Imperial College London

MrJamesPotts

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Statistician/Data Manager
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7953j.potts

 
 
//

Location

 

G04Emmanuel Kaye BuildingRoyal Brompton Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

64 results found

Elfadaly FG, Adamson A, Patel J, Potts L, Potts J, Blangiardo M, Thompson J, Minelli Cet al., 2021, BIMAM—a tool for imputing variables missing across datasets using a Bayesian imputation and analysis model, International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 0300-5771

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Motivation</jats:title> <jats:p>Combination of multiple datasets is routine in modern epidemiology. However, studies may have measured different sets of variables; this is often inefficiently dealt with by excluding studies or dropping variables. Multilevel multiple imputation methods to impute these ‘systematically’ missing data (as opposed to ‘sporadically’ missing data within a study) are available, but problems may arise when many random effects are needed to allow for heterogeneity across studies. We show that the Bayesian IMputation and Analysis Model (BIMAM) implemented in our tool works well in this situation.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>General features</jats:title> <jats:p>BIMAM performs imputation and analysis simultaneously. It imputes both binary and continuous systematically and sporadically missing data, and analyses binary and continuous outcomes. BIMAM is a user-friendly, freely available tool that does not require knowledge of Bayesian methods. BIMAM is an R Shiny application. It is downloadable to a local machine and it automatically installs the required freely available packages (R packages, including R2MultiBUGS and MultiBUGS).</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Availability</jats:title> <jats:p>BIMAM is available at [www.alecstudy.org/bimam].</jats:p> </jats:sec>

Journal article

Charles D, Gethings LA, Potts JF, Burney PGJ, Garcia-Larsen Vet al., 2021, Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics for the discovery of candidate markers of flavonoid and polyphenolic intake in adults, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322

Robust biological markers of dietary exposure are essential in improving the understanding of the link between diet and health outcomes. Polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids, have been proposed to mitigate the risk of chronic diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role. Biomarkers can provide objective measurement of the levels of polyphenolic compounds. In this study, we provide methodology to identify potential candidate markers of polyphenol intake in human serum. Seventeen participants from the UK arm of the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA2LEN) had their dietary intake estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and serum samples were assessed using mass spectrometry to identify potential candidate markers. 144 features were assigned identities, of these we identified four biologically relevant compounds (rhamnazin 3-rutinoside, 2-galloyl-1,4-galactarolactone methyl ester, 2″,32″-di-O-p-coumaroylafzelin and cyclocommunin), which were significantly increased in the serum of participants with high predicted level of fruit and vegetable intake. 2-galloyl-1,4-galactarolactone methyl ester was strongly correlated with total flavonoids (r = 0.62; P = 0.005), flavan-3-ols (r = 0.67; P = 0.002) as well as with other four subclasses. Rhamnazin 3-rutinoside showed strong correlation with pro-anthocyanidins (r = 0.68; P = 0.001), flavones (r = 0.62; P = 0.005). Our results suggest that serum profiling for these compounds might be an effective way of establishing the relative intake of flavonoids and could contribute to improve the accuracy of epidemiological methods to ascertain flavonoid intake.

Journal article

Lyons SA, Knulst AC, Burney PGJ, Fernandez-Rivas M, Ballmer-Weber BK, Barreales L, Bieli C, Clausen M, Dubakiene R, Fernandez-Perez C, Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz M, Kowalski ML, Kummeling I, Mustakov TB, van Os-Medendorp H, Papadopoulos NG, Popov TA, Potts J, Xepapadaki P, Welsing PMJ, Mills ENC, van Ree R, Thuy-My Let al., 2020, Predictors of Food Sensitization in Children and Adults Across Europe, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY-IN PRACTICE, Vol: 8, Pages: 3074-+, ISSN: 2213-2198

Journal article

Axson E, Lewis A, Potts J, Pang M, Dickenson S, Vioix H, Quint Jet al., 2020, Inhaled therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ Open, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives To integrate evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on the efficacy of inhaled treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using network meta-analyses.Methods Systematic searches MEDLINE and Embase based on predetermined criteria. Network meta-analyses of RCTs investigated efficacy on exacerbations (long-term: ≥20 weeks of treatment; short-term: <20 weeks), lung function (≥12 weeks), health-related quality of life, mortality and adverse events. Qualitative comparisons of efficacies between RCTs and observational studies.Results 212 RCTs and 19 observational studies were included. Compared with combined long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LABA+LAMA), triple therapy (LABA+LAMA+inhaled corticosteroid) was significantly more effective at reducing exacerbations (long-term 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.94; short-term 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49 to 0.92)) and mortality (0.72 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.89)) but was also associated with increased pneumonia (1.35 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.67)). No differences in lung function (0.02 (95% CI: −0.10 to 0.14)), health-related quality of life (−1.12 (95% CI: −3.83 to 1.59)) or other adverse events (1.02 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.08)) were found. Most of the observational evidence trended in the same direction as pooled RCT data.Conclusion Further evidence, especially pragmatic trials, are needed to fully understand the characteristics of patient subgroups who may benefit from triple therapy and for those whom the extra risk of adverse events, such as pneumonia, may outweigh any benefits.

