83 results found
Bovo AAA, Ferraz KMPMB, Magioli M, et al., 2018, Habitat fragmentation narrows the distribution of avian functional traits associated with seed dispersal in tropical forest, Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, ISSN: 2530-0644
© 2018 Associação Brasileira de Ciência Ecológica e Conservação Land-use change influences biodiversity in non-random ways, affecting some species and functional groups more than others, with potential implications for the loss or degradation of important ecological processes, such as seed dispersal. Here we investigate the effect of patch-size reduction on the composition and functional richness (FRic) of avian communities in Atlantic Forest fragments, focusing on morphological traits associated with seed dispersal in frugivorous birds. We found that FRic of three key traits—hand-wing index, body mass and gape width—decreased with patch size reduction, because species with larger values for morphological traits were lost through local extinction. The relative absence of large-gaped and more-dispersive frugivores in small forest fragments has important implications because these species play a pivotal role in seed dispersal, carrying higher seed loads for longer distances, and consuming larger-sized seeds that cannot be dispersed by smaller-gaped frugivores. Our results highlight the importance of preserving large or interconnected habitat patches, and promoting habitat restoration of cleared areas, to ensure that sufficient avian functional diversity is maintained to supply the full range of seed dispersal services required by tropical forests, both currently and in future.
Chapman PM, Tobias JA, Edwards DP, et al., 2018, Contrasting impacts of land-use change on phylogenetic and functional diversity of tropical forest birds, Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN: 0021-8901
© 2018 British Ecological Society. Biodiversity conservation strategies increasingly target maintaining evolutionary history and the resilience of ecosystem function, not just species richness (SR). This has led to the emergence of two metrics commonly proposed as tools for decision making: phylogenetic diversity (PD) and functional diversity (FD). Yet, the extent to which they are interchangeable remains poorly understood. We explore shifts in and relationships between FD and PD of bird communities across a disturbance gradient in Borneo, from old-growth tropical forest to oil palm plantation. We show a marked decline in PD, and an increase in phylogenetic mean nearest taxon distance from forest to oil palm, in line with declining SR across the gradient. However, phylogenetic mean pairwise distance is constrained by forest logging more than by conversion to oil palm, taking account of SR. The decline in FD across the gradient is less severe than in PD, with all metrics indicating relatively high trait diversity in oil palm despite low SR, although functional redundancy is much reduced. Accounting for SR, levels of functional over- or under-dispersion of bird communities are strongly coupled to habitat disturbance level rather than to any equivalent phylogenetic metric. Policy implications. We suggest that while phylogenetic diversity (PD) is an improvement on species richness as a proxy for functional diversity (FD), conservation decisions based on phylogenetic diversity alone cannot reliably safeguard maximal functional diversity. Thus, phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity are related but still complementary. Priority setting exercises should use these metrics in combination to identify conservation targets.
Derryberry EP, Seddon N, Derryberry GE, et al., 2018, Ecological drivers of song evolution in birds: Disentangling the effects of habitat and morphology, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 8, Pages: 1890-1905, ISSN: 2045-7758
Drury JP, Tobias JA, Burns KJ, et al., 2018, Contrasting impacts of competition on ecological and social trait evolution in songbirds, PLOS BIOLOGY, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1545-7885
Fecchio A, Bell JA, Collins MD, et al., 2018, Diversification by host switching and dispersal shaped the diversity and distribution of avian malaria parasites in Amazonia, Oikos, ISSN: 0030-1299
© 2018 Nordic Society Oikos. Understanding how pathogens and parasites diversify through time and space is fundamental to predicting emerging infectious diseases. Here, we use biogeographic, coevolutionary and phylogenetic analyses to describe the origin, diversity, and distribution of avian malaria parasites in the most diverse avifauna on Earth. We first performed phylogenetic analyses using the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene to determine relationships among parasite lineages. Then, we estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral areas to uncover how landscape evolution has shaped the diversification of Parahaemoproteus and Plasmodium in Amazonia. Finally, we assessed the coevolutionary patterns of diversification in this host-parasite system to determine how coevolution may have influenced the contemporary diversity of avian malaria parasites and their distribution among Amazonian birds. Biogeographic analysis of 324 haemosporidian parasite lineages recovered from 4178 individual birds provided strong evidence that these parasites readily disperse across major Amazonian rivers and this has occurred with increasing frequency over the last five million years. We also recovered many duplication events within areas of endemism in Amazonia. Cophylogenetic analyses of these blood parasites and their avian hosts support a diversification history dominated by host switching. The ability of avian malaria parasites to disperse geographically and shift among avian hosts has played a major role in their radiation and has shaped the current distribution and diversity of these parasites across Amazonia.
Hatfield JH, Orme CDL, Tobias JA, et al., 2018, Trait-based indicators of bird species sensitivity to habitat loss are effective within but not across data sets, ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, Vol: 28, Pages: 28-34, ISSN: 1051-0761
Howard C, Stephens PA, Tobias JA, et al., 2018, Flight range, fuel load and the impact of climate change on the journeys of migrant birds, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 285, ISSN: 0962-8452
Ulrich W, Banks-Leite C, De Coster G, et al., 2018, Environmentally and behaviourally mediated co-occurrence of functional traits in bird communities of tropical forest fragments, OIKOS, Vol: 127, Pages: 274-284, ISSN: 0030-1299
Bath E, Bowden S, Peters C, et al., 2017, Sperm and sex peptide stimulate aggression in female &ITDrosophila&IT, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2397-334X
Cooney CR, Tobias JA, Weir JT, et al., 2017, Sexual selection, speciation and constraints on geographical range overlap in birds, ECOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 20, Pages: 863-871, ISSN: 1461-023X
Fecchio A, Svensson-Coelho M, Bell J, et al., 2017, Host associations and turnover of haemosporidian parasites in manakins (Aves: Pipridae), PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 144, Pages: 984-993, ISSN: 0031-1820
Grether GF, Peiman KS, Tobias JA, et al., 2017, Causes and Consequences of Behavioral Interference between Species, TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 32, Pages: 760-772, ISSN: 0169-5347
Hosner PA, Tobias JA, Braun EL, et al., 2017, How do seemingly non-vagile clades accomplish trans-marine dispersal? Trait and dispersal evolution in the landfowl (Ayes: Galliformes), PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 284, ISSN: 0962-8452
Mason NA, Burns KJ, Tobias JA, et al., 2017, Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds, EVOLUTION, Vol: 71, Pages: 786-796, ISSN: 0014-3820
Thaxter CB, Buchanan GM, Carr J, et al., 2017, Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 284, ISSN: 0962-8452
Waldron A, Miller DC, Redding D, et al., 2017, Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending, NATURE, Vol: 551, Pages: 364-+, ISSN: 0028-0836
Bregman TP, Lees AC, MacGregor HEA, et al., 2016, Using avian functional traits to assess the impact of land-cover change on ecosystem processes linked to resilience in tropical forests, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Bregman TP, Lees AC, MacGregor HEA, et al., 2016, Using avian functional traits to assess the impact of land-cover change on ecosystem processes linked to resilience in tropical forests, Proceedings. Biological sciences, Vol: 283
© 2016 The Author(s). Vertebrates perform key roles in ecosystem processes via trophic interactions with plants and insects, but the response of these interactions to environmental change is difficult to quantify in complex systems, such as tropical forests. Here, we use the functional trait structure of Amazonian forest bird assemblages to explore the impacts of land-cover change on two ecosystem processes: seed dispersal and insect predation. We show that trait structure in assemblages of frugivorous and insectivorous birds remained stable after primary forests were subjected to logging and fire events, but that further intensification of human land use substantially reduced the functional diversity and dispersion of traits, and resulted in communities that occupied a different region of trait space. These effects were only partially reversed in regenerating secondary forests. Our findings suggest that local extinctions caused by the loss and degradation of tropical forest are non-random with respect to functional traits, thus disrupting the network of trophic interactions regulating seed dispersal by forest birds and herbivory by insects, with important implications for the structure and resilience of human-modified tropical forests. Furthermore, our results illustrate how quantitative functional traits for specific guilds can provide a range of metrics for estimating the contribution of biodiversity to ecosystem processes, and the response of such processes to land-cover change.
Collar NJ, Fishpool LDC, del Hoyo J, et al., 2016, Toward a scoring system for species delimitation: a response to Remsen, JOURNAL OF FIELD ORNITHOLOGY, Vol: 87, Pages: 104-110, ISSN: 0273-8570
Cooney CR, Seddon N, Tobias JA, 2016, Widespread correlations between climatic niche evolution and species diversification in birds, JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Vol: 85, Pages: 869-878, ISSN: 0021-8790
Pigot AL, Bregman T, Sheard C, et al., 2016, Quantifying species contributions to ecosystem processes: a global assessment of functional trait and phylogenetic metrics across avian seed-dispersal networks, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Pigot AL, Tobias JA, Jetz W, 2016, Energetic Constraints on Species Coexistence in Birds, PLoS Biology, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1544-9173
© 2016 Pigot et al. The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence remains largely unknown. We use the phylogenetic relationships and geographic ranges of sister species (pairs of lineages who are each other’s closest extant relatives) to examine the association between energy availability and coexistence across an entire vertebrate class (Aves). We show that the incidence of coexistence among sister species increases with overall species richness and is elevated in more productive ecosystems, even when accounting for differences in the evolutionary time available for coexistence to occur. Our results indicate that energy availability promotes species coexistence in closely related lineages, providing a key step toward a more mechanistic understanding of the productivity–richness relationship underlying global gradients in biodiversity.
Pigot AL, Trisos CH, Tobias JA, 2016, Functional traits reveal the expansion and packing of ecological niche space underlying an elevational diversity gradient in passerine birds, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Seddon N, Mace GM, Naeem S, et al., 2016, Biodiversity in the Anthropocene: prospects and policy, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Ulrich W, Lens L, Tobias JA, et al., 2016, Contrasting Patterns of Species Richness and Functional Diversity in Bird Communities of East African Cloud Forest Fragments, PLOS ONE, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
Bath E, Wigby S, Vincent C, et al., 2015, Condition, not eyespan, predicts contest outcome in female stalk-eyed flies, Teleopsis dalmanni, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 5, Pages: 1826-1836, ISSN: 2045-7758
Bregman TP, Lees AC, Seddon N, et al., 2015, Species interactions regulate the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem function in tropical forest fragments, ECOLOGY, Vol: 96, Pages: 2692-2704, ISSN: 0012-9658
Matthews TJ, Sheard C, -Jones HEWC, et al., 2015, Ecological traits reveal functional nestedness of bird communities in habitat islands: a global survey, OIKOS, Vol: 124, Pages: 817-826, ISSN: 0030-1299
Pigot AL, Tobias JA, 2015, Dispersal and the transition to sympatry in vertebrates, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 282, ISSN: 0962-8452
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