Imperial College London

Professor Julian Teare

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Emeritus Professor
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 1072j.teare

 
 
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Location

 

CL3 026St Marys Multiple BuildingsSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

190 results found

Liu Z, Alexander J, Eng K, Ibraheim H, Anandabaskaran S, Saifuddin M, Constable L, Castro Seoane R, Balarajah S, Hicks L, Williams H, Teare J, Altmann D, Boyton R, Pollock K, Hart A, Powell Net al., 2023, Antibody responses to Influenza vaccination are diminished in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on infliximab or tofacitinib, Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, ISSN: 1873-9946

Background and aims:We sought to determine whether six commonly used immunosuppressive regimens were associated with lower antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccination in patients with IBD.Methods:We conducted a prospective study including 213 IBD patients and 53 healthy controls; 165 who had received seasonal influenza vaccine and 101 who had not. IBD medications included infliximab, thiopurines, infliximab and thiopurine combination therapy, ustekinumab, vedolizumab or tofacitinib. The primary outcome was antibody responses against influenza/A H3N2 and A/H1N1, compared to controls, adjusting for age, prior vaccination and interval between vaccination and sampling.Results:Lower antibody responses against influenza A/H3N2 were observed in patients on infliximab (Geometric Mean Ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.20-0.60], p=0.0002), combination of infliximab and thiopurine therapy (0.46 [0.27-0.79], p=0.0050) and tofacitinib (0.28 [0.14-0.57], p=0.0005) compared to controls. Lower antibody responses against A/H1N1 were observed in patients on infliximab (0.29 [0.15-0.56], p=0.0003), combination of infliximab and thiopurine therapy (0.34 [0.17-0.66], p=0.0016), thiopurine monotherapy (0.46 [0.24-0.87], p=0.017) and tofacitinib (0.23 [0.10-0.56], p=0.0013). Ustekinumab and vedolizumab were not associated with reduced antibody responses against A/H3N2 or A/H1N1. Vaccination in the previous year was associated with higher antibody responses to A/H3N2. Vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentration weakly correlated with antibodies against H3N2 (r=0.27; p=0.0004) and H1N1 (r=0.33; p<0.0001).Conclusions:Vaccination in both the 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 seasons was associated with significantly higher antibody responses to influenza/A than no vaccination or vaccination in 2021-2022 alone. Infliximab and tofacitinib are associated with lower binding antibody responses to Influenza/A, similar to COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses. Funding:Financial support was

Journal article

Liu Z, Alexander J, Le K, Zhou X, Ibraheim H, Anandabaskaran S, Saifuddin M, LIN K, Leon M, Constable L, Castro Seoane R, Anand N, Bewshea C, Nice R, D'Mello A, Jones G, Balarajah S, Fiorentino F, Sebastian S, Irving P, Hicks LC, Williams HRT, Kent A, Linger R, Parkes M, Klaartje K, Patel K, Teare JP, Altmann DM, Boyton RJ, Hart AL, Lees C, Goodhand J, Kennedy N, Pollock K, Ahmad T, Powell Net al., 2023, Neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 and wild-type virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease following three doses of COVID-19 vaccine (VIP): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study, EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 64, ISSN: 2589-5370

BackgroundPatients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF and JAK-inhibitor therapy have attenuated responses to COVID-19 vaccination. We aimed to determine how IBD treatments affect neutralising antibody responses against the Omicron BA.4/5 variant.MethodsIn this multicentre cohort study, we prospectively recruited 340 adults (69 healthy controls and 271 IBD) at nine UK hospitals between May 28, 2021 and March 29, 2022. The IBD study population was established (>12 weeks therapy) on either thiopurine (n = 63), infliximab (n = 45), thiopurine and infliximab combination therapy (n = 48), ustekinumab (n = 45), vedolizumab (n = 46) or tofacitinib (n = 24). Patients were excluded if they were being treated with any other immunosuppressive therapies. Participants had two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccines, followed by a third dose of either BNT162b2 or mRNA1273. Pseudo-neutralisation assays against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and BA.4/5 were performed. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (NT50) of participant sera was calculated. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralising response against wild-type virus and Omicron BA.4/5 variant after the second and third doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, stratified by immunosuppressive therapy, adjusting for prior infection, vaccine type, age, and interval between vaccination and blood collection. This study is registered with ISRCTN (No. 13495664).FindingsBoth heterologous (first two doses adenovirus vaccine, third dose mRNA vaccine) and homologous (three doses mRNA vaccine) vaccination strategies significantly increased neutralising titres against both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Omicron BA.4/5 variant in healthy participants and patients with IBD. Antibody titres against BA.4/5 were significantly lower than antibodies against wild-type virus in both healthy participants and patients with IBD (p < 0.0001). Multivariable models demonstrated that neutralising antibodies against

Journal article

Alexander J, Posma J, Scott A, Poynter L, Mason S, Herendi L, Roberts L, McDonald J, Cameron S, Darzi A, Goldin R, Takats Z, Marchesi J, Teare J, Kinross Jet al., 2023, Pathobionts in the tumour microbiota predict survival following resection for colorectal cancer, Microbiome, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2049-2618

