94 results found
Kirschel ANG, Seddon N, Tobias JA, 2019, Range-wide spatial mapping reveals convergent character displacement of bird song, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 286, ISSN: 0962-8452
Cannon PG, Gilroy JJ, Tobias JA, et al., 2019, Land-sparing agriculture sustains higher levels of avian functional diversity than land sharing, Global Change Biology, Vol: 25, Pages: 1576-1590, ISSN: 1354-1013
The ecological impacts of meeting rising demands for food production can potentially be mitigated by two competing land-use strategies: off-setting natural habitats through intensification of existing farmland (land sparing), or elevating biodiversity within the agricultural matrix via the integration of 'wildlife-friendly' habitat features (land sharing). However, a key unanswered question is whether sparing or sharing farming would best conserve functional diversity, which can promote ecosystem stability and resilience to future land-use change. Focusing on bird communities in tropical cloud forests of the Colombian Andes, we test the performance of each strategy in conserving functional diversity. We show that multiple components of avian functional diversity in farmland are positively related to the proximity and extent of natural forest. Using landscape and community simulations, we also show that land-sparing agriculture conserves greater functional diversity and predicts higher abundance of species supplying key ecological functions than land sharing, with sharing becoming progressively inferior with increasing isolation from remnant forest. These results suggest low-intensity agriculture is likely to conserve little functional diversity unless large blocks of adjacent natural habitat are protected, consistent with land sparing. To ensure the retention of functionally diverse ecosystems, we urgently need to implement mechanisms for increasing farmland productivity whilst protecting spared land. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Felice RN, Tobias JA, Goswami A, 2019, How Dietary Niche Shapes Macroevolution in the Avian Skull, Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology (SICB), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: E68-E68, ISSN: 1540-7063
Mayhew RJ, Tobias JA, Bunnefeld L, et al., 2019, Connectivity with primary forest determines the value of secondary tropical forests for bird conservation, Biotropica, Vol: 51, Pages: 219-233, ISSN: 0006-3606
Species extinctions caused by the destruction and degradation of tropical primary forest may be at least partially mitigated by the expansion of regenerating secondary forest. However, the conservation value of secondary forest remains controversial, and potentially underestimated, since most previous studies have focused on young, single-aged, or isolated stands. Here, we use point-count surveys to compare tropical forest bird communities in 20–120-year-old secondary forest with primary forest stands in central Panama, with varying connectivity between secondary forest sites and extensive primary forest. We found that species richness and other metrics of ecological diversity, as well as the combined population density of all birds, reached a peak in younger (20-year-old) secondary forests and appeared to decline in older secondary forest stands. This counter-intuitive result can be explained by the greater connectivity between younger secondary forests and extensive primary forests at our study site, compared with older secondary forests that are either (a) more isolated or (b) connected to primary forests that are themselves small and isolated. Our results suggest that connectivity with extensive primary forest is a more important determinant of avian species richness and community structure than forest age, and highlight the vital contribution secondary forests can make in conserving tropical bird diversity, so long as extensive primary habitats are adjacent and spatially connected.Abstract in Spanish is available with online material.
Felice RN, Tobias JA, Pigot AL, et al., 2019, Dietary niche and the evolution of cranial morphology in birds, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 286, ISSN: 1471-2954
Cranial morphology in birds is thought to be shaped by adaptive evolution for foraging performance. This understanding of ecomorphological evolution is supported by observations of avian island radiations, such as Darwin’s finches, which display rapid evolution of skull shape in response to food resource availability and a strong fit between cranial phenotype and trophic ecology. However, a recent analysis of larger clades has suggested that diet is not necessarily a primary driver of cranial shape and that phylogeny and allometry are more significant factors in skull evolution. We use phenome-scale morphometric data across the breadth of extant bird diversity to test the influence of diet and foraging behaviour in shaping cranial evolution. We demonstrate that these trophic characters are significant but very weak predictors of cranial form at this scale. However, dietary groups exhibit significantly different rates of morphological evolution across multiple cranial regions. Granivores and nectarivores exhibit the highest rates of evolution in the face and cranial vault, whereas terrestrial carnivores evolve the slowest. The basisphenoid, occipital, and jaw joint regions have less extreme differences among dietary groups. These patterns demonstrate that dietary niche shapes the tempo and mode of phenotypic evolution in deep time, despite a weaker than expected form–function relationship across large clades.
