOLITES IN URINE, JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, Vol: 6, Pages: 151-165, ISSN: 0731-7085
WILSON ID, NICHOLSON JK, 1988, REVISED METHOD OF PROTON NMR URINALYSIS FOR DETECTING INBORN-ERRORS OF METABOLISM - A CRITIQUE, CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 34, Pages: 213-214, ISSN: 0009-9147
Nicholson JK, Walshe JA, Wilson ID, 1988, Application of high resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy to the detection of penicillamine and its metabolites in human urine., Drug Metabol Drug Interact, Vol: 6, Pages: 439-446, ISSN: 0792-5077
Preliminary studies on the use of high resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy for the detection of the thiol drug penicillamine and its metabolites in human urine are described. The technique is rapid, simple and requires minimal sample pretreatment. Application of NMR to the qualitative analysis of penicillamine in urine is illustrated by penicillamine disulphide formation from penicillamine following spiking into human urine and the detection of penicillamine, penicillamine disulphide and penicillamine-cysteine disulphide (following oral administration of the drug to patients).
CONNOR S, NICHOLSON JK, EVERETT JR, 1987, CHEMICAL-EXCHANGE AND PARAMAGNETIC-T2 RELAXATION AGENTS FOR WATER SUPPRESSION IN SPIN-ECHO PROTON NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF BIOLOGICAL-FLUIDS, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 59, Pages: 2885-2891, ISSN: 0003-2700
WILSON ID, NICHOLSON JK, 1987, SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROMETRY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF DRUG METABOLITES IN URINE, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 59, Pages: 2830-2832, ISSN: 0003-2700
GARTLAND KPR, BONNER FW, NICHOLSON JK, 1987, THE EFFECT OF BSO ON PARA-AMINOPHENOL-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN THE F344 RAT, HUMAN TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 6, Pages: 444-444, ISSN: 0144-5952
NICHOLSON JK, 1987, CORRECTION, LANCET, Vol: 2, Pages: 410-410, ISSN: 0140-6736
NICHOLSON JK, NICHOLSON F, 1987, PROTON SPECTROSCOPY OF PLASMA AND TESTING FOR MALIGNANCY, LANCET, Vol: 2, Pages: 280-281, ISSN: 0140-6736
BELL JD, BROWN JCC, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1987, ASSIGNMENT OF RESONANCES FOR ACUTE-PHASE GLYCOPROTEINS IN HIGH-RESOLUTION PROTON NMR-SPECTRA OF HUMAN-BLOOD PLASMA, FEBS LETTERS, Vol: 215, Pages: 311-315, ISSN: 0014-5793
CONNOR S, EVERETT J, NICHOLSON JK, 1987, SPIN-ECHO PROTON NMR-SPECTROSCOPY OF URINE SAMPLES - WATER SUPPRESSION VIA A UREA-DEPENDENT T2 RELAXATION PROCESS, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Vol: 4, Pages: 461-470, ISSN: 0740-3194
Connor S, Nicholson JK, Everett JR, 1987, Chemical-Exchange and Paramagnetic T<inf>2</inf>Relaxation Agents for Water Suppression in Spin-Echo Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Biological Fluids, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 59, Pages: 2885-2891, ISSN: 0003-2700
The WATR (water attenuation by T2relaxation) method was used to effect solvent suppression In 400-MHz spin-echo 1H NMR spectra of urine, blood plasma, bile, and seminal plasma. Both chemical-exchange (urea and guanidinium salts) and paramagnetic relaxation agents (Mn2+ and Gd3+ ions) were effective in attenuating the water signal in spin-echo spectra of urine. However, the paramagnetic ions form coordination complexes with many blofluld metabolites (e.g. citrate, lactate, and hippurate) so attenuating their proton resonances. The concentrations of these metabolites In bioflulds are sufficient to modulate the relaxation effects of the paramagnetic ions on the water protons, hence reducing the efficiency of the WATR method. Indeed, Mn2+ ions were ineffective at reducing the water T2’s in blood and seminal plasmas, unless used in amounts that significantly attenuated metabolite resonances. By contrast urea and guanidinium salts were very effective as water relaxation agents in all bioflulds studied. New resonance assignments for bile and seminal plasma are reported. © 1987, American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
WILSON ID, FROMSON J, ISMAIL IM, et al., 1987, PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF HUMAN-URINE - EXCRETION OF 1-(3'-CARBOXYPROPYL)-3,7-DIMETHYLXANTHINE BY MAN AFTER DOSING WITH OXPENTIFYLLINE, JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, Vol: 5, Pages: 157-163, ISSN: 0731-7085
Nicholson JK, Wilson ID, 1987, High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biological samples as an aid to drug development., Prog Drug Res, Vol: 31, Pages: 427-479, ISSN: 0071-786X
Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ, Vasák M, 1987, Probing the reactivity of the zinc and cadmium ions bound to rabbit liver metallothioneins with EDTA., Experientia Suppl, Vol: 52, Pages: 191-201, ISSN: 0071-335X
Reactions of native and reconstituted rabbit liver metallothioneins (MT's) with excess EDTA at pH 7 were studied by 1H NMR, electronic absorption and atomic absorption spectroscopy. There was a reasonable agreement between the amounts of Zn2+ and Cd2+ removed as determined by the various methods. Specific structural changes accompanying metal removal were observable by NMR. Most of the Zn2+ in Zn7-MT, reacted rapidly with EDTA. One to two g-ions of Zn2+ in native Cd,Zn-MT's were labile, but none of the Cd2+ was extracted rapidly by EDTA. The cadmium protein Cd7-MT1, reconstituted via the low pH-apothionein method, appeared to contain EDTA-reactive Cd2+ bound in a different manner to either Zn2+ or Cd2+ in the native protein.