Journal article

Lyons SA, Knulst AC, Burney PGJ, Fernandez-Rivas M, Ballmer-Weber BK, Barreales L, Bieli C, Clausen M, Dubakiene R, Fernandez-Perez C, Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz M, Kowalski ML, Kummeling I, Kralimarkova T, Mustakov TB, van Os-Medendorp H, Papadopoulos NG, Popov TA, Potts J, Versteeg SA, Xepapadaki P, Welsing PMJ, Mills C, van Ree R, Le T-Met al., 2020, Predicting food allergy: The value of patient history reinforced, ALLERGY, Vol: 76, Pages: 1454-1462, ISSN: 0105-4538

Journal article

Lyons SA, Clausen M, Knulst AC, Ballmer-Weber BK, Fernandez-Rivas M, Barreales L, Bieli C, Dubakiene R, Fernandez-Perez C, Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz M, Kowalski ML, Kralimarkova T, Kummeling I, Mustakov TB, Papadopoulos NG, Popov TA, Xepapadaki P, Welsing PMJ, Potts J, Mills ENC, van Ree R, Burney PGJ, Thuy-My Let al., 2020, Prevalence of Food Sensitization and Food Allergy in Children Across Europe, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY-IN PRACTICE, Vol: 8, Pages: 2736-+, ISSN: 2213-2198

Journal article

Sundaram V, Rothnie K, Bloom C, Zakeri R, Sahadevan J, Singh A, Nagai T, Potts J, Wedzicha J, Smeeth L, Simon D, Timmis A, Rajagopalan S, Quint JKet al., 2020, Impact of comorbidities on peak troponin levels and mortality in acute myocardial infarction, Heart, Vol: 106, Pages: 677-685, ISSN: 1355-6037

OBJECTIVES: To characterise peak cardiac troponin levels, in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to their comorbid condition and determine the influence of peak cardiac troponin (cTn) levels on mortality. METHODS: We included patients with the first admission for AMI in the UK. We used linear regression to estimate the association between eight common comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, previous angina, peripheral arterial disease, previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cerebrovascular disease, chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and peak cTn. Peak cTn levels were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and comorbidities. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were employed to investigate the association between peak cTn and 180-day mortality for each comorbidity. RESULTS: 330 367 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction were identified. Adjusted peak cTn levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD (adjusted % difference in peak cTnT for CKD=42%, 95% CI 13.1 to 78.4) and significantly lower for patients with COPD, previous angina, previous MI and CHF when compared with patients without the respective comorbidities (reference group) (cTnI; COPD=-21.7%, 95% CI -29.1 to -13.4; previous angina=-24.2%, 95% CI -29.6 to -8.3; previous MI=-13.5%, 95% CI -20.6 to -5.9; CHF=-28%, 95% CI -37.2 to -17.6). Risk of 180-day mortality in most of the comorbidities did not change substantially after adjusting for peak cTn. In general, cTnI had a stronger association with mortality than cTnT. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide analysis of patients presenting with AMI, comorbidities substantially influenced systemic concentrations of peak cTn. Comorbid illness is a significant predictor of mortality regardless of peak cTn levels and should be taken into consideration while interpr

Journal article

Li J, Ogorodova LM, Mahesh PA, Wang MH, Fedorova OS, Leung TF, Fernandez-Rivas M, Mills ENC, Potts J, Kummeling I, Versteeg SA, van Ree R, Yazdanbakhsh M, Burney PGJ, Wong GWKet al., 2020, Comparative Study of Food Allergies in Children from China, India, and Russia: The EuroPrevall-INCO Surveys, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY-IN PRACTICE, Vol: 8, Pages: 1349-+, ISSN: 2213-2198

Journal article

Sundaram V, Rothnie K, Bloom C, Zakeri R, Sahadevan J, singh A, Nagai T, Potts J, Wedzicha J, smeeth L, simon D, timmis A, Rajagopalan S, Quint Jet al., 2019, The impact of co-morbidities on peak troponin levels and mortality in acute myocardial infarction: A population based, nationwide study, Heart, ISSN: 1355-6037