Santini L, Butchart SHM, Rondinini C, et al., 2019, Applying habitat and population-density models to land-cover time series to inform IUCN Red List assessments., Conserv Biol
The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List categories and criteria are the most widely used framework for assessing the relative extinction risk of species. The criteria are based on quantitative thresholds relating to the size, trends, and structure of species' distributions and populations. However, data on these parameters are sparse and uncertain for many species and unavailable for others, potentially leading to their misclassification or classification as data deficient. We devised an approach that combines data on land-cover change, species-specific habitat preferences, population abundance, and dispersal distance to estimate key parameters (extent of occurrence, maximum area of occupancy, population size and trend, and degree of fragmentation) and hence predict IUCN Red List categories for species. We applied our approach to nonpelagic birds and terrestrial mammals globally (∼15,000 species). The predicted categories were fairly consistent with published IUCN Red List assessments, but more optimistic overall. We predicted 4.2% of species (467 birds and 143 mammals) to be more threatened than currently assessed and 20.2% of data deficient species (10 birds and 114 mammals) to be at risk of extinction. Incorporating the habitat fragmentation subcriterion reduced these predictions 1.5-2.3% and 6.4-14.9% (depending on the quantitative definition of fragmentation) for threatened and data deficient species, respectively, highlighting the need for improved guidance for IUCN Red List assessors on the application of this aspect of the IUCN Red List criteria. Our approach complements traditional methods of estimating parameters for IUCN Red List assessments. Furthermore, it readily provides an early-warning system to identify species potentially warranting changes in their extinction-risk category based on periodic updates of land-cover information. Given our method relies on optimistic assumptions about species distribution and abundance
Cooney CR, MacGregor HEA, Seddon N, et al., 2018, Multi-modal signal evolution in birds: re-examining a standard proxy for sexual selection, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 285, ISSN: 0962-8452
Fecchio A, Bell JA, Collins MD, et al., 2018, Diversification by host switching and dispersal shaped the diversity and distribution of avian malaria parasites in Amazonia, OIKOS, Vol: 127, Pages: 1233-1242, ISSN: 0030-1299
McEntee JP, Tobias JA, Sheard C, et al., 2018, Tempo and timing of ecological trait divergence in bird speciation, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 2, Pages: 1120-+, ISSN: 2397-334X
Chapman PM, Tobias JA, Edwards DP, et al., 2018, Contrasting impacts of land-use change on phylogenetic and functional diversity of tropical forest birds, JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Vol: 55, Pages: 1604-1614, ISSN: 0021-8901
Pigot AL, Jetz W, Sheard C, et al., 2018, The macroecological dynamics of species coexistence in birds, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 2, Pages: 1112-+, ISSN: 2397-334X
Bovo AAA, Ferraz KMPMB, Magioli M, et al., 2018, Habitat fragmentation narrows the distribution of avian functional traits associated with seed dispersal in tropical forest, PERSPECTIVES IN ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION, Vol: 16, Pages: 90-96, ISSN: 2530-0644
Howard C, Stephens PA, Tobias JA, et al., 2018, Flight range, fuel load and the impact of climate change on the journeys of migrant birds, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 285, ISSN: 0962-8452
Ulrich W, Banks-Leite C, De Coster G, et al., 2018, Environmentally and behaviourally mediated co-occurrence of functional traits in bird communities of tropical forest fragments, OIKOS, Vol: 127, Pages: 274-284, ISSN: 0030-1299
Derryberry EP, Seddon N, Derryberry GE, et al., 2018, Ecological drivers of song evolution in birds: Disentangling the effects of habitat and morphology, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 8, Pages: 1890-1905, ISSN: 2045-7758