Background and aimsThe gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to map the CRC mucosal microbiota and metabolome and define the influence of the tumoral microbiota on oncological outcomes.MethodsA multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted of CRC patients undergoing primary surgical resection in the UK (n = 74) and Czech Republic (n = 61). Analysis was performed using metataxonomics, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), targeted bacterial qPCR and tumour exome sequencing. Hierarchical clustering accounting for clinical and oncological covariates was performed to identify clusters of bacteria and metabolites linked to CRC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to ascertain clusters associated with disease-free survival over median follow-up of 50 months.ResultsThirteen mucosal microbiota clusters were identified, of which five were significantly different between tumour and paired normal mucosa. Cluster 7, containing the pathobionts Fusobacterium nucleatum and Granulicatella adiacens, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR = 0.0002). Additionally, tumoral dominance of cluster 7 independently predicted favourable disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.031). Cluster 1, containing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, was negatively associated with cancer (PFDR = 0.0009), and abundance was independently predictive of worse disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.0009). UPLC-MS analysis revealed two major metabolic (Met) clusters. Met 1, composed of medium chain (MCFA), long-chain (LCFA) and very long-chain (VLCFA) fatty acid species, ceramides and lysophospholipids, was negatively associated with CRC (PFDR = 2.61 × 10−11); Met 2, composed of phosphatidylcholine species, nucleosides and amino acids, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR&

Journal article

Alexander JL, Posma JM, Scott A, Poynter L, Mason S, Doria L, Roberts L, McDonald JA, Cameron S, Hughes D, Liska V, Susova S, Soucek P, Horneffer V, Gomez-Romero M, Herendi L, Lewis M, Hoyles L, Woolston A, Cunningham D, Darzi A, Gerlinger M, Goldin R, Takats Z, Marchesi J, Teare JP, Kinross JMet al., 2023, NETWORKS OF PATHOBIONTS IN THE TUMOUR MUCOSAL NICHE PREDICT SURVIVAL FOLLOWING COLORECTAL CANCER RESECTION, Digestive Disease Week (DDW), Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S469-S470, ISSN: 0016-5085

Conference paper

Ruban A, Aldubaikhi G, Johnson NA, Glaysher MA, Chhina N, Byrne J, Marchesi J, Teare JP, Goldstone AP, Miras A, Li JVet al., 2023, ENDOBARRIER®, A DUODENAL-JEJUNAL BYPASS LINER DEVICE, ALTERS THE GLOBAL METABOLIC AND THE GUT BACTERIAL PROFILES OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITY AND DIABETES, Digestive Disease Week (DDW), Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S1457-S1457, ISSN: 0016-5085

Conference paper

Ryder REJ, Laubner K, Benes M, Haluzik M, Munro L, Frydenberg H, Teare JP, Ruban A, Fishman S, Santo E, Stengel R, De Jonge C, Greve JW, Cohen RV, Aboud CM, Holtmann GJ, Rich G, McMaster JJ, Battelino T, Kotnik P, Byrne JP, Mason JC, Bessell J, Bascomb J, Kow L, Collins J, Chisholm J, Pferschy PN, Sourij H, Cull ML, Wyres MC, Drummond R, McGowan B, Amiel SA, Yadagiri M, Sen Gupta P, Aberle J, Seufert Jet al., 2023, Endoscopic Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass Liner Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Glycemic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Improvements in 1,022 Patients Treated Worldwide., Diabetes Care, Vol: 46, Pages: e89-e91

Journal article

Alexander JL, Mullish BH, Danckert NP, Liu Z, Olbei ML, Saifuddin A, Tokizadeh M, Ibraheim H, Miguens Blanco J, Roberts LA, Bewshea CM, Nice R, Lin S, Prabhudev H, Sands C, Horneffer van der Sluis V, Lewis M, Sebastian S, Lees CW, Teare JP, Hart A, Goodhand J, Kennedy NA, Korcsmaros T, Marchesi JR, Ahmad T, Powell Net al., 2023, The gut microbiota and metabolome are associated with diminished COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses in immunosuppressed inflammatory bowel disease patients, EBioMedicine, Vol: 88, ISSN: 2352-3964

Background:Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with anti-TNF therapy exhibit attenuated humoral immune responses to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The gut microbiota and its functional metabolic output, which are perturbed in IBD, play an important role in shaping host immune responses. We explored whether the gut microbiota and metabolome could explain variation in anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination responses in immunosuppressed IBD patients.Methods:Faecal and serum samples were prospectively collected from infliximab-treated patients with IBD in the CLARITY-IBD study undergoing vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Antibody responses were measured following two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine. Patients were classified as having responses above or below the geometric mean of the wider CLARITY-IBD cohort. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and bile acid profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) were performed on faecal samples. Univariate, multivariable and correlation analyses were performed to determine gut microbial and metabolomic predictors of response to vaccination.Findings:Forty-three infliximab-treated patients with IBD were recruited (30 Crohn's disease, 12 ulcerative colitis, 1 IBD-unclassified; 26 with concomitant thiopurine therapy). Eight patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seventeen patients (39.5%) had a serological response below the geometric mean. Gut microbiota diversity was lower in below average responders (p = 0.037). Bilophila abundance was associated with better serological response, while Streptococcus was associated with poorer response. The faecal metabolome was distinct between above and below average responders (OPLS-DA R2X 0.25, R2Y 0.26, Q2 0.15; CV-ANOVA p = 0.038). Trimethylamine, isobutyrate and omega-muricholic acid were associated with better response, while succinate, phenylalanine, taurolithoc