Objectives: To characterize peak cardiac troponin levels, in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to their comorbid condition and determine the influence of peak troponin (cTn) levels on mortality. Methods: We included patients with the first admission for AMI in the United Kingdom. We used linear regression to estimate the association between eight common co-morbidities {diabetes mellitus(DM), previous angina, peripheral arterial disease(PAD), previous myocardial infarction(MI), chronic kidney disease(CKD), cerebrovascular disease(CVD), chronic heart failure(CHF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)} and peak cTn. Peak cTn levels were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and co-morbidities. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were employed to investigate the association between peak cTn and 180-day mortality for each co-morbidity. Results: 330,367 patients with AMI were identified. Adjusted peak cTn levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD[adjusted % difference in peak cTnT for CKD=42%, 95%CI 13.1 to 78.4] and significantly lower for patients with COPD, previous angina, previous MI and CHF when compared to patients without the respective co-morbidities (reference group) [cTnI;COPD=-21.7%,95%CI -29.1 to -13.4;previous angina=-24.2%, 95%CI -29.6 to -8.3;previous MI=-13.5%, 95%CI -20.6 to -5.9;CHF=-28% 95%CI -37.2 to -17.6]. Risk of 180-day mortality in most of the co-morbidities did not change substantially after adjusting for peak cTn. In general, cTnI had a stronger association with mortality than cTnT.Conclusions: In this nationwide analyses of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction, co-morbidities substantially influenced systemic concentrations of peak cTn. Comorbid illness is a significant predictor of mortality regardless of peak cTn levels and should be taken into consideration while interpreting cTn both as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.

Journal article

van der Plaat D, Pereira M, Pesce G, Potts J, Amaral A, Dharmage S, Garcia-Aymerich J, Thompson J, Gomez-Real F, Jarvis D, Minelli C, Leynaert Bet al., 2019, Age at menopause and lung function: a mendelian randomization study, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 54, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0903-1936

In observational studies, early menopause is associated with lower FVC and a higher risk of spirometric restriction, but not airflow obstruction. It is however unclear if this association is causal. We therefore used a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, which is not affected by classical confounding, to assess the effect of age at natural menopause on lung function. We included 94,742 naturally post-menopausal women from UK Biobank and performed MR analyses on the effect of age at menopause on FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, spirometric restriction (FVC<LLN) and airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC<LLN). We used the inverse variance-weighted (IVW) method, as well as methods that adjust for pleiotropy, and compared MR with observational analyses. The MR analyses showed higher FEV1/FVC and a 15% lower risk of airflow obstruction for women with early (<45 years) compared to normal (45-55) menopause. Despite some evidence of pleiotropy, the results were consistent when using MR methods robust to pleiotropy. Similar results were found among never- and ever-smokers, while the protective effect seemed less strong in women ever using menopause hormone treatment and in overweight women. There was no strong evidence of association with FVC or spirometric restriction. In observational analyses of the same dataset, early menopause was associated with a pronounced reduction in FVC and a 13% higher spirometric restriction risk.Our MR results suggest that early menopause has a protective effect on airflow obstruction. Further studies are warranted to better understand the inconsistency with observational findings, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms and role of female sex hormones.

Journal article

Lyons SA, Burney PGJ, Ballmer-Weber BK, Fernandez-Rivas M, Barreales L, Clausen M, Dubakiene R, Fernandez-Perez C, Fritsche P, Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz M, Kowalski ML, Kralimarkova T, Kummeling I, Mustakov TB, Lebens AFM, van Os-Medendorp H, Papadopoulos NG, Popov TA, Sakellariou A, Welsing PMJ, Potts J, Mills ENC, van Ree R, Knulst AC, Le T-Met al., 2019, Food allergy in adults: substantial variation in prevalence and causative foods across Europe, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Vol: 7, Pages: 1920-1928.e11, ISSN: 2213-2198

BACKGROUND: The EuroPrevall study showed that prevalence of self-reported food allergy (FA) in adults across Europe ranged from 2-37% for any food and 1-19% for 24 selected foods. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of probable FA (symptoms plus sIgE-sensitisation) and challenge-confirmed FA in European adults, along with symptoms and causative foods. METHODS: In phase I of the EuroPrevall project, a screening questionnaire was sent to a random sample of the general adult population in eight European centres. Phase II consisted of an extensive questionnaire on reactions to 24 pre-selected commonly implicated foods, and measurement of sIgE. Multiple imputation was performed performed to estimate missing symptom and serology information for non-responders. In the final phase, subjects with probable FA were invited for double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. RESULTS: Prevalence of probable FA in adults in Athens, Reykjavik, Utrecht, Lodz, Madrid and Zurich was respectively 0.3%, 1.4%, 2.1%, 2.8%, 3.3% and 5.6%. Oral allergy symptoms were reported most frequently (81.6%), followed by skin symptoms (38.2%) and rhino-conjunctivitis (29.5%). Hazelnut, peach and apple were the most common causative foods in Lodz, Utrecht and Zurich. Peach was also among the top three causative foods in Athens and Madrid. Shrimp and fish allergies were relatively common in Madrid and Reykjavik. Of the 55 food challenges performed, 72.8% was classified as positive. CONCLUSION: Food allergy shows substantial geographical variation in prevalence and causative foods across Europe. Although probable FA is less common than self-reported FA, prevalence still reaches 6% in parts of Europe.

