51 results found
Rosindell J, Harmon LJ, 2012, OneZoom: A Fractal Explorer for the Tree of Life, PLOS BIOLOGY, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1545-7885
Wennekes PL, Rosindell J, Etienne RS, 2012, The Neutral-Niche Debate: A Philosophical Perspective, ACTA BIOTHEORETICA, Vol: 60, Pages: 257-271, ISSN: 0001-5342
Etienne RS, Rosindell J, 2012, Comment on "Global Correlations in Tropical Tree Species Richness and Abundance Reject Neutrality", SCIENCE, Vol: 336, ISSN: 0036-8075
Etienne RS, de Visser SN, Janzen T, et al., 2012, Can clade age alone explain the relationship between body size and diversity?, INTERFACE FOCUS, Vol: 2, Pages: 170-179, ISSN: 2042-8898
Etienne RS, Rosindell J, 2012, Prolonging the Past Counteracts the Pull of the Present: Protracted Speciation Can Explain Observed Slowdowns in Diversification, SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY, Vol: 61, Pages: 204-213, ISSN: 1063-5157
Rosindell J, Jansen PA, Etienne RS, 2012, Age structure in neutral theory resolves inconsistencies related to reproductive-size threshold, Journal of Plant Ecology, Vol: 5, Pages: 64-71
AimsNeutral theory consists of a suite of models that assume ecological equivalence among individual organisms. They have been most commonly applied to tropical forest tree communities either as null models or as approximations. Neutral models typically only include reproductive adults; therefore, fitting to empirical tree community data requires defining a reproductive-size threshold, which for trees is usually set arbitrarily to a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 100 mm. The inevitable exclusion of some reproductive adults and inclusion of some saplings cause a non-random sampling bias in neutral model fits. Here, we investigate this problem and resolve it by introducing simple age structure into a neutral model.MethodsWe compared the performance and sensitivity of DBH threshold of three variants of a spatially explicit neutral model: the traditional model, a model incorporating random sampling and a model with two distinct age classes—reproductive adults and saplings. In the age-structured model, saplings are offspring from adults that disperse according to a Gaussian dispersal kernel around the adults. The only extra parameter is the ratio of adults to saplings, which is not a free parameter but directly measurable. We used species–area relation- ships (SARs) to explore the predicted effect of saplings on the species richness at different scales in our model. We then evaluated the three model variations to find the parameters required to maintain the ob- served level of species richness in the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI). We repeated our analysis filtering the data at differentINTRODUCTIONNeutral theory refers to a collection of neutral models each as- suming ecological equivalence between individuals (Bellminimum tree-size thresholds in order to find the effect this threshold has on our results. Lastly, we used empirical species–individual rela- tionships (SIRs) to test the pre-existing hypothesis that environmental filtering i
McInnes L, Baker WJ, Barraclough TG, et al., 2011, Integrating ecology into macroevolutionary research, BIOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 7, Pages: 644-646, ISSN: 1744-9561
Rosindell J, Hubbell SP, Etienne RS, 2011, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography at Age Ten, TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 26, Pages: 340-348, ISSN: 0169-5347
Rosindell J, Phillimore AB, 2011, A unified model of island biogeography sheds light on the zone of radiation, ECOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 14, Pages: 552-560, ISSN: 1461-023X
Etienne RS, Rosindell J, 2011, The Spatial Limitations of Current Neutral Models of Biodiversity, PLOS ONE, Vol: 6, ISSN: 1932-6203
Keil P, Herben T, Rosindell J, et al., 2010, Predictions of Taylor's power law, density dependence and pink noise from a neutrally modeled time series, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 265, Pages: 78-86, ISSN: 0022-5193
Kurka P, Sizling AL, Rosindell J, 2010, Analytical evidence for scale-invariance in the shape of species abundance distributions, MATHEMATICAL BIOSCIENCES, Vol: 223, Pages: 151-159, ISSN: 0025-5564
Leigh EG, Rosindell J, Etienne RS, 2010, Unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography, Scholarpedia, Vol: 5
Rosindell J, Cornell SJ, Hubbell SP, et al., 2010, Protracted speciation revitalizes the neutral theory of biodiversity, Ecology Letters, Pages: 716-727
Understanding the maintenance and origin of biodiversity is a formidable task, yet many ubiquitous ecological patterns are predicted by a surprisingly simple and widely studied neutral model that ignores functional differences between species. However, this model assumes that new species arise instantaneously as singletons and consequently makes unrealistic predictions about species lifetimes, speciation rates and number of rare species. Here, we resolve these anomalies – without compromising any of the original model’s existing achievements and retaining computational and analytical tractability – by modelling speciation as a gradual, protracted, process rather than an instantaneous event. Our model also makes new predictions about the diversity of ÔincipientÕ species and rare species in the metacommunity. We show that it is both necessary and straightforward to incorporate protracted speciation in future studies of neutral models, and argue that non- neutral models should also model speciation as a gradual process rather than an instantaneous one.