Journal article

Liu Z, Alexander J, Le K, Zhou X, Ibraheim H, Anandabaskaran S, Saifuddin A, Lin K, Mcfarlane L, Anand N, Constable L, Castro-Seoane R, Nice R, Bewshea C, D'Mello A, Jones GR, Balarajah S, Fiorentino F, Sebastian S, Irving P, Hicks L, Williams H, Kent A, Linger R, Parkes M, Kok K, Patel KV, Teare J, Altmann D, Hart A, Lees C, Boyton R, Goodhand J, Kennedy N, Pollock K, Ahmad T, Powell Net al., 2023, P535 COVID-19 vaccine-induced neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.4/5 are diminished in patients with inflammatory bowel disease on anti-TNF or JAK-inhibitor therapy, Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Vol: 17, Pages: i664-i664, ISSN: 1873-9946

BackgroundPatients with Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF or JAK-inhibitor therapy have attenuated responses to COVID-19 vaccination. We aimed to determine how IBD treatments affect neutralising antibody responses against the currently dominant Omicron BA.4/5 variants.MethodsWe prospectively recruited 329 adults (68 healthy controls (HC) and 261 IBD) who had received three doses of COVID-19 vaccine at nine UK centres. The IBD population was established (>12 weeks therapy) on either thiopurine (n=60), infliximab (IFX) (n=43), thiopurine & IFX combination (n=46), ustekinumab (n=43), vedolizumab (n=46) or tofacitinib (n=23). Pseudoneutralisation assays were performed and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (NT50) of participant sera was calculated. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralising response against wild-type (WT) virus and the BA.4/5 variant after the second and third doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, stratified by immunosuppressive therapy, adjusting for prior infection, ethnicity, vaccine type and age.ResultsHeterologous (two doses adenovirus vaccine, third dose mRNA vaccine) and homologous (three doses mRNA vaccine) vaccination strategies significantly increased neutralising titres against both WT SARS-CoV-2 virus and the BA.4/5 variants in HCs and IBD (fig 1). Antibody titres against BA.4/5 were significantly lower than antibodies against WT virus in both groups (Geometric Mean Ratio (GMR) [95% CI], 0.11 [0.09, 0.15], P<0.0001 in healthy participants; GMR 0.07 [0.06, 0.08], P<0.0001 in IBD patients). Multivariable models showed that neutralising antibodies against BA.4/5 after three doses of vaccine were significantly lower in IBD patients on IFX (GMR 0.44 [0.20, 0.97], P=0.042), IFX and thiopurine combination (GMR 0.34 [0.15, 0.77], P=0.0098) or tofacitinib (GMR 0.37 [0.15, 0.92], P=0.032), but not in patients on thiopurine monotherapy, ustekinumab or vedolizumab. Breakthrough infection was associated with lo

Journal article

Alexander J, Liu Z, Munoz Sandoval D, Reynolds C, Ibraheim H, Saifuddin M, Constable L, Altmann D, Balarajah S, Hicks L, Williams H, Teare J, Hart A, Boyton R, Powell Net al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody and T cell responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease after the third vaccine dose: a multicentre, prospective, case-control study, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 1005-1015, ISSN: 2468-1253

Background:COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses are reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) taking anti-TNF or tofacitinib after two vaccine doses. We sought to determine whether immunosuppressive treatments were associated with reduced antibody and T cell responses after a third vaccine dose.Methods:352 adults (72 healthy controls and 280 IBD) were sampled 28-49 days after a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. IBD medications studied included thiopurines (n=65), infliximab (n=46), thiopurine/infliximab combination therapy (n=49), ustekinumab (n=44), vedolizumab (n=50) or tofacitinib (n=26). SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody binding and T cell responses were measured. Findings:Geometric mean [geometric SD] anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations increased in all groups following a third dose, but were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (2736.8 U/mL [4.3]; P<0.0001), infliximab and thiopurine combination (1818.3 U/mL [6.7]; P<0.0001) and tofacitinib (8071.5 U/mL [3.1]; P=0.0018) compared to controls (16774.2 U/ml [2.6]). There were no significant differences in anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations between control subjects and thiopurine (12019.7 U/mL [2.2]; P=0.099), ustekinumab (11089.3 U/mL [2.8]; P=0.060), nor vedolizumab treated patients (13564.9 U/mL [2.4]; P=0.27). In multivariable modelling, lower anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations were independently associated with infliximab (Geometric mean ratio 0.15, 95% CI 0.11-0.21, P<0.0001), tofacitinib (0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.87, P=0.012) and thiopurine (0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, P=0.021), but not with ustekinumab (0.64, 95% CI 0.39-1.06, P=0.083), or vedolizumab (0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.30, P=0.43). Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.58, 95% CI 1.22-2.05, P=0.00056) and older age (0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P=0.0073) were independently associated with higher and lower anti-S1 antibody concentrations respectively. Antigen specific T cell responses were similar in all groups, except for reci

Journal article

Alexander J, Powell N, Ibraheim H, Teare Jet al., 2022, Oral Beclomethasone Dipropionate is an effective treatment for immune checkpoint inhibitor induced colitis, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2051-1426

IntroductionSystemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for immune checkpoint inhibitor induced (CPI) colitis but are associated with complications including life-threatening infection. The topically-acting oral corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate (BD) is an effective treatment for mild to moderate flares of ulcerative colitis, and has fewer side effects than systemic corticosteroids. We hypothesised that BD would be an effective treatment for CPI-induced colitis.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who started BD for CPI-induced colitis at three UK cancer centres between November 2017 and October 2020. All patients underwent endoscopic assessment and biopsy. The initial regimen of BD was 5mg once daily for 28 days. Data were collected from electronic patient records. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 28 days after initiation of treatment.ResultsTwenty-two patients (fourteen male) with a median age of 64 (range 45-84) with CPI-induced colitis were treated with BD. At baseline, the median number of loose stools in a 24-hour period was six (CTCAE grade diarrhoea = 2). Thirteen patients (59%) were dependent on systemic corticosteroids prior to starting BD. Baseline sigmoidoscopy showed moderate inflammation (Mayo endoscopic score [MES] = 2) in two patients (9%), mild inflammation (MES = 1) in nine patients (41%) and normal findings (MES = 0) in eleven patients (50%). Twenty patients (91%) had histopathological features of inflammation. All 22 patients (100%) had a clinical response to BD and 21 (95%) achieved clinical remission with a return to baseline stool frequency (CTCAE diarrhoea = 0). 10 patients (45%) had symptomatic relapse on cessation of BD, half within seven days of stopping. All patients recaptured response on restarting BD. No adverse events were reported in patients treated with BD.ConclusionsTopical BD represents an appealing alternative option to systemic immunosuppressive treatments to treat colonic inflamma

Journal article

Alexander JL, Liu Z, Mūnoz Sandoval D, Reynolds C, Ibraheim H, Anandabaskaran S, Saifuddin A, Castro Seoane R, Anand N, Nice R, Bewshea C, D'Mello A, Constable L, Jones G, Balarajah S, Fiorentino F, Sebastian S, Irving P, Hicks L, Williams HRT, Kent A, Linger R, Parkes M, Kok K, Patel K, Teare JP, Altmann D, Goodhand J, Hart A, Lees C, Boyton RJ, Kennedy NA, Ahmad T, Powell N, Investigators VIPSet al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody and T cell responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease after the third vaccine dose, Publisher: SSRN

Background: COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses are reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) taking infliximab or tofacitinib after two vaccine doses. We sought to determine whether immunosuppressive treatments were associated with reduced antibody and T cell responses after a third vaccine dose. Methods: 352 adults (72 healthy controls and 280 IBD) from the prospectively recruited study cohort were sampled 28-49 days after a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. IBD medications studied included thiopurines (n=65), infliximab (n=46), thiopurine/infliximab combination therapy (n=49), ustekinumab (n=44), vedolizumab (n=50) or tofacitinib (n=26). SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody binding and T cell responses were measured. Findings: Geometric mean [geometric SD] anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations increased in all study groups following a third dose of vaccine, but were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (2736.8 U/mL [4.3]; P<0.0001), infliximab and thiopurine combination (1818.3 U/mL [6.7]; P<0.0001) and tofacitinib (8071.5 U/mL [3.1]; P=0.0018) compared to controls (16774.2 U/ml [2.6]). There were no significant differences in anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations between control subjects and thiopurine (12019.7 U/mL [2.2]; P=0.099), ustekinumab (11089.3 U/mL [2.8]; P=0.060), nor vedolizumab treated patients (13564.9 U/mL [2.4]; P=0.27). In multivariable modelling, lower anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations were independently associated with infliximab (Geometric mean ratio 0.15, 95% CI 0.11-0.21, P<0.0001), tofacitinib (0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.87, P=0.012) and thiopurine (0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, P=0.021), but not with ustekinumab (0.64, 95% CI 0.39-1.06, P=0.083), or vedolizumab (0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.30, P=0.43). Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.58, 95% CI 1.22-2.05, P=0.00056) and older age (0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P=0.0073) were independently associated with higher and lower anti-S1 antibody concentrations respectively. However

Working paper

Alexander J, Mullish B, Danckert N, Liu Z, Saifuddin A, Torkizadeh M, Ibraheim H, Miguens-Blanco J, Bewshea C, Nice R, Lin S, Prabhudev H, Sands C, Lewis M, Teare J, Hart A, Kennedy N, Ahmad T, Marchesi J, Powell Net al., 2022, COVID-19 VACCINATION RESPONSE IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PATIENTS WITH IBD IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED GUT MICROBIOTA FUNCTION, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A36-A36, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

Aldhwayan MM, Al-Najim W, Ruban A, Glaysher MA, Johnson B, Chhina N, Dimitriadis GK, Prechtl CG, Johnson NA, Byrne JP, Goldstone AP, Teare JP, Le Roux CW, Miras ADet al., 2022, Does bypass of the proximal small intestine impact food intake, preference, and taste function in humans? An experimental medicine study using the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner, Nutrients, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2072-6643

The duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (Endobarrier) is an endoscopic treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It creates exclusion of the proximal small intestine similar to that after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery. The objective of this study was to employ a reductionist approach to determine whether bypass of the proximal intestine is the component conferring the effects of RYGB on food intake and sweet taste preference using the Endobarrier as a research tool. A nested mechanistic study within a large randomised controlled trial compared the impact of lifestyle modification with vs. without Endobarrier insertion in patients with obesity and T2DM. Forty-seven participants were randomised and assessed at several timepoints using direct and indirect assessments of food intake, food preference and taste function. Patients within the Endobarrier group lost numerically more weight compared to the control group. Using food diaries, our results demonstrated similar reductions of food intake in both groups. There were no significant differences in food preference and sensory, appetitive reward, or consummatory reward domain of sweet taste function between groups or changes within groups. In conclusion, the superior weight loss seen in patients with obesity and T2DM who underwent the Endobarrier insertion was not due to a reduction in energy intake or change in food preferences.

Journal article

Alexander JL, Mullish BH, Danckert NP, Liu Z, Saifuddin A, Torkizadeh M, Ibraheim H, Blanco JM, Bewshea CM, Nice R, Lin S, Prabhudev H, Sands C, Lewis M, Teare JP, Hart A, Kennedy N, Ahmad T, Marchesi J, Powell Net al., 2022, POOR RESPONSE TO ANTI-SARS-COV-2 VACCINATION IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE PATIENTS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED GUT MICROBIOTA FUNCTION, GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 162, Pages: S653-S653, ISSN: 0016-5085

Journal article

Alexander JL, Kennedy N, Ibraheim H, Anandabaskaran S, Saifuddin A, Seoane RC, Liu Z, Nice R, Bewshea CM, D'Mello A, Constable LE, Jones G-R, Balarajah S, Fiorentino F, Sebastian S, Irving PM, Hicks LC, Williams HR, Kent AJ, Parkes M, Kok K, Patel KV, Altmann D, Boyton R, Goodhand J, Hart A, Lees CW, Ahmad T, Powell Net al., 2022, COVID-19 VACCINE-INDUCED ANTIBODY RESPONSES ARE IMPAIRED IN IBD PATIENTS TREATED WITH INFLIXIMAB, USTEKINUMAB OR TOFACITINIB, BUT NOT THIOPURINES OR VEDOLIZUMAB, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC

Working paper

Alexander JL, Kennedy NA, Ibraheim H, Anandabaskaran S, Saifuddin A, Castro Seoane R, Liu Z, Nice R, Bewshea C, D'Mello A, Constable L, Jones GR, Balarajah S, Fiorentino F, Sebastian S, Irving PM, Hicks LC, Williams HRT, Kent AJ, Linger R, Parkes M, Kok K, Patel KV, Teare JP, Altmann DM, Boyton RJ, Goodhand JR, Hart AL, Lees CW, Ahmad T, Powell N, VIP study investigatorset al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (VIP): a multicentre, prospective, case-control study, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 342-352, ISSN: 2468-1253

BACKGROUND: The effects that therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have on immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are not yet fully known. Therefore, we sought to determine whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses were altered in patients with IBD on commonly used immunosuppressive drugs. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, case-control study (VIP), we recruited adults with IBD treated with one of six different immunosuppressive treatment regimens (thiopurines, infliximab, a thiopurine plus infliximab, ustekinumab, vedolizumab, or tofacitinib) and healthy control participants from nine centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and had received two doses of COVID-19 vaccines (either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [Oxford-AstraZeneca], BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech], or mRNA1273 [Moderna]) 6-12 weeks apart (according to scheduling adopted in the UK). We measured antibody responses 53-92 days after a second vaccine dose using the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations in participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, adjusted by age and vaccine type, and was analysed by use of multivariable linear regression models. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN13495664, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between May 31 and Nov 24, 2021, we recruited 483 participants, including patients with IBD being treated with thiopurines (n=78), infliximab (n=63), a thiopurine plus infliximab (n=72), ustekinumab (n=57), vedolizumab (n=62), or tofacitinib (n=30), and 121 healthy controls. We included 370 participants without evidence of previous infection in our primary analysis. Geometric mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (156·8 U/mL [geometric SD 5·7]; p<0·0001), infliximab plus thiopurine (111·1 U/mL [5·

Journal article

Ruban A, Miras AD, Glaysher MA, Goldstone AP, Prechtl CG, Johnson N, Chhina N, Al-Najim W, Aldhwayan M, Klimowska-Nassar N, Smith C, Lord J, Li JV, Flores L, Al-Lababidi M, Dimitriadis GK, Patel M, Moore M, Chahal H, Ahmed AR, Cousins J, Aldubaikhi G, Glover B, Falaschetti E, Ashrafian H, Roux CWL, Darzi A, Byrne JP, Teare JPet al., 2022, Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass Liner for the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 275, Pages: 440-447, ISSN: 0003-4932

