Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Reader in Leukocyte Biology



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BibTex format

author = {Motedayen, Aval L and Pease, JE and Sharma, R and Pinato, DJ},
doi = {10.3390/jcm9103323},
journal = {J Clin Med},
title = {Challenges and Opportunities in the Clinical Development of STING Agonists for Cancer Immunotherapy.},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionised cancer therapy. However, they have been effective in only a small subset of patients and a principal mechanism underlying immune-refractoriness is a 'cold' tumour microenvironment, that is, lack of a T-cell-rich, spontaneously inflamed phenotype. As such, there is a demand to develop strategies to transform the tumour milieu of non-responsive patients to one supporting T-cell-based inflammation. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway is a fundamental regulator of innate immune sensing of cancer, with potential to enhance tumour rejection through the induction of a pro-inflammatory response dominated by Type I interferons. Recognition of these positive immune-modulatory properties has rapidly elevated the STING pathway as a putative target for immunotherapy, leading to a myriad of preclinical and clinical studies assessing natural and synthetic cyclic dinucleotides and non-nucleotidyl STING agonists. Despite pre-clinical evidence of efficacy, clinical translation has resulted into disappointingly modest efficacy. Poor pharmacokinetic and physiochemical properties of cyclic dinucleotides are key barriers to the development of STING agonists, most of which require intra-tumoral dosing. Development of systemically administered non-nucleotidyl STING agonists, or conjugation with liposomes, polymers and hydrogels may overcome pharmacokinetic limitations and improve drug delivery. In this review, we summarise the body of evidence supporting a synergistic role of STING agonists with currently approved ICI therapies and discuss whether, despite the numerous obstacles encountered to date, the clinical development of STING agonist as novel anti-cancer therapeutics may still hold the promise of broadening the reach of cancer immunotherapy.
AU - Motedayen,Aval L
AU - Pease,JE
AU - Sharma,R
AU - Pinato,DJ
DO - 10.3390/jcm9103323
PY - 2020///
SN - 2077-0383
TI - Challenges and Opportunities in the Clinical Development of STING Agonists for Cancer Immunotherapy.
T2 - J Clin Med
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -