Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences (Silwood Park)

Reader in Biodiversity and Ecosystems



+44 (0)20 7594 1059j.tobias




KennedySilwood Park






BibTex format

author = {Thaxter, CB and Buchanan, GM and Carr, J and Butchart, SHM and Newbold, T and Green, RE and Tobias, JA and Foden, WB and O'Brien, S and Pearce-Higgins, JW},
doi = {10.1098/rspb.2017.0829},
journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
title = {Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment},
url = {},
volume = {284},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change involves deployments of renewableenergy worldwide, including wind farms, which can pose a significantcollision risk to volant animals. Most studies into the collision risk betweenspecies and wind turbines, however, have taken place in industrializedcountries. Potential effects for many locations and species therefore remainunclear. To redress this gap, we conducted a systematic literature reviewof recorded collisions between birds and bats and wind turbines withindeveloped countries. We related collision rate to species-level traits and turbinecharacteristics to quantify the potential vulnerability of 9538 bird and888 bat species globally. Avian collision rate was affected by migratory strategy,dispersal distance and habitat associations, and bat collision rates wereinfluenced by dispersal distance. For birds and bats, larger turbine capacity(megawatts) increased collision rates; however, deploying a smaller numberof large turbines with greater energy output reduced total collision risk perunit energy output, although bat mortality increased again with the largestturbines. Areas with high concentrations of vulnerable species were alsoidentified, including migration corridors. Our results can therefore guidewind farm design and location to reduce the risk of large-scale animal mortality.This is the first quantitative global assessment of the relative collisionvulnerability of species groups with wind turbines, providing valuable guidancefor minimizing potentially serious negative impacts on biodiversity.
AU - Thaxter,CB
AU - Buchanan,GM
AU - Carr,J
AU - Butchart,SHM
AU - Newbold,T
AU - Green,RE
AU - Tobias,JA
AU - Foden,WB
AU - O'Brien,S
AU - Pearce-Higgins,JW
DO - 10.1098/rspb.2017.0829
PY - 2017///
SN - 1471-2954
TI - Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment
T2 - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
UR -
UR -
VL - 284
ER -