<jats:sec> <jats:title>Objective:</jats:title> <jats:p>The aim of this study was to examine the clinical efficacy and safety of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) while in situ for 12 months and for 12 months after explantation.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Summary Background Data:</jats:title> <jats:p>This is the largest randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the DJBL, a medical device used for the treatment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. Endoscopic interventions have been developed as potential alternatives to those not eligible or fearful of the risks of metabolic surgery.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods:</jats:title> <jats:p>In this multicenter open-label RCT, 170 adults with inadequately controlled T2DM and obesity were randomized to intensive medical care with or without the DJBL. Primary outcome was the percentage of participants achieving a glycated hemoglobin reduction of ≥20% at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors at 12 and 24 months.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Results:</jats:title> <jats:p>There were no significant differences in the percentage of patients achieving the primary outcome between both groups at 12 months [DJBL 54.6% (n = 30) vs control 55.2% (n = 32); odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44–2.0; <jats:italic toggle="yes">P</jats:italic> = 0.85]. Twenty-four percent (n = 16) patients achieved ≥15% weight loss in the DJBL group compared to 4% (n = 2) in the controls at 12 months (OR 8.3, 95% CI: 1.8–39; <jats:italic toggle="yes">P</jats:italic> = .007). The DJBL grou

Journal article

Wei J, Nazarian S, Teare J, Darzi A, Ashrafian H, Thompson Aet al., 2022, A case for improved assessment of gut permeability: a meta-analysis quantifying the lactulose:mannitol ratio in coeliac and Crohn’s disease, BMC Gastroenterology, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1471-230X

Background:A widely used method in assessing small bowel permeability is the lactulose:mannitol test, where the lactulose:mannitol ratio (LMR) is measured. However, there is discrepancy in how the test is conducted and in the values of LMR obtained across studies. This meta-analysis aims to determine LMR in healthy subjects, coeliac and Crohn’s disease.Methods:A literature search was performed using PRISMA guidance to identify studies assessing LMR in coeliac or Crohn’s disease. 19 studies included in the meta-analysis measured gut permeability in coeliac disease, 17 studies in Crohn’s disease. Outcomes of interest were LMR values and comparisons of standard mean difference (SMD) and weighted mean difference (WMD) in healthy controls, inactive Crohn’s, active Crohn’s, treated coeliac and untreated coeliac. Pooled estimates of differences in LMR were calculated using the random effects model.Results:Pooled LMR in healthy controls was 0.014 (95% CI: 0.006–0.022) while pooled LMRs in untreated and treated coeliac were 0.133 (95% CI: 0.089–0.178) and 0.037 (95% CI: 0.019–0.055). In active and inactive Crohn’s disease, pooled LMRs were 0.093 (95% CI: 0.031–0.156) and 0.028 (95% CI: 0.015–0.041). Significant differences were observed in LMR between: (1) healthy controls and treated coeliacs (SMD = 0.409 95% CI 0.034 to 0.783, p = 0.032), (2) healthy controls and untreated coeliacs (SMD = 1.362 95% CI: 0.740 to 1.984, p < 0.001), (3) treated coeliacs and untreated coeliacs (SMD = 0.722 95% CI: 0.286 to 1.157, p = 0.001), (4) healthy controls and inactive Crohn’s (SMD = 1.265 95% CI: 0.845 to 1.686, p < 0.001), (5) healthy controls and active Crohn’s (SMD = 2.868 95% CI: 2.112 to 3.623, p < 0.001), and (6) active Crohn’s and inactive Crohn&rsquo

Journal article

Alexander J, Ibraheim H, Sheth B, Pinato D, Teare J, Speight A, Papa S, Sharma A, Crusz S, Powell Net al., 2021, A MULTI-CENTRE STUDY OF INFLIXIMAB TREATMENT FOR CORTICOSTEROID-REFRACTORY CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR INDUCED ENTEROCOLITIS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A22-A22, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

Alexander J, Ibraheim H, Richards C, Shum B, Pavlidis P, Furness A, Teare J, Speight A, Papa S, Powell Net al., 2021, CLIPPER (BECLOMETHASONE DIPROPIONATE) AS A TREATMENT FOR CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR INDUCED ENTEROCOLITIS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A101-A101, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

Glover B, Teare J, Patel N, 2021, Assessment of H. pylori status by examination of gastric mucosal patterns: diagnostic accuracy of white-light endoscopy and narrow-band imaging, BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2054-4774

ObjectivesHelicobacter pylori infection is a common cause of chronic gastritis worldwide and an established risk factor for developing gastric malignancy. The endoscopic appearances predicting H. pylori status are an ongoing area of research, as are their diagnostic accuracies. This study aimed to establish the diagnostic accuracy of several mucosal features predictive of H. pylori negative status and formulate a simple prediction model for use at the time of endoscopy.DesignPatients undergoing high-definition upper GI endoscopy without magnification were recruited prospectively. During endoscopy, the presence or absence of specific endoscopic findings was noted. Sydney protocol biopsies were used as the diagnostic reference standard, and urease test if taken. The results informed a logistic regression model used to produce a simple diagnostic approach. This model was subsequently validated using a further cohort of 30 patients.Results153 patients were recruited and completed the study protocol. The prevalence of active H. pylori infection was 18.3% (28/153). The overall diagnostic accuracy of the simple prediction model was 80.0%, and 100% of patients with active H. pylori infection were correctly classified. Presence of regular arrangement of collecting venules (RAC) showed a positive predictive value for H. pylori naïve status of 90.7%, rising to 93.6% for patients under the age of 60.ConclusionA simple endoscopic model may be accurate for predicting H. pylori status of a patient, and the need for biopsy-based tests. The presence of RAC in the stomach is an accurate predictor of H. pylori negative status, particularly in patients under the age of 60.

Journal article

Nazarian S, Glover B, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Teare Jet al., 2021, Diagnostic Accuracy of Artificial Intelligence and Computer-Aided Diagnosis for the Detection and Characterization of Colorectal Polyps: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1438-8871

Journal article

Nazarian S, Glover B, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Teare Jet al., 2021, The diagnostic accuracy of artificial intelligence and computer-aided diagnosis for the detection and characterisation of colorectal polyps: A systematic review and meta-analysis., Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1438-8871

AimsColonoscopy reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer by allowing detection and resection of neoplastic polyps. Evidence shows that many small polyps are missed on a single colonoscopy. There has been a successful adoption of AI technologies to tackle the issues around missed polyps and as a tool to increase adenoma detection rate (ADR). The aim of this review was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of AI-based technologies in assessing colorectal polyps.MethodA comprehensive literature search was undertaken using the databases of EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane Library. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Studies reporting use of computer-aided diagnosis for polyp detection or characterisation during colonoscopy were included. Independent proportion and their differences were calculated and pooled through DerSimonian and Laird random-effects modelling. ResultsA total of 48 studies were included. The meta-analysis showed a significant increase in pooled PDR in patients with the use of AI for polyp detection during colonoscopy compared with patients who had standard colonoscopy (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.56-1.96; p= 0.0005). When comparing patients undergoing colonoscopy with the use of AI to those without, there was also a significant increase in ADR (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.32-1.77; p= 0005). ConclusionWith the aid of machine learning, there is potential to improve ADR and consequently reduce the incidence of CRC. The current generation of AI-based systems demonstrate impressive accuracy for the detection and characterisation of colorectal polyps. However, this is an evolving field and before its adoption into a clinical setting, AI systems must prove worthy to patients and clinicians.

Journal article

Alexander J, Ibraheim H, Sheth B, Little J, Khan MS, Richards C, Hunter N, Chauhan D, Ratnakumaran R, McHugh K, Pinato DJ, Nathan P, Choy J, Cursz SM, Furness A, Turajlic S, Pickering L, Larkin J, Teare J, Papa S, Speight A, Powell Net al., 2021, Clinical outcomes of patients with corticosteroid refractory immune checkpoint inhibitor induced enterocolitis treated with infliximab, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2051-1426

IntroductionImmune Checkpoint Inhibitors (CPI) have changed the treatment landscape for many cancers, but also cause severe inflammatory side effects including enterocolitis. CPI-induced enterocolitis is treated empirically with corticosteroids, and infliximab (IFX) is used in corticosteroid-refractory cases. However, robust outcome data for these patients are scarce. MethodsWe conducted a multi-centre (six cancer centres), cohort study of outcomes in patients treated with IFX for corticosteroid-refractory CPI-induced enterocolitis between 2007 and 2020. The primary outcome was corticosteroid-free clinical remission (CFCR) with CTCAE grade 0 for diarrhoea at 12 weeks after IFX initiation. We also assessed cancer outcomes at one year using RECIST criteria.Results127 patients (73 male; median age 59 years) were treated with IFX for corticosteroid-refractory CPI-induced enterocolitis. Ninety-six (75.6%) patients had diarrhoea CTCAE grade >2 and 115 (90.6%) required hospitalisation for colitis. CFCR was 41.2% at 12 weeks and 50.9% at 26 weeks. In multivariable logistical regression, IFX-resistant enterocolitis was associated with rectal bleeding (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.80; p=0.03) and absence of colonic crypt abscesses (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.13-8.05; p=0.03). Cancer non-progression was significantly more common in patients with IFX-resistant enterocolitis (64.4%) as compared to patients with IFX-responsive enterocolitis (37.5%; p=0.013).ConclusionThis is the largest study to date reporting outcomes of IFX therapy in patients with corticosteroid-refractory CPI-induced enterocolitis. Utilizing pre-defined robust endpoints, we have demonstrated that fewer than half of patients achieved CFCR. Our data also indicate that cancer outcomes may be better in patients developing prolonged and severe inflammatory side effects of CPI-therapy.

Journal article

Glaysher M, Ward J, Aldhwayan M, Ruban A, Prechtl CG, Fisk HL, Chhina N, Al-Najim W, Smith C, Klimowska-Nassar N, Johnson N, Falaschetti E, Goldstone AP, Miras AD, Byrne JP, Calder PC, Teare Jet al., 2021, The effect of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner on lipid profile and blood concentrations of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 40, Pages: 2343-2354, ISSN: 0261-5614

Background & aimsDuodenal-jejunal bypass liners (DJBLs) prevent absorption in the proximal small intestine, the site of fatty acid absorption. We sought to investigate the effects of a DJBL on blood concentrations of essential fatty acids (EFAs) and bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).MethodsSub-study of a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial with two treatment groups. Patients aged 18–65 years with type-2 diabetes mellitus and body mass index 30–50 kg/m2 were randomised to receive a DJBL for 12 months or best medical therapy, diet and exercise. Whole plasma PUFA concentrations were determined at baseline, 10 days, 6 and 11.5 months; data were available for n = 70 patients per group.ResultsWeight loss was significantly greater in the DJBL group compared to controls after 11.5 months: total body weight loss 11.3 ± 5.3% versus 6.0 ± 5.7% (mean difference [95% CI] = 5.27% [3.75, 6.80], p < 0.001). Absolute concentrations of both EFAs, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, and their bioactive derivatives, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were significantly lower in the DJBL group than in the control group at 6 and 11.5 months follow-up. Total serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were also significantly lower in the DJBL group.ConclusionOne year of DJBL therapy is associated with superior weight loss and greater reductions in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but also depletion of EFAs and their longer chain derivatives. DJBL therapy may need to be offset by maintaining an adequate dietary intake of PUFAs or by supplementation.