Journal article

Feary JR, Schofield SJ, Canizales J, Fitzgerald B, Potts J, Jones M, Cullinan Pet al., 2019, Laboratory animal allergy is preventable in modern research facilities, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 53, ISSN: 0903-1936

BACKGROUND: Historical data suggest 15% of laboratory animal workers develop IgE sensitisation and 10% symptoms of laboratory animal allergy (LAA), including occupational asthma. Individually ventilated cages (IVC) are replacing conventional open cages; we sought to evaluate their impact on the development of LAA. METHODS: We surveyed 750 laboratory animal workers and measured airborne Mus m 1 (mouse allergen) levels in seven UK institutions. We compared the prevalence of sensitisation to mouse proteins (by specific IgE assay or skin prick test) and of work-related allergic symptoms in IVC-only and open cage units. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Full shift Mus m 1 levels were lower in IVC than open cage units (geometric mean 1.00 ng·m-3 (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.36) versus8.35 ng·m-3 (6.97-9.95); p<0.001) but varied eight-fold across the IVC units (GM range: 0.33-4.12 ng·m-3). Primary analyses on data from 216 participants with <3 years' exposure to mice revealed a lower prevalence of sensitisation in those working in IVC compared with conventional cage units (2.4% (n=2) versus9.8% (n=13); p=0.052). Sensitisation in IVC units varied from 0% to 12.5%; the use of fitted respiratory protection was less common in IVC units where prevalence of sensitisation was higher. Work-related allergy symptoms were more frequently reported by mouse sensitised individuals (46.7% versus 10.9%, p<0.001); and only by those working in open cage units. CONCLUSION: In contemporary practice, LAA is now largely preventable with the use of IVC systems and the judicious use of appropriate respiratory protection.

Journal article

Lewis A, Dullaghan D, Townes H, Green A, Potts J, Quint Jet al., 2019, An observational cohort study of exercise and education for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not meeting criteria for formal pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, Chronic Respiratory Disease, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1479-9723

Objectives:Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is offered to patients with functional breathlessness. However, access to PR is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a four week education and exercise programme offered to COPD patients with Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea 1-2 improves disease self-management. Methods:Patients were recruited by their GP to attend four weekly, two- hour sessions provided by a multidisciplinary team. Patients completed outcome measures before and after the programme.Results:Forty two patients entered The programme and 26 out of 42 (61.9%) completed all sessions. The Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire and Patient Activation Measure improved (both p≤0.001). Disease burden was not reduced according to the COPD Assessment Test. All patients accepted a referral for ongoing exercise. Fourteen current smokers (81.3%) accepted a referral for smoking cessation, 3 patients with anxiety or depression (37.5%) accepted a psychological therapies referral.Discussion:The programme improved COPD disease knowledge, patient activation and stimulated referrals to further services supporting disease management. Randomised controlled trials are warranted for similar interventions for COPD patients with early stage disease.

Journal article

Lewis A, Axson E, Potts J, Tarnowska R, Vioix H, Quint Jet al., 2019, Protocol for a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis of the clinical benefit of inhaled maintenance therapies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), BMJ Open, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations progress the course of disease and impair lung function. Inhaled maintenance therapy reduces exacerbations. It is not yet established which inhaled therapy combination is best to reduce exacerbations, lung function decline and symptom burden.Methods and analysis MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library will be searched for articles between January 2011 and May 2018 using a pre-specified search strategy. Conference proceedings will be searched. Systematic reviews (with or without meta-analysis), randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case controlled studies comparing six interventions comprising different combinations of long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids in unison or on their own. The primary outcome is the reduction in moderate-to-severe exacerbations. Secondary outcomes include: lung function, quality of life, mortality and other adverse events. Titles and abstracts will screened by the primary researcher. A second reviewer will repeat this on a proportion of records. The Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes and Study framework will be used for data extraction. A network meta-analyses of outcomes from RCTs and real-world evidence will be integrated if feasible. The 95% credible interval will be used to assess the statistical significance of each summary effect. Ranking of interventions will be based on their surface under cumulative ranking area.Ethics and dissemination COPD exacerbations are burdensome to patients. We aim to report results that provide clinicians with a more informed choice of which inhaled therapy combinations are best to reduce exacerbations, improve disease burden and reduce lung function and exercise capacity decline, compared with the potential harms, in certain populations with COPD.

