Imperial College London

Professor SirJohnPendry

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Chair in Theoretical Solid State Physics
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7606j.pendry CV

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Carolyn Dale +44 (0)20 7594 7579

 
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Location

 

808Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

454 results found

Liu Y, Wang GP, Pendry JB, Zhang Set al., 2022, All-angle reflectionless negative refraction with ideal photonic Weyl metamaterials., Light Sci Appl, Vol: 11

Negative refraction, an unnatural optical phenomenon in which the incident and the refracted waves reside on the same side of the surface normal, has been demonstrated with the invention of negative index media based on artificially engineered photonic structures called metamaterials. It has received wide attention due to its potential applications in imaging, nonlinear optics, and electromagnetic cloaking. However, it is highly challenging to realize negative refraction operating at all angles and with the perfect transmission. In this work, leveraging the recent development in topological photonics, we propose to realize reflectionless negative refraction for all incident angles with a topological metamaterial. The proposed metamaterial possesses two Weyl points of opposite topological charges. By interfacing the metamaterial with a perfect electric conductor (PEC) or a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC), the Fermi arc connecting the two Weyl points can take the form of a half-circle possessing a positive or a negative refractive index. Importantly, due to the topological protection, there is no reflection at the interface between the PEC and PMC covered areas, leading to the observation of all-angle negative refraction without reflection at the boundary. Our work provides a new platform for manipulating the propagation of surface waves, which may find applications in the construction of integrated photonic devices.

Journal article

Zagar C, Krammer FGP, Pendry JB, Kornyshev AAet al., 2022, Optical response of hyperbolic metamaterials with adsorbed nanoparticle arrays, NANOSCALE HORIZONS, ISSN: 2055-6756

Journal article

Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, Pendry JB, 2022, Publisher Correction: An Archimedes’ screw for light, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Pendry JB, Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, 2022, Photon conservation in trans-luminal metamaterials, Optica, Vol: 9, Pages: 724-730, ISSN: 2334-2536

Structures that appear to move at or near the velocity of light contain singular points. Energy generated by motion accumulates at these points into ever-narrowing peaks. In this paper, we show that energy is generated by a curious process that conserves the number of photons, adding energy by forcing photons already present to climb a ladder of increasing frequency. We present both a classical proof based on conservation of lines of force, and a more formal quantum electrodynamics proof demonstrating the absence of unpaired creation and annihilation operators. Exceptions to this rule are found when negative frequencies make an appearance. Finally, we make a connection to laboratory-based models of black holes and Hawking radiation.

Journal article

Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, Pendry J, 2022, An Archimedes' screw for light, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2041-1723

An Archimedes’ Screw captures water, feeding energy into it by lifting it to a higher level. We introduce the first instance of an optical Archimedes’ Screw, and demonstrate how this system is capable of capturing light, dragging it and amplifying it. We unveil new exact analytic solutions to Maxwell’s Equations for a wide family of chiral space-time media, and show their potential to achieve chirally selective amplification within widely tunable parity-time-broken phases. Our work, which may be readily implemented via pump-probe experiments with circularly polarized beams, opens a new direction in the physics of time-varying media by merging the rising field of space-time metamaterials and that of chiral systems, and offers a new playground for topological and non-Hermitian photonics, with potential applications to chiral spectroscopy and sensing.

Journal article

Galiffi E, Huidobro P, Pendry J, 2022, An Archimedes' screw for light, Publisher: ArXiv

An Archimedes' Screw captures water, feeding energy into it by lifting it to a higher level. We introduce the first instance of an optical Archimedes' Screw, and demonstrate how this system is capable of capturing light, dragging it and amplifying it. We unveil new exact analytic solutions to Maxwell's Equations for a wide family of chiral space-time media, and show their potential to achieve chirally selective amplification within widely tunable parity-time-broken phases. Our work, which may be readily implemented via pump-probe experiments with circularly polarized beams, opens a new direction in the physics of time-varying media by merging the rising field of space-time metamaterials and that of chiral systems, and offers a new playground for topological and non-Hermitian photonics, with potential applications to chiral spectroscopy and sensing.