Drury JP, Tobias JA, Burns KJ, et al., 2018, Contrasting impacts of competition on ecological and social trait evolution in songbirds, PLOS BIOLOGY, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1545-7885
Hatfield JH, Orme CDL, Tobias JA, et al., 2018, Trait-based indicators of bird species sensitivity to habitat loss are effective within but not across data sets, ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, Vol: 28, Pages: 28-34, ISSN: 1051-0761
Waldron A, Miller DC, Redding D, et al., 2017, Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending, NATURE, Vol: 551, Pages: 364-+, ISSN: 0028-0836
Grether GF, Peiman KS, Tobias JA, et al., 2017, Causes and Consequences of Behavioral Interference between Species, TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 32, Pages: 760-772, ISSN: 0169-5347
Thaxter CB, Buchanan GM, Carr J, et al., 2017, Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 284, ISSN: 0962-8452
Cooney CR, Tobias JA, Weir JT, et al., 2017, Sexual selection, speciation and constraints on geographical range overlap in birds, ECOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 20, Pages: 863-871, ISSN: 1461-023X
Bath E, Bowden S, Peters C, et al., 2017, Sperm and sex peptide stimulate aggression in female &ITDrosophila&IT, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2397-334X
Fecchio A, Svensson-Coelho M, Bell J, et al., 2017, Host associations and turnover of haemosporidian parasites in manakins (Aves: Pipridae), PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 144, Pages: 984-993, ISSN: 0031-1820
Hosner PA, Tobias JA, Braun EL, et al., 2017, How do seemingly non-vagile clades accomplish trans-marine dispersal? Trait and dispersal evolution in the landfowl (Ayes: Galliformes), PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 284, ISSN: 0962-8452
Mason NA, Burns KJ, Tobias JA, et al., 2017, Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds, EVOLUTION, Vol: 71, Pages: 786-796, ISSN: 0014-3820
Pigot AL, Bregman T, Sheard C, et al., 2016, Quantifying species contributions to ecosystem processes: a global assessment of functional trait and phylogenetic metrics across avian seed-dispersal networks, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Seddon N, Mace GM, Naeem S, et al., 2016, Biodiversity in the Anthropocene: prospects and policy, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Bregman TP, Lees AC, MacGregor HEA, et al., 2016, Using avian functional traits to assess the impact of land-cover change on ecosystem processes linked to resilience in tropical forests., Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Vertebrates perform key roles in ecosystem processes via trophic interactions with plants and insects, but the response of these interactions to environmental change is difficult to quantify in complex systems, such as tropical forests. Here, we use the functional trait structure of Amazonian forest bird assemblages to explore the impacts of land-cover change on two ecosystem processes: seed dispersal and insect predation. We show that trait structure in assemblages of frugivorous and insectivorous birds remained stable after primary forests were subjected to logging and fire events, but that further intensification of human land use substantially reduced the functional diversity and dispersion of traits, and resulted in communities that occupied a different region of trait space. These effects were only partially reversed in regenerating secondary forests. Our findings suggest that local extinctions caused by the loss and degradation of tropical forest are non-random with respect to functional traits, thus disrupting the network of trophic interactions regulating seed dispersal by forest birds and herbivory by insects, with important implications for the structure and resilience of human-modified tropical forests. Furthermore, our results illustrate how quantitative functional traits for specific guilds can provide a range of metrics for estimating the contribution of biodiversity to ecosystem processes, and the response of such processes to land-cover change.
Ulrich W, Lens L, Tobias JA, et al., 2016, Contrasting Patterns of Species Richness and Functional Diversity in Bird Communities of East African Cloud Forest Fragments, PLOS ONE, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
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