Journal article

Feary J, Fitzgerald B, Schofield S, Potts J, Canizales J, Jones M, Cullinan Pet al., 2018, Evidence based Code of Best Practice for animal research facilities: results of the SPIRAL study, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936

Conference paper

Minelli C, Van der Plaat D, Leynaert B, Granell R, Amaral AFS, Pereira M, Mahmoud O, Potts J, Thompson J, Jarvis D, Davey-Smith G, Henderson Jet al., 2018, The effect of early puberty on asthma in women and men: A Mendelian randomization study, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936

Conference paper

van der Plaat D, Pereira M, Pesce G, Potts J, Amaral A, Dharmage S, Garcia-Aymerich J, Gomez-Real F, Jarvis D, Minelli C, Leynaert Bet al., 2018, Age at menopause and lung function: A Mendelian randomization study, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936

Conference paper

Potts J, Svanes C, Accordini S, Jarvis Det al., 2018, Adolescent smoking by parents and asthma in their children: repeat cross-sectional surveys in England, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936

Conference paper

Feary J, Canizales J, Fitzgerald C, Ward H, Potts J, Cullinan P, Jones Met al., 2018, Is 'take-out' allergen detectable in laboratory animal facilities?, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936

Conference paper

Minelli C, van der Plaat DA, Leynaert B, Granell R, Amaral AFS, Pereira M, Mahmoud O, Potts J, Sheehan NA, Bowden J, Thompson J, Jarvis D, Smith GD, Henderson Jet al., 2018, Age at puberty and risk of asthma: A Mendelian randomisation study, PLoS Medicine, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1549-1277

BackgroundObservational studies on pubertal timing and asthma, mainly performed in females, have provided conflicting results about a possible association of early puberty with higher risk of adult asthma, possibly due to residual confounding. To overcome issues of confounding, we used Mendelian randomisation (MR), i.e., genetic variants were used as instrumental variables to estimate causal effects of early puberty on post-pubertal asthma in both females and males.Methods and findingsMR analyses were performed in UK Biobank on 243,316 women using 254 genetic variants for age at menarche, and on 192,067 men using 46 variants for age at voice breaking. Age at menarche, recorded in years, was categorised as early (<12), normal (12–14), or late (>14); age at voice breaking was recorded and analysed as early (younger than average), normal (about average age), or late (older than average). In females, we found evidence for a causal effect of pubertal timing on asthma, with an 8% increase in asthma risk for early menarche (odds ratio [OR] 1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12; p = 8.7 × 10−5) and an 8% decrease for late menarche (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.97; p = 3.4 × 10−4), suggesting a continuous protective effect of increasing age at puberty. In males, we found very similar estimates of causal effects, although with wider confidence intervals (early voice breaking: OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16; p = 0.06; late voice breaking: OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99; p = 0.03). We detected only modest pleiotropy, and our findings showed robustness when different methods to account for pleiotropy were applied. BMI may either introduce pleiotropy or lie on the causal pathway; secondary analyses excluding variants associated with BMI yielded similar results to those of the main analyses. Our study relies on self-reported exposures and outcomes, which may have particularly affected the power of the analyses on age at voice breaking.ConclusionsThis large MR stud

Journal article

Garcia Larsen V, Morton V, Norat T, Moreira A, Potts J, Bakolis Iet al., 2018, Dietary patterns derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 73, Pages: 366-386, ISSN: 1476-5640

Background and aim: Colorectal cancer [CRC] is highly prevalent worldwide, with dietary habits being a major risk factor. We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the observational evidence on the association between CRC and dietary patterns [DP] derived from Principal Component Analysis.Design: PRISMA guidelines were followed. Web of Science, Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched to identify all eligible papers published up to July 2017. Any pre-defined cancer in the colon was included, namely colon-rectal cancer (CRC), colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or proximal and distal CC, if available. Western (WDP) and prudent (PDP) dietary patterns were compared as a proxy to estimate ‘unhealthy’ (Rich in meat and processed foods) and ‘healthy’ diets (containing fruits or vegetables), respectively. Meta-analyses were carried out using random effects model to calculate overall risk estimates. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated comparing the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary patterns for any of the forms of colon cancer studied.Results: 28 studies were meta-analysed. A WDP was associated with increased risk of CRC (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.11, 1.40), and of CC (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11, 1.52). A PDP was negatively associated with CRC (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73, 0.91). Sensitivity analyses showed that individuals from North- and South- American countries had a significantly higher risk of CRC than those from other continents. Conclusion: A PDP might reduce the risk of CRC. Conversely, a WDP is associated with a higher risk of disease.