GRAY JA, NICHOLSON JK, TIMBRELL JA, 1986, CREATINURIA AS AN EARLY INDICATOR OF CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR DAMAGE, HUMAN TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 402-403, ISSN: 0144-5952
BALES JR, BELL JD, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1986, H-1-NMR STUDIES OF URINE DURING FASTING - EXCRETION OF KETONE-BODIES AND ACETYLCARNITINE, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Vol: 3, Pages: 849-856, ISSN: 0740-3194
, 1986, INTERSALT Study an international co-operative study on the relation of blood pressure to electrolyte excretion in populations. I. Design and methods. The INTERSALT Co-operative Research Group., J Hypertens, Vol: 4, Pages: 781-787, ISSN: 0263-6352
INTERSALT is a collaborative study of the relationship between blood pressure and sodium and potassium intake in more than 50 population samples from 32 countries, representing a wide range of sodium intakes. The study uses standardized techniques for blood pressure measurement, collection of 24-h and spot urine samples, and recording the major confounding variables. Investigators, who have been trained at regional meetings, follow rigorous quality control checks. Laboratory work and data analysis are all conducted centrally. This report presents the study design and methods.
TULIP K, TIMBRELL JA, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1986, A PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE STUDY OF THE METABOLISM OF N-METHYLFORMAMIDE IN THE RAT, DRUG METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION, Vol: 14, Pages: 746-749, ISSN: 0090-9556
SANINS SM, TIMBRELL JA, NICHOLSON JK, 1986, HIGH-RESOLUTION PROTON-NMR STUDIES OF METABOLISM AND EFFECTS OF HYDRAZINE IN RAT, HUMAN TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 123-123, ISSN: 0144-5952
GARTLAND KPR, NICHOLSON JK, TIMBRELL JA, et al., 1986, DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF PARA-AMINOPHENOL-INDUCED NEPHROTOXIC LESIONS BY PROTON-NMR SPECTROSCOPY, HUMAN TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 122-123, ISSN: 0144-5952
NICHOLSON JK, DRURY JE, TIMBRELL JA, et al., 1986, BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE OF CADMIUM TO RATS - PROTON-NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF URINE AND CORRELATIONS WITH TESTICULAR DAMAGE, HUMAN TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 115-116, ISSN: 0144-5952
Tulip K, Nicholson JK, Timbrell JA, 1986, Comparison of N-methylformamide-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolism in rats and mice., Adv Exp Med Biol, Vol: 197, Pages: 941-950, ISSN: 0065-2598
NICHOLSON JK, TIMBRELL JA, BALES JR, et al., 1985, A HIGH-RESOLUTION PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF HEPATOCYTE AND DRUG-METABOLISM - APPLICATION TO ACETAMINOPHEN, MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 27, Pages: 634-643, ISSN: 0026-895X
Vasak M, Hawkes GE, Nicholson JK, et al., 1985, 113Cd NMR Studies of Reconstituted Seven-Cadmium Metallothionein: Evidence for Structural Flexibility, Biochemistry, Vol: 24, Pages: 740-747, ISSN: 0006-2960
A reproducible method for the reconstitution of rabbit liver metallothionein (MT) containing seven cadmium atoms per mole of protein is described. This protein was studied in detail by 113Cd NMR at 88-, 55-, and 44-MHz frequencies, including the effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength on the spectra. Our results differ significantly from previous reports of 113Cd NMR on similar samples. Thus, the spectra of both chromatographically distinguishable isoforms MT1 and MT2 were not identical, and neither could be interpreted in terms of a unique static model with the seven Cd ions forming two independent clusters of four and three Cd ions. Large differential shifts of 113Cd resonances were observed with changes in temperature over the range 277-320 K and ionic strength (0.02-0.5 M). At low temperature a slow structural change (half-life of several minutes) was detected. The structure was more rigid at high ionic strength. The frequency dependence and two-dimensional J-resolved spectra revealed that 113Cd resonances were composed of several overlapping peaks, complicating the interpretation of fine structure in one-dimensional spectra. A new flexible model of the Cd cluster in metallothionein is proposed. This model incorporates dynamic thiolate exchange reactions and involves several configurational substates of the protein. The possible relationship of such flexibility to the function of metallothionein is discussed. © 1985, American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
TULIP K, NICHOLSON JK, TIMBRELL JA, 1985, DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO N-METHYLFORMAMIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS AND MICE, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 52, Pages: 417-417, ISSN: 0007-0920
VASAK M, HAWKES GE, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1985, CD-113 NMR-STUDIES OF RECONSTITUTED 7-CADMIUM METALLOTHIONEIN - EVIDENCE FOR STRUCTURAL FLEXIBILITY, BIOCHEMISTRY, Vol: 24, Pages: 740-747, ISSN: 0006-2960
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