Journal article

Kohoutova D, Worku D, Aziz H, Teare J, Weir J, Larkin Jet al., 2021, Malignant melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract: symptoms, diagnosis, and current treatment options., Cells, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2073-4409

Malignant melanoma (MM) has become the fifth most frequent cancer in the UK. It is the most common carcinoma to metastasize to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. MM particularly has an affinity to spread to the small bowel, which is followed by the involvement of the stomach and large intestine. Excellent endoscopic options including video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy are available for a precise diagnosis of GI involvement by a metastatic MM. The complete surgical resection of GI metastatic MM in carefully selected patients not only provides symptom control, but has also been associated with an increase in overall survival. The approval of BRAF-targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors has transformed therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic MM over the past decade. Currently, the overall survival of patients with advanced metastatic MM who have been treated with a combination of immunotherapeutic agents reaches 52% at five years. The role of surgery for patients with the metastatic involvement of the GI tract with MM is evolving in the era of effective systemic treatments.

Journal article

Awasthi A, Barbour J, Beggs A, Bhandari P, Blakeway D, Brookes M, Brown J, Brown M, Caldwell G, Clokie S, Colleypriest B, Conlin A, de Silva S, de Caestecker J, Deeks J, Dhar A, Dilworth M, Fogden E, Foley S, Ghosh D, Grellier L, Hart A, Hoque SS, Iacucci M, Iqbal T, James J, Jarvis M, Jayaprakash A, Keshav S, Magill L, Matthews G, Mawdsley J, McLaughlin S, Mehta S, Monahan K, Morton D, Murugesan S, Parkes M, Pestinger V, Probert C, Ramadas A, Rettino A, Sebastian S, Sharma N, Griffiths M, Stockton J, Subramanian V, Suggett N, Taniere P, Teare J, Verma AM, Wallis Yet al., 2021, Enhanced neoplasia detection in chronic ulcerative colitis: the ENDCaP-C diagnostic accuracy study, Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-88, ISSN: 2050-4365

BackgroundChronic ulcerative colitis is a large bowel inflammatory condition associated with increased colorectal cancer risk over time, resulting in 1000 colectomies per year in the UK. Despite intensive colonoscopic surveillance, 50% of cases progress to invasive cancer before detection. Detecting early (precancer) molecular changes by analysing biopsies from routine colonoscopy should increase neoplasia detection.ObjectivesTo establish a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) marker panel associated with early neoplastic changes in ulcerative colitis patients. To develop the DNA methylation test for high-throughput analysis within the NHS. To prospectively evaluate the test within the existing colonoscopy surveillance programme.DesignModule 1 analysed 569 stored biopsies from neoplastic and non-neoplastic sites/patients using pyrosequencing for 11 genes that were previously reported to have altered promoter methylation associated with colitis-associated neoplasia. Classifiers were constructed to predict neoplasia based on gene combinations. Module 2 translated analysis to a NHS laboratory, assessing next-generation sequencing to increase speed and reduce cost. Module 3 applied the molecular classifiers within a prospective diagnostic accuracy study, in the existing ulcerative colitis surveillance programme. Comparisons were made between baseline and reference colonoscopies undertaken in a stratified patient sample 6–12 months later.SettingThirty-one UK hospitals.ParticipantsPatients with chronic ulcerative colitis, either for at least 10 years and extensive disease, or with primary sclerosing cholangitis.InterventionsAn optimised DNA methylation classifier tested on routine mucosal biopsies taken during colonoscopy.Main outcomeIdentifying ulcerative colitis patients with neoplasia.ResultsModule 1 selected five genes with specificity for neoplasia. The optimism-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for neoplasia was 0.83 (95% confidence interv

Journal article

Ruban A, Glaysher M, Miras A, Prechtl C, Goldstone A, Aldhwayan M, Chhina N, Al-Najim W, Ashrafian H, Byrne J, Teare Jet al., 2021, SAFETY PROFILE OF THE DUODENAL-JEJUNAL BYPASS LINER (ENDOBARRIER): A MULTICENTRE RANDOMISED CONTROL TRIAL, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A170-A170, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

Ruban A, Glaysher M, Ashrafian H, Miras A, Prechtl C, Goldstone A, Aldhwayan M, Chhina N, Al-Najim W, Li J, Byrne J, Teare Jet al., 2021, DUODENAL-JEJUNAL BYPASS LINER THERAPY (ENDOBARRIER®) CAUSES REDUCTIONS IN PLASMA TRIMETHYLAMINE-N-OXIDE IN OBESE PATIENTS WITH DIABETES, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A19-A19, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

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