Journal article

Garcia-Larsen V, Thawer N, Charles D, Cassidy A, van Zele T, Thilsing T, Ahlström M, Haahtela T, Keil T, Matricardi PM, Brozek G, Kowalski ML, Makowska J, Nizankowska-Mogilnicka E, Rymarczyk B, Loureiro C, Todo Bom A, Bachert C, Forsberg B, Janson C, Torén K, Potts JF, Burney PGJet al., 2018, Dietary Intake of Flavonoids and Ventilatory Function in European Adults: A GA2LEN Study, Nutrients, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2072-6643

Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes’ procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a β-coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a β-coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes’ procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults.

Journal article

Garcia Larsen V, Potts J, Omenaas E, Heinrich J, Svanes C, Garcia-Aymerich J, Burney P, Jarvis DLet al., 2017, Dietary antioxidants and ten year lung function decline in adults from the ECRHS survey, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 50, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0903-1936

The relationship between lung function decline and dietary antioxidants over 10 years in adults from three European countries was investigated.In 2002, adults from three participating countries of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) answered a questionnaire and underwent spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)), which were repeated 10 years later. Dietary intake was estimated at baseline with food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Associations between annual lung function decline (mL) and diet (tertiles) were examined with multivariable analyses. Simes’ procedure was applied to control for multiple testing.A total of 680 individuals (baseline mean age 43.8±6.6 years) were included. A per-tertile increase in apple and banana intake was associated with a 3.59 mL·year−1 (95% CI 0.40, 7.68) and 3.69 mL·year−1 (95% CI 0.25, 7.14) slower decline in FEV1 and FVC, respectively. Tomato intake was also associated with a slower decline in FVC (4.5 mL·year−1; 95% CI 1.28, 8.02). Only the association with tomato intake remained statistically significant after the Simes’ procedure was performed. Subgroup analyses showed that apple, banana and tomato intake were all associated with a slower decline in FVC in ex-smokers.Intake of fruits and tomatoes might delay lung function decline in adults, particularly in ex-smokers.

Journal article

Morgan A, Sharma C, Rothnie KJ, Potts J, Smeeth L, Quint JKet al., 2017, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of stroke: a systematic review, Annals of the American Thoracic Society, Vol: 14, Pages: 754-765, ISSN: 2329-6933

Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. The role of COPD in cerebrovascular disease is, however, less certain: although earlier studies have suggested that the risk for stroke is also increased in COPD, more recent investigations have generated mixed results. Objectives The primary objective of our review was to quantify the magnitude of the association between COPD and stroke. We also sought to clarify the nature of the relationship between COPD and stroke by investigating whether the risk of stroke in COPD varies with age, sex, smoking history and/or type of stroke and whether stroke risk is modified in particular COPD phenotypes.Methods A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted in May 2016 to identify articles which compared stroke outcomes in people with and without COPD. Studies were grouped by study design to distinguish those which reported prevalence of stroke (cross-sectional studies) from those which estimated incidence (cohort or case–control studies). Additionally, studies were stratified according to study population characteristics, the nature of COPD case definitions, and adjustment for confounding (smoking). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic.Results We identified 5,484 studies, of which 30 met our pre-defined inclusion criteria. Of the 25 studies which reported prevalence ratios, 11 also estimated prevalence odds ratios (PORs). The level of heterogeneity among these cross-sectional studies did not permit the calculation of pooled ratios, save for a group of four studies which estimated prevalence odds ratios adjusted for smoking (POR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.09–2.09; I2=45%). All 11 studies which estimated relative risk for non-fatal incident stroke reported increased risk in COPD. Adjustment for smoking invariably reduced the magnitude of the associations.Conclusion Although both prevalence and incidence of s

Journal article

De Matteis S, Jarvis D, Young H, Young A, Allen N, Potts J, Darnton A, Rushton L, Cullinan Pet al., 2017, Occupational Self Coding and Automatic Recording (OSCAR): a novel efficient web-based tool to collect and code lifetime job-histories in large population-based studies, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Vol: 43, Pages: 181-186, ISSN: 0355-3140