Working paper

Oue D, Ding K, Pendry J, 2022, Cerenkov radiation in vacuum from a superluminal grating, Physical Review Research, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 2643-1564

Nothing can physically travel faster than light in vacuum. There are several ways proposed to bypass the light barrier and produce ˇCerenkov radiation ( ˇCR) in vacuum. In this article, we theoretically predict ˇCR in vacuum from a spatiotemporally modulated boundary. We consider the modulation of traveling wave type and apply a uniform electrostatic field on the boundary to generate electric dipoles. Since the induced dipoles stick to the interface, they travel at the modulation speed. When the grating travels faster than light, it emits ˇCR. In order to quantitatively examine this argument, we need to calculate the field scattered at the boundary. We utilise a dynamicaldifferential method, which we developed in the previous paper, to quantitatively evaluate the field distribution in such a situation. We can confirm that all scattered fields are evanescent if the modulation speed is slower than light while some become propagating if the modulation is fasterthan light.

Journal article

Piccardo M, Ginis V, Forbes A, Mahler S, Friesem AA, Davidson N, Ren H, Dorrah AH, Capasso F, Dullo FT, Ahluwalia BS, Ambrosio A, Gigan S, Treps N, Hiekkamaki M, Fickler R, Kues M, Moss D, Morandotti R, Riemensberger J, Kippenberg TJ, Faist J, Scalari G, Picque N, Haensch TW, Cerullo G, Manzoni C, Lugiato LA, Brambilla M, Columbo L, Gatti A, Prati F, Shiri A, Abouraddy AF, Alu A, Galiffi E, Pendry JB, Huidobro PAet al., 2022, Roadmap on multimode light shaping, JOURNAL OF OPTICS, Vol: 24, ISSN: 2040-8978

Journal article

Galiffi E, Tirole R, Yin S, Li H, Vezzoli S, Huidobro PA, Silveirinha MG, Sapienza R, Alu A, Pendry JBet al., 2022, Photonics of time-varying media, ADVANCED PHOTONICS, Vol: 4

Journal article

Pendry J, Huidobro P, Silveirinha M, Galiffi Eet al., 2021, Crossing the light line, Nanophotonics, Vol: 11, Pages: 161-167, ISSN: 2192-8606

We ask the question “what happens to Bloch waves in gratings synthetically moving at near the speed of light?”. First we define a constant refractive index (CRI) model in which Bloch waves remain well defined as they break the light barrier, then show their dispersion rotating through 360° from negative to positive and back again. Next we introduce the effective medium approximation (EMA) then refine it into a 4-wave model which proves to be highly accurate. Finally using the Bloch waves to expand a pulse of light we demonstrate sudden inflation of pulse amplitude combined with reversal of propagation direction as a luminal grating is turned on.

Journal article

Lu L, Ding K, Galiffi E, Ma X, Dong T, Pendry JBet al., 2021, Revealing topology with transformation optics, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2041-1723

Symmetry deepens our insight into a physical system and its interplay with topology enables the discovery of topological phases. Symmetry analysis is conventionally performed either in the physical space of interest, or in the corresponding reciprocal space. Here we borrow the concept of virtual space from transformation optics to demonstrate how a certain class of symmetries can be visualised in a transformed, spectrally related coordinate space, illuminating the underlying topological transitions. By projecting a plasmonic system in a higher-dimensional virtual space onto a lower-dimensional system in real space, we show how transformation optics allows us to construct a topologically non-trivial system by inspecting its modes in the virtual space. Interestingly, we find that the topological invariant can be controlled via the singularities in the conformal mapping, enabling the intuitive engineering of edge states. The confluence of transformation optics and topology here can be generalized to other wave realms beyond photonics.

Journal article

Pendry J, Galiffi E, Huidobro P, 2021, Gain in time dependent media - a new mechanism, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Vol: 38, Pages: 3360-3366, ISSN: 0740-3224

Time dependent systems do not in general conserve energy invalidating much of thetheory developed for static systems and turning our intuition on its head. This is particularlyacute in luminal space time crystals where the structure moves at or close to the velocity oflight. Conventional Bloch wave theory no longer applies, energy grows exponentially withtime, and a new perspective is required to understand the phenomenology. In this letter weidentify a new mechanism for amplification: the compression of lines of force that arenevertheless conserved in number.

Journal article

Huidobro et al, 2021, Correction for Huidobro et al., Fresnel drag in space–time-modulated metamaterials, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol: 118, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0027-8424

Journal article

Huidobro PA, Silveirinha MG, Galiffi E, Pendry JBet al., 2021, Homogenization theory of space-time metamaterials, Physical Review Applied, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2331-7019

We present a general framework for the homogenization theory of space-time metamaterials. By mapping to a frame comoving with the space-time modulation, we derive analytical formulas for the effective material parameters for traveling-wave modulations in the low-frequency limit: electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and magnetoelectric coupling. In doing so, we provide a recipe for the calculation of effective parameters of space–time-modulated media where the parameters follow a traveling-wave form of any shape and we show how synthetic motion can result in giant bianisotropy. This allows us to deepen the understanding of how nonreciprocity can be achieved in the long-wavelength limit and to completely characterize the different nonreciprocal behaviors available in space–time-modulated media. In particular, we show how the modulation speed, which can be subluminal or superluminal, together with the relative phase between electric and magnetic modulations, provide tuning knobs for the nonreciprocal response of these systems. Furthermore, we apply the theory to derive exact formulas for the Fresnel drag experienced by light traveling through traveling-wave modulations of electromagnetic media, providing insight into the differences and similarities between synthetic motion and moving matter. Since we exploit a series of Galilean coordinate transformations, the theory may be generalized to other kinds of waves.

Journal article

Oue D, Ding K, Pendry JB, 2021, Calculating spatiotemporally modulated surfaces: A dynamical differential formalism, PHYSICAL REVIEW A, Vol: 104, ISSN: 2469-9926

Journal article

Galiffi E, Silveirinha MG, Huidobro PA, Pendry JBet al., 2021, Photon localization and Bloch symmetry breaking in luminal gratings, Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Vol: 104, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 1098-0121

In gratings synthetically moving at nearly the velocity of light a symmetry breaking transition is observed between free-flowing fluidlike Bloch waves observed at lower grating velocities and, at luminal velocities, condensed, localized states of light captured in each period of the grating and locked to its velocity. We introduce a technique for calculating in this regime and use it to study the transition in detail shedding light on the critical exponents and the periodic oscillations in transmitted intensity seen in the pretransition regime.

Journal article

Zhu X, Wang H, Lei D, Pendry JB, Li Jet al., 2021, Designing plasmonic exceptional points by transformation optics, OPTICS EXPRESS, Vol: 29, Pages: 16046-16055, ISSN: 1094-4087

Journal article

Pendry JB, Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, 2021, Gain mechanism in time-dependent media, OPTICA, Vol: 8, Pages: 636-637, ISSN: 2334-2536

Journal article

Tirole R, Attavar T, Dranczewski J, Galiffi E, Pendry J, Maier S, Vezzoli S, Sapienza Ret al., 2021, Time Diffraction in an Epsilon-Near-Zero Metasurface

We observe strong, efficient all-optical modulations and frequency-shift due to time diffraction in a thin film of ITO over gold. Excitation of the Berreman mode leads to redshift and spectral broadening from a nonlinear grating.

Conference paper

Diebold A, Pendry JB, Favaro A, Imani MF, Smith DRet al., 2021, Spatial coherence in 2D holography, JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION, Vol: 38, Pages: 727-736, ISSN: 1084-7529

Journal article

Ding K, Oue D, Chan CT, Pendry JBet al., 2021, Casimir-induced instabilities at metallic surfaces and interfaces, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 126, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 0031-9007

Surface distortion splits surface plasmons asymmetrically in energy with a net lowering of zero-point energy. We contrast this with the symmetrical distortion of electronic energy levels. We use conformal mapping to demonstrate this splitting and find that surface corrugation always leads to a decrease in the zero-point energy of a metallic surface, but the decrease is not strong enough to drive a surface reconstruction on its own. A second metallic surface in proximity to the first gives a more significant lowering of energy, sufficient to drive the instability of a mercury thin film. This mechanism provides a fundamental length scale limit to planar nanostructures.

