Imperial College London

Emeritus ProfessorJeremyNicholson

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Emeritus Professor of Biological Chemistry



+44 (0)20 7594 3195j.nicholson Website




Ms Wendy Torto +44 (0)20 7594 3225




Office no. 665Sir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Vorkas, PA and Shalhoub, J and Lewis, MR and Spagou, K and Want, EJ and Nicholson, JK and Davies, AH and Holmes, E},
doi = {10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.01.022},
journal = {European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery},
pages = {5--10},
title = {Metabolic Phenotypes of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques Relate to Stroke Risk – An Exploratory Study},
url = {},
volume = {52},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Objectives: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. The fact that three-quarters of stroke patients will never have previously manifested cerebrovascular symptoms demonstrates the unmet clinical need for new biomarkers able to stratify patient risk and elucidation of the biological dysregulations. In this study, we assess the utility of comprehensive metabolic phenotyping to provide candidate biomarkers that relate to stroke risk in stenosing carotid plaque tissue samples.Design: Carotid plaque tissue samples were obtained from patients with cerebrovascular symptoms of carotid origin (n=5), and asymptomatic patients (n=5). Two adjacent biological replicates were obtained from each tissue.Materials and Methods: Organic and aqueous metabolite extracts were separately obtained and analysed using two ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry metabolic profiling methods. Multivariate and univariate tools were utilised for statistical analysis.Results: The two studied groups demonstrated distinct plaque phenotypes using multivariate data analysis. Univariate statistics also revealed metabolites that differentiated the two groups with a strong statistical significance (p=10-4-10-5). Specifically, metabolites related to the eicosanoid pathway (arachidonic acid and arachidonic acid precursors), and three acylcarnitine species (butyrylcarnitine, hexanoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine), intermediates of the β-oxidation, were detected in higher intensities in symptomatic patients. However, metabolites implicated in the process of cell death, a process known to be upregulated in the formation of the vulnerable plaque, were unaffected.Conclusions: Discrimination between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaque tissue is demonstrated for the first time using metabolic profiling technologies. Two biological pathways (eicosanoid and β-oxidation) were implicated and will be further investigated. These results indicate that metabolic
AU - Vorkas,PA
AU - Shalhoub,J
AU - Lewis,MR
AU - Spagou,K
AU - Want,EJ
AU - Nicholson,JK
AU - Davies,AH
AU - Holmes,E
DO - 10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.01.022
EP - 10
PY - 2016///
SN - 1532-2165
SP - 5
TI - Metabolic Phenotypes of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques Relate to Stroke Risk – An Exploratory Study
T2 - European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
UR -
UR -
VL - 52
ER -