ObjectivesThe standard approach to the assessment of occupational exposures is through the manual collection and coding of job-histories. This method is time-consuming and costly and makes it potentially unfeasible to perform high quality analyses on occupational exposures in large population-based studies. Our aim was to develop a novel, efficient web-based tool to collect and code lifetime job-histories in the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort of over 500,000 participants.MethodsWe developed OSCAR (Occupations Self Coding Automatic Recording), based on the hierarchical structure of the UK Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) 2000, which allows individuals to collect and automatically code their lifetime job-histories via a simple decision-tree model. Participants were asked to find each of their jobs by selecting appropriate job categories until they identified their job-title, which was linked to a hidden 4-digit SOC-code. For each occupation a job-title in free-text was also collected to estimate Cohen’s kappa (κ) inter-rater agreement between SOC codes assigned by OSCAR and an expert manual coder. ResultsOSCAR was administered to 324,653 UK Biobank participants with an existing email address between June and September 2015. Complete 4-digit SOC-coded lifetime job-histories were collected for 108,784 participants (response rate: 34%). Agreement between the 4-digit SOC codes assigned by OSCAR and the manual coder for a random sample of 400 job titles was moderately good (κ=0.45; 95%CI: 0.42-0.49), and improved when broader job-categories were considered (κ=0.64; 95%CI: 0.61-0.69 at a 1-digit SOC-code level).ConclusionsOSCAR is a novel efficient, and reasonably reliable web-based tool for collecting and automatically coding lifetime job-histories in large population-based studies. Further application in other research projects for external validation purposes is warranted.

Journal article

Garcia-Larsen V, Arthur R, Potts JF, Howarth PH, Ahlstrom M, Haahtela T, Loureiro C, Bom AT, Brozek G, Makowska J, Kowalski ML, Thilsing T, Keil T, Matricardi PM, Toren K, van Zele T, Bachert C, Rymarczyk B, Janson C, Forsberg B, Nizankowska-Mogilnicka E, Burney PGJet al., 2017, Is fruit and vegetable intake associated with asthma or chronic rhino-sinusitis in European adults? Results from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA(2)LEN) Survey, Clinical and Translational Allergy, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-7022

Background:Fruits and vegetables are rich in compounds with proposed antioxidant, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, which could contribute to reduce the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases.Objective:We investigated the association between asthma, and chronic rhino-sinusitis (CRS) with intake of fruits and vegetables in European adults.Methods:A stratified random sample was drawn from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA2LEN) screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15–75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Asthma score (derived from self-reported asthma symptoms) and CRS were the outcomes of interest. Dietary intake of 22 subgroups of fruits and vegetables was ascertained using the internationally validated GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations were examined with negative binomial and multiple regressions. Simes procedure was used to control for multiple testing.Results:A total of 3206 individuals had valid data on asthma and dietary exposures of interest. 22.8% reported having at least 1 asthma symptom (asthma score ≥1), whilst 19.5% had CRS. After adjustment for potential confounders, asthma score was negatively associated with intake of dried fruits (β-coefficient −2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] −4.09, −0.59), whilst CRS was statistically negatively associated with total intake of fruits (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.55, 0.97). Conversely, a positive association was observed between asthma score and alliums vegetables (adjusted β-coefficient 0.23; 95% CI 0.06, 0.40). None of these associations remained statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing.Conclusion and clinical relevance:There was no consistent evidence for an association of asthma or CRS with fruit and vegetable intake in this representative sample of European adults.

Journal article

Fedorova OS, Janse JJ, Ogorodova LM, Fedotova MM, Achterberg RA, Verweij JJ, Fernández-Rivas M, Versteeg SA, Potts J, Minelli C, van Ree R, Burney P, Yazdanbakhsh Met al., 2017, Opisthorchis felineus negatively associates with skin test reactivity in Russia-EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study, Allergy, Vol: 72, Pages: 1096-1104, ISSN: 0105-4538

BACKGROUND: Most studies on the relationship between helminth infections and atopic disorders have been conducted in (sub)tropical developing countries where exposure to multiple parasites and lifestyle can confound the relationship. We aimed to study the relationship between infection with the fish-borne helminth Opishorchis felineus and specific IgE, skin prick testing, and atopic symptoms in Western Siberia, with lifestyle and hygiene standards of a developed country. METHODS: Schoolchildren aged 7-11 years were sampled from one urban and two rural regions. Skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) against food and aeroallergens were measured, and data on allergic symptoms and on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected by questionnaire. Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis was based on PCR performed on stool samples. RESULTS: Of the 732 children included, 34.9% had opisthorchiasis. The sensitization to any allergen when estimated by positive SPT was 12.8%, while much higher, 24.0%, when measured by sIgE. Atopic symptoms in the past year (flexural eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis) were reported in 12.4% of the children. SPT was positively related to flexural eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not to wheezing. Opisthorchiasis showed association with lower SPT response, as well as borderline association with low IgE reactivity to any allergen. However, the effect of opisthorchiasis on SPT response was not mediated by IgE, suggesting that opisthorchiasis influences SPT response through another mechanism. Opisthorchiasis also showed borderline association with lower atopic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a negative association between a chronic helminth infection and skin prick test reactivity even in a developed country.