Journal article

Tirole R, Attavar T, Dranczewski J, Galiffi E, Pendry J, Maier S, Vezzoli S, Sapienza Ret al., 2021, Time Diffraction in an Epsilon-Near-Zero Metasurface, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2160-9020

Conference paper

Galiffi E, Wang Y-T, Lim Z, Pendry JB, Alu A, Huidobro PAet al., 2020, Wood Anomalies and Surface-Wave Excitation with a Time Grating, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 125, ISSN: 0031-9007

Journal article

Yang F, Ding K, Pendry J, 2020, Shrinking the surface plasmon, Nanophotonics, Vol: 10, Pages: 545-548, ISSN: 2192-8606

Surface plasmons at an interface between dielectric and metal regions can in theory be made arbitrarily compact normal to the interface by introducing extreme anisotropy in the material parameters. We propose a metamaterial structure comprising a square array of gold cylinders and tune the filling factor to achieve the material parameters we seek. Theory is compared to a simulation wherein the unit cell dimensions of the metamaterial are shown to be the limiting factor in the degree of localisation achieved.

Journal article

Yang F, Ma S, Ding K, Zhang S, Pendry JBet al., 2020, Continuous topological transition from metal to dielectric, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol: 117, Pages: 16739-16742, ISSN: 0027-8424

Journal article

Kornyshev A, Pendry J, Sikdar D, 2020, Nanoparticle meta-grid for enhanced light extraction from light emitting devices, Light: Science and Applications, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2047-7538

Based on a developed theory, we show that introducing a meta-grid of sub-wavelength-sized plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) into existing semiconductor light-emitting-devices (LEDs) can lead to enhanced transmission of light across the LED-chip/encapsulant interface. This results from destructive interference between light reflected from the chip/encapsulant interface and light reflected by the NP meta-grid, which conspicuously increase the efficiency of light extraction from LEDs. The “meta-grid”, should be inserted on top of a conventional LED chip within its usual encapsulating packaging. As described by the theory, the nanoparticle composition, size, interparticle spacing, and distance from the LED-chip surface can be tailored to facilitate maximal transmission of light emitted from the chip into its encapsulating layer by reducing the Fresnel loss. The analysis shows that transmission across a typical LED-chip/encapsulant interface at the peak emission wavelength can be boosted up to ~99%, which is otherwise mere ~84% at normal incidence. The scheme could provide improved transmission within the photon escape cone over the entire emission spectrum of an LED. This would benefit energy saving, in addition to increasing the lifetime of LEDs by reducing heating. Potentially, the scheme will be easy to implement and adopt into existing semiconductor-device technologies, and it can be used separately or in conjunction with other methods for mitigating the critical angle loss in LEDs.

Journal article

Sikdar D, Pendry JB, Kornyshev AA, 2020, Nanoparticle meta-grid for enhanced light extraction from light-emitting devices., Light Sci Appl, Vol: 9

Based on a developed theory, we show that introducing a meta-grid of sub-wavelength-sized plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) into existing semiconductor light-emitting-devices (LEDs) can lead to enhanced transmission of light across the LED-chip/encapsulant interface. This results from destructive interference between light reflected from the chip/encapsulant interface and light reflected by the NP meta-grid, which conspicuously increase the efficiency of light extraction from LEDs. The "meta-grid", should be inserted on top of a conventional LED chip within its usual encapsulating packaging. As described by the theory, the nanoparticle composition, size, interparticle spacing, and distance from the LED-chip surface can be tailored to facilitate maximal transmission of light emitted from the chip into its encapsulating layer by reducing the Fresnel loss. The analysis shows that transmission across a typical LED-chip/encapsulant interface at the peak emission wavelength can be boosted up to ~99%, which is otherwise mere ~84% at normal incidence. The scheme could provide improved transmission within the photon escape cone over the entire emission spectrum of an LED. This would benefit energy saving, in addition to increasing the lifetime of LEDs by reducing heating. Potentially, the scheme will be easy to implement and adopt into existing semiconductor-device technologies, and it can be used separately or in conjunction with other methods for mitigating the critical angle loss in LEDs.

Journal article

Yang F, Huidobro PA, Pendry JB, 2020, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of Singular Plasmonic Metasurfaces, LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1863-8880

Journal article

Lu L, Galiffi E, Ding K, Dong T, Ma X, Pendry JBet al., 2020, Plasmon Localization Assisted by Conformal Symmetry, ACS Photonics, ISSN: 2330-4022

Journal article

Yang F, Galiffi E, Huidobro PA, Pendry Jet al., 2020, Nonlocal effects in plasmonic metasurfaces with almost touching surfaces, PHYSICAL REVIEW B, Vol: 101, ISSN: 2469-9950

Journal article

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