991 results found
NICHOLSON JK, TULIP K, TIMBRELL JA, et al., 1985, NOVEL DRUG-METABOLISM AND EXCRETION STUDIES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION PROTON NMR-SPECTROSCOPY, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 52, Pages: 457-457, ISSN: 0007-0920
Nicholson JK, Osborn D, Kendall MD, 1984, Comparative distributions of zinc, cadmium and mercury in the tissues of experimental mice., Comparative biochemistry and physiology. C, Comparative pharmacology and toxicology, Vol: 77, Pages: 249-256, ISSN: 0742-8413
Different groups of mice were injected with cadmium, zinc and mercury. Zinc injections had no effect on zinc tissue levels while both mercury and cadmium accumulated in various tissues. Cadmium persisted in the tissues much longer than mercury, and while the mercury concentrations began to decline as soon as dosing ceased, cadmium concentrations in kidney and intestine increased even after dosing ceased. There appeared to be an interrelationship between cadmium concentrations in spleen and intestine which warrants some further investigations. There was a linear, but discontinuous, effect of cadmium on zinc concentrations in liver, kidney and pancreas which may depend on metallothionein biochemistry. Mercury injections had no effect on zinc metabolism. It is proposed that differences in the rate of excretion of cadmium and mercury from the kidney could explain the differential accumulation of cadmium and mercury in animals.
NICHOLSON JK, OSBORN D, KENDALL MD, 1984, COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ZINC, CADMIUM AND MERCURY IN THE TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL MICE, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY C-PHARMACOLOGY TOXICOLOGY & ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 77, Pages: 249-256, ISSN: 0742-8413
NICHOLSON JK, OFLYNN MP, SADLER PJ, et al., 1984, PROTON-NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE STUDIES OF SERUM, PLASMA AND URINE FROM FASTING NORMAL AND DIABETIC SUBJECTS, BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 217, Pages: 365-375, ISSN: 0264-6021
NICHOLSON JK, OSBORN D, 1984, KIDNEY LESIONS IN JUVENILE STARLINGS STURNUS-VULGARIS FED ON A MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SYNTHETIC DIET, ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION SERIES A-ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL, Vol: 33, Pages: 195-206, ISSN: 0143-1471
BULMAN RA, NICHOLSON JK, HIGHAM DP, et al., 1984, CADMIUM COMPLEXES OF DICYSTEINOETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID EXHIBIT CD-113 NMR SHIFTS AND CD-113-CD-113 COUPLINGS SIMILAR TO THOSE OF METALLOTHIONEIN, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 106, Pages: 1118-1119, ISSN: 0002-7863
BALES JR, SADLER PJ, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1984, URINARY-EXCRETION OF ACETAMINOPHEN AND ITS METABOLITES AS STUDIED BY PROTON NMR-SPECTROSCOPY, CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 30, Pages: 1631-1636, ISSN: 0009-9147
NICHOLSON JK, SADLER PJ, BALES JR, et al., 1984, MONITORING METABOLIC DISEASE BY PROTON NMR OF URINE, LANCET, Vol: 2, Pages: 751-752, ISSN: 0140-6736
NICHOLSON JK, TIMBRELL JA, HIGHAM DP, et al., 1984, MERCURY AND CADMIUM NEPHROTOXICITY AND THE DETECTION OF ABNORMAL URINARY METABOLITES BY PROTON NMR-SPECTROSCOPY, HUMAN TOXICOLOGY, Vol: 3, Pages: 334-335, ISSN: 0144-5952
BALES JR, HIGHAM DP, HOWE I, et al., 1984, USE OF HIGH-RESOLUTION PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR RAPID MULTI-COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF URINE, CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 30, Pages: 426-432, ISSN: 0009-9147
Elliott P, Marmot M, 1984, International studies of salt and blood pressure., Ann Clin Res, Vol: 16 Suppl 43, Pages: 67-71, ISSN: 0003-4762
Comparing the distributions of blood pressure in different populations it has been found that the log-normal distribution gave the best summary of the data. The geometric mean and the coefficient of variation of the underlying blood pressure distribution were the most informative statistics. Using this blood pressure distribution, a model is discussed for the change in blood pressure with age and between populations. These changes are consistent with an environmental factor, such as salt intake, affecting the position of the mean of the blood pressure distribution and with a gradient of susceptibility within a population.
Williams GR, Nicholson JK, 1983, The histology and fine structure of the ureter of the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Journal of Anatomy, Vol: 136, Pages: 585-594, ISSN: 0021-8782
Light and electron microscopic techniques were employed to study the structure of the ureter of the starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Particular attention was paid to the characterisation of the epithelial cell types. Differences were found in the chemical composition of the mucins found in the ureteric epithelial cells and the medullary collecting ducts, which suggested that they might perform different functions. The epithelial cells were of two main types. The basally situated cells were electron-lucent, apparently relatively undifferentiated, and contained little rough endoplasmic reticulum or mucigen. The cells which were directly adjacent to the lumen were highly specialised for mucus secretion and contained extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum and large numbers of mucigen-containing vacuoles. Cells of intermediate character were also observed and the relationships between the epithelial cell types were discussed. The possibility of a holocrine mode of mucus secretion in the avarian ureteric epithelium was discussed.
Nicholson JK, Kendall MD, 1983, The fine structure of dark or intercalated cells from the distal and collecting tubules of avian kidneys, Journal of Anatomy, Vol: 136, Pages: 145-156, ISSN: 0021-8782
Dark or intercalated cells were identified in the terminal portion of the distal tubules and in the intralobular collecting tubules of four species of birds. The morphological features of these cells varied only slightly from species to species and were very similar to cells found in topographically analogous regions of mammalian nephrons. Characteristic vesicles usually filled the apical region of the dark cells and were often in direct continuity with the apical plasma membrane which was frequently thrown into elaborate folds, microvilli and microplicae. Observations suggested that the cells might be involved in some form of cyclical secretory activity. The similarity in structure between avian and mammalian dark cells suggested that they might perform similar functions and that the study of avian cells might aid the elucidation of the mammalian cell function. The possible function of the avian cells were discussed in relation to physiological studies in mammalian kidneys and it was suggested that they might be involved with proton and potassium pumping and control of urinary buffer concentrations.
WILLIAMS GR, NICHOLSON JK, 1983, THE HISTOLOGY AND FINE-STRUCTURE OF THE URETER OF THE EUROPEAN STARLING (STURNUS-VULGARIS), JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Vol: 136, Pages: 585-594, ISSN: 0021-8782
KENDALL MD, WARLEY A, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1983, X-RAY-MICROANALYSIS OF PROXIMAL AND DISTAL TUBULE CELLS IN THE MOUSE KIDNEY, AND THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM ON THE CONCENTRATION OF NATURAL INTRACELLULAR ELEMENTS, JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE, Vol: 62, Pages: 319-338, ISSN: 0021-9533
NICHOLSON JK, OSBORN D, 1983, Kidney lesions in pelagic seabirds with high tissue levels of cadmium and mercury, Journal of Zoology, Vol: 200, Pages: 99-118, ISSN: 0952-8369
Light and electron microscopic techniques were employed to examine the kidneys of three species of pelagic seabird which had high tissue cadmium and mercury levels. Direct examination and comparison with the kidneys of cadmium and mercury dosed starlings showed that the seabirds had patchy nephrotoxic kidney lesions. It was suggested that these lesions were due to natural exposure of the animals to high levels of metals, particularly cadmium through their diet. Pathological features included necrosis and degeneration of the proximal tubular epithelium together with the direct observation of obstruction of the more distal neprhon segments by necrotic cellular debris. Abnormalities of the glomerular podocytes and Bowman's capsule cells were also observed. There was a high degree of similarity between the type and distribution of kidney lesions in the seabirds and the laboratory metal dosed starlings. The significance of this kidney damage and its possible effects on the birds survival prospects are discussed. Copyright © 1983, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
NICHOLSON JK, SADLER PJ, CAIN K, et al., 1983, 88MHZ CD-113-NMR STUDIES OF NATIVE RAT-LIVER METALLOTHIONEINS, BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 211, Pages: 251-255, ISSN: 0264-6021
NICHOLSON JK, KENDALL MD, OSBORN D, 1983, CADMIUM AND MERCURY NEPHROTOXICITY, NATURE, Vol: 304, Pages: 633-635, ISSN: 0028-0836
NICHOLSON JK, KENDALL MD, 1983, THE FINE-STRUCTURE OF DARK OR INTERCALATED CELLS FROM THE DISTAL AND COLLECTING TUBULES OF AVIAN KIDNEYS, JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Vol: 136, Pages: 145-156, ISSN: 0021-8782
NICHOLSON JK, KENDALL MD, 1983, COMPARATIVE STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF INTERCALATED CELLS IN AVIAN AND MAMMALIAN KIDNEYS, JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Vol: 136, Pages: 636-637, ISSN: 0021-8782
NICHOLSON JK, OSBORN D, 1983, KIDNEY LESIONS IN PELAGIC SEABIRDS WITH HIGH TISSUE-LEVELS OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY, JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Vol: 200, Pages: 99-118, ISSN: 0952-8369
NICHOLSON JK, BUCKINGHAM MJ, SADLER PJ, 1983, HIGH-RESOLUTION H-1-NMR STUDIES OF VERTEBRATE BLOOD AND PLASMA, BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 211, Pages: 605-615, ISSN: 0264-6021
APPLETON TC, KENDALL MD, NICHOLSON JK, et al., 1983, CONCENTRATIONS OF SOME NATURALLY-OCCURRING ELEMENTS IN THE PROXIMAL AND DISTAL TUBULES OF MICE, AND THE EFFECT OF TREATMENT WITH CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON THESE LEVELS, JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, Vol: 339, Pages: P46-P46, ISSN: 0022-3751
NICHOLSON JK, 1982, THE MICROANATOMY OF THE DISTAL TUBULES, COLLECTING TUBULES AND COLLECTING DUCTS OF THE STARLING KIDNEY, JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Vol: 134, Pages: 11-23, ISSN: 0021-8782
Nicholson JK, 1982, The microanatomy of the distal tubules, collecting tubules and collecting ducts of the starling kidney, Journal of Anatomy, Vol: 134, Pages: 11-23, ISSN: 0021-8782
Light and electron microscopic techniques were employed to characterise the various cell types found in the distal tubules, collecting tubules and collecting ducts in the kidneys of wild starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). There was a gradual change in cell characteristics along the length of the distal tubule. A short transition zone was identified, between the distal tubule and the intralobular collecting tubule, which contained cell types that were characteristic of both segments. The end of the distal tubule was marked by the appearance of scattered dark cells and occasional mucin-secreting cells. The dark cells were electron-dense and usually possessed many microvesicles in the subapical region; there were also numerous, stubby apical microprocesses in many cases. In the basal regions of these cells were many short, regular infoldings of the plasma membrane. The initial part of the intralobular collecting tubule was lined by approximately equal numbers of dark and mucin-secreting cells. However, as the tubule progressed towards the lobular periphery, the number of dark cells declined. Few dark cells were observed in the perilobular collecting ducts and none in the medullary ducts which were lined by columnar mucin-secreting cells. The mucin-secreting cells possessed a prominent supranuclear Golgi apparatus and apical vacuoles containing a strongly PAS- and alcian blue-positive mucigen. Critical electrolyte concentration methods, using alcian blue in the presence of magnesium chloride, indicated that the mucigen contained large amounts of a strongly sulphated component, but was probably of a mixed nature. The dark cells were slightly PAS-positive but only very weakly blue-positive at the cell apices. The roles of the various cell types were discussed in relation to the uric acid excretion habit of birds.
NICHOLSON JK, 1981, THE COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC, CADMIUM AND MERCURY IN SELECTED TISSUES OF THE HERRING GULL (LARUS-ARGENTATUS), COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY C-PHARMACOLOGY TOXICOLOGY & ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 68, Pages: 91-94, ISSN: 0742-8413
Nicholson JK, Kendall MD, 1981, Cadmium and mercury induced kidney lesions in experimental animals in relation to tissue metal dynamics, Journal of Applied Toxicology, Vol: 1, ISSN: 0260-437X
NICHOLSON JK, 1981, EVIDENCE OF NEPHROTOXIC LESIONS IN THE KIDNEYS OF WILD SEABIRDS CARRYING HEAVY LOADS OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY, JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Vol: 132, Pages: 472-472, ISSN: 0021-8782
KENDALL MD, NICHOLSON JK, 1981, PRELIMINARY-X-RAY MICROANALYSIS OF MOUSE PROXIMAL TUBULE CELLS, JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Vol: 132, Pages: 480-480, ISSN: 0021-8782
Nicholson JK, Kendall MD, 1981, Comparative nephrotoxicity of cadmium and mercury in experimental animals in relation to tissue metal pharmacodynamics, Cell Biology International Reports, Vol: 5, ISSN: 0309-1651
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