Journal article

Garcia Larsen V, Potts JF, Del Giacco SR, Bustos P, Diaz PV, Amigo H, Oyarzun M, Rona RJet al., 2016, Changes in symptoms of asthma and rhinitis by sensitization status over ten years in a cohort of young Chilean adults, BMC Pulmonary Medicine, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1471-2466

BackgroundWe investigated the net changes in prevalence of symptoms of asthma and rhinitis over 10 years in a cohort of young by baseline sensitization status.MethodsOne thousand one hundred ninety three Chilean adults subjects aged 22–28 living in a semi-rural area of central Chile answered a lifestyle and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaires. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and skin prick test (SPT) to eight allergens were measured at baseline in 2001. Ten years later, 772 participants completed the questionnaires again. Estimates of adjusted net changes in prevalence of symptoms by sensitization status at baseline and association between sensitization status at baseline and respiratory symptoms ten years later were assessed.ResultsA quarter of the participants were sensitized to at least one allergen in 2001. Prevalence of wheeze had a net change per year of −0.37 % (95 % Confidence Interval −0.71 to 0.02 %; p = 0.067). Self-reported nasal allergies in the last 12 months increased by 0.83 % per year (95 % CI 0.49 to 1.17 %; p < 0.001). Those sensitized to either cat fur (OR 1.76; CI 1.01 to 3.05), cockroach, (OR 2.09; 1.13 to 3.86) blend of grass and pollens (1.78; 95 % CI 1.08 to 2.92), or weeds (OR 1.77; 95 % CI 1.01 to 3.12) in 2001 were more likely to have wheeze in the last 12 months 10 years later.ConclusionSymptoms of asthma remained stable or slightly changed over 10 years in adults, whilst rhinitis and nasal allergies greatly increased. Being sensitized to at least one allergen is a risk factor for persistent symptoms of asthma and rhinitis, but not for determining net changes of symptoms over time. The underlying causes for the contrasting trends between asthma and nasal allergy are unknown.

Journal article

Mahesh PA, Wong GWK, Ogorodova L, Potts J, Leung TF, Fedorova O, Holla AD, Fernandez-Rivas M, Mills C, Kummeling I, Versteeg SA, van Ree R, Yazdanbakhsh M, Burney Pet al., 2016, Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study, Allergy, Vol: 71, Pages: 1010-1019, ISSN: 1398-9995

BackgroundData are lacking regarding the prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among general population in India. We report the prevalence of sensitization and probable food allergy to 24 common foods among adults from general population in Karnataka, South India.MethodologyThe study was conducted in two stages: a screening study and a case–control study. A total of 11 791 adults in age group 20–54 were randomly sampled from general population in South India and answered a screening questionnaire. A total of 588 subjects (236 cases and 352 controls) participated in the case–control study involving a detailed questionnaire and specific IgE estimation for 24 common foods.ResultsA high level of sensitization (26.5%) was observed for most of the foods in the general population, higher than that observed among adults in Europe, except for those foods that cross-react with birch pollen. Most of the sensitization was observed in subjects who had total IgE above the median IgE level. A high level of cross-reactivity was observed among different pollens and foods and among foods. The prevalence of probable food allergy (self-reports of adverse symptoms after the consumption of food and specific IgE to the same food) was 1.2%, which was mainly accounted for cow's milk (0.5%) and apple (0.5%).ConclusionVery high levels of sensitization were observed for most foods, including those not commonly consumed in the general population. For the levels of sensitization, the prevalence of probable food allergy was low. This disassociation needs to be further explored in future studies.

Journal article

Amaral AFS, Coton S, Kato B, Tan WC, Studnicka M, Janson C, Gislason T, Mannino D, Bateman ED, Buist S, Burney PGJet al., 2015, Tuberculosis associates with both airflow obstruction and low lung function: BOLD results, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 46, Pages: 1104-1112, ISSN: 1399-3003

In small studies and cases series, a history of tuberculosis has been associated with both airflow obstruction, which is characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and restrictive patterns on spirometry. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric abnormalities in adults.The study was performed in adults, aged 40 years and above, who took part in the multicentre, cross-sectional, general population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, and had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on a history of tuberculosis. The associations between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction were assessed within each participating centre, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. These estimates were stratified by high- and low/middle-income countries, according to gross national income.A self-reported history of tuberculosis was associated with airflow obstruction (adjusted odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI 1.83–3.42) and spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.42–3.19).A history of tuberculosis was associated with both airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction, and should be considered as a potentially important cause of obstructive disease and low lung function, particularly where tuberculosis is common.

Journal article

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00483797&limit=30&person=true