Rosindell J, Cornell SJ, 2009, Species-area curves, neutral models, and long-distance dispersal, ECOLOGY, Vol: 90, Pages: 1743-1750, ISSN: 0012-9658
Rosindell J, Wong Y, Etienne RS, 2008, A coalescence approach to spatial neutral ecology, Ecological Informatics, Vol: 3, Pages: 259-271
Neutral models in ecology have attracted much attention in recent literature. They can provide considerable insight into the roles of non-species-specific factors (e.g. stochasticity, dispersal, speciation) on community dynamics but often require intensive simulations, particularly in spatial settings. Here, we clearly explain existing techniques for modelling spatially explicit neutral processes in ecology using coalescence. Furthermore, we present several novel extensions to these methods including procedures for dealing with system boundaries which enable improved investigation of the effects of dispersal. We also present a semi-analytical algorithm that calculates the expected species richness in a sample, for any speciation rate. By eliminating the effect of stochasticity in the speciation process, we reduce the variance in estimates of species richness. Our benchmarks show that the combination of existing coalescence theory and our extensions produces higher quality results in vastly shorter time scales than previously possible: years of simulation time are reduced to minutes. As an example application, we find parameters for a spatially explicit neutral model to approximate the species richness of a tropical forest dataset.
Rosindell J, Cornell SJ, 2007, Species-area relationships from a spatially explicit neutral model in an infinite landscape, ECOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 10, Pages: 586-595, ISSN: 1461-023X
Desjardins-Proulx P, Rosindell JL, Poisot T, et al., A simple model to study phylogeographies and speciation patterns in space
In this working paper, we present a simple theoretical framework based onnetwork theory to study how speciation, the process by which new speciesappear, shapes spatial patterns of diversity. We show that this framework canbe expanded to account for different types of networks and interactions, andincorporates different modes of speciation.
Rosindell J, Manson K, Gumbs R, et al., Phylogenetic Biodiversity Metrics Should Account for Both Accumulation and Attrition of Evolutionary Heritage
<jats:title>A<jats:sc>bstract</jats:sc></jats:title><jats:p>Phylogenetic metrics are essential tools in ecology, evolution and conservation. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) in particular is one of the most prominent measures of biodiversity, and is based on the idea that biological features accumulate along the branches of phylogenetic trees. We argue that PD and many other phylogenetic biodiversity metrics fail to capture an essential process that we term attrition. Attrition is the gradual loss of features through causes other than extinction, for example through natural selection. We introduce ‘EvoHeritage’, a generalisation of PD that is founded on the joint processes of accumulation and attrition of features, and can be applied to phylogenetic trees or more complex networks. Whilst PD measures evolutionary history, EvoHeritage is required to capture a more pertinent subset of evolutionary history including only features that have survived attrition. We show that EvoHeritage is not the same as PD on a tree with scaled branches; instead, accumulation and attrition interact in a more complex non-monphyletic way that cannot be captured by branch lengths alone. This leads us to speculate that existing phylogenetic trees and networks may be insufficiently flexible objects to capture the nuances of evolutionary processes. We derive a dimensionless measure of EvoHeritage that reproduces species richness and PD at opposite ends of a continuum based on the intensity of attrition. We suggest how the existing calculus of PD-based metrics and other phylogenetic biodiversity metrics could be recast in terms of EvoHeritage accumulation and attrition. We give three empirical applications that all rely on our new approach. The first is in ecology, evaluating EvoHeritage as a predictor of community productivity against species richness and PD. The second is in evolution, quantifying living fossils and resolving their associated controversy.
Fernandes LD, Hintzen RE, Thompson SED, et al., Species Richness and Speciation Rates for all Terrestrial Animals Emerge from a Synthesis of Ecological Theories
<jats:title>A<jats:sc>bstract</jats:sc></jats:title><jats:p>The total number of species on earth and the rate at which new species are created are fundamental questions for ecology, evolution and conservation. These questions have typically been approached separately, despite their obvious interconnection. In this manuscript we approach both questions in conjunction, for all terrestrial animals, which enables a more holistic integration and generates novel emergent predictions. To do this, we combine two previously unconnected bodies of theory: general ecosystem modelling and individual based ecological neutral theory. General ecosystem models provide us with estimated numbers of individual organisms, separated by functional group and body size. Neutral theory, applied within a guild of functionally similar individuals, connects species richness, speciation rate and number of individual organisms. In combination, for terrestrial endotherms where species numbers are known, they provide us with estimates for speciation rates as a function of body size and diet class. Extrapolating the same rates to guilds of ectotherms enables us to estimate the species richness of those groups, including species yet to be described. We find that speciation rates per species per million years decrease with increasing body size. Rates are also higher for carnivores compared to omnivores or herbivores of the same body size. Our estimate for the total number of terrestrial species of animals is in the range 1.03 − 2.92 million species, a value consistent with estimates from previous studies, despite having used a fundamentally new approach. Perhaps what is most remarkable about these results is that they have been obtained using only limited data from larger endotherms and their speciation rates, with the rest of the predictive process being based on mechanistic theory. This work illustrates the potential of a new approach to classic eco-evolutionary q
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