106 results found
O'Brien SA, Dehling DM, Tylianakis JM, 2021, The recovery of functional diversity with restoration., Ecology
Ecological restoration aims at recovering biodiversity in degraded ecosystems, and it is commonly assessed via species richness. However, it is unclear whether increasing species richness in a site also recovers its functional diversity, which has been shown to be a better representation of ecosystem functioning. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of 30 restoration projects and tested whether restoration improves functional diversity. We compared actively and passively restored sites with degraded and reference sites with respect to four key measures of functional diversity (richness, evenness, dispersion and functional turnover) and two measures of species diversity (richness and evenness). We separately analyzed longitudinal studies (which monitor degraded, reference and restored sites through time) and space-for-time substitutions (which compare at one point in time degraded and reference sites with restored sites of different ages). Space-for-time studies suggested that species and functional diversity improved over time. However, replicated longitudinal data showed no sustained benefits of active or passive restoration for functional diversity measures, relative to degraded sites. This could suggest that the positive results in space-for-time designs may have been unreliable, but the relative short duration of longitudinal studies suggests a need for longer-term longitudinal research to robustly demonstrate the absence of any effect. These differences across study designs may explain the variable results found in recent studies directly measuring the response of functional diversity to restoration. We recommend that future assessments of ecological community dynamics include control sites in monitoring, to ensure the consequences of treatments, including but not limited to restoration, are correctly partitioned from unassisted temporal changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chaplin-Kramer R, Brauman KA, Cavender-Bares J, et al., 2021, Conservation needs to integrate knowledge across scales, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, ISSN: 2397-334X
Gomez-Creutzberg C, Lagisz M, Nakagawa S, et al., 2021, Consistent trade-offs in ecosystem services between land covers with different production intensities, BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Vol: 96, Pages: 1989-2008, ISSN: 1464-7931
Allen WJ, Waller LP, Barratt BIP, et al., 2021, Exotic plants accumulate and share herbivores yet dominate communities via rapid growth, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 12
Herse MR, Tylianakis JM, Scott NJ, et al., 2021, Effects of customary egg harvest regimes on hatching success of a culturally important waterfowl species, PEOPLE AND NATURE, Vol: 3, Pages: 499-512
Coux C, Donoso I, Tylianakis JM, et al., 2020, Tricky partners: native plants show stronger interaction preferences than their exotic counterparts, ECOLOGY, Vol: 102, ISSN: 0012-9658
Ho H-C, Tylianakis JM, Pawar S, 2020, Behaviour moderates the impacts of food-web structure on species coexistence, Ecology Letters, Vol: 24, Pages: 298-309, ISSN: 1461-023X
How species coexistence (mathematical ‘feasibility’) in food webs emerges from species' trophic interactions remains a long‐standing open question. Here we investigate how structure (network topology and body‐size structure) and behaviour (foraging strategy and spatial dimensionality of interactions) interactively affect feasibility in food webs. Metabolically‐constrained modelling of food‐web dynamics based on whole‐organism consumption revealed that feasibility is promoted in systems dominated by large‐eat‐small foraging (consumers eating smaller resources) whenever (1) many top consumers are present, (2) grazing or sit‐and‐wait foraging strategies are common, and (3) species engage in two‐dimensional interactions. Congruently, the first two conditions were associated with dominance of large‐eat‐small foraging in 74 well‐resolved (primarily aquatic) real‐world food webs. Our findings provide a new, mechanistic understanding of how behavioural properties can modulate the effects of structural properties on species coexistence in food webs, and suggest that ‘being feasible’ constrains the spectra of behavioural and structural properties seen in natural food webs.
Peralta G, Perry GLW, Vazquez DP, et al., 2020, Strength of niche processes for species interactions is lower for generalists and exotic species, JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Vol: 89, Pages: 2145-2155, ISSN: 0021-8790
Waller LP, Allen WJ, Barratt BIP, et al., 2020, Biotic interactions drive ecosystem responses to exotic plant invaders, SCIENCE, Vol: 368, Pages: 967-+, ISSN: 0036-8075
Peralta G, Vazquez DP, Chacoff NP, et al., 2020, Trait matching and phenological overlap increase the spatio-temporal stability and functionality of plant-pollinator interactions, ECOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 23, Pages: 1107-1116, ISSN: 1461-023X
Tylianakis JM, Maia LF, 2020, The patchwork of evolutionary landscapes, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 4, Pages: 672-673, ISSN: 2397-334X
Franca FM, Benkwitt CE, Paalta G, et al., 2020, Climatic and local stressor interactions threaten tropical forests and coral reefs, PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 375, ISSN: 0962-8436
Harvey JA, Heinen R, Armbrecht I, et al., 2020, International scientists formulate a roadmap for insect conservation and recovery, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 4, Pages: 174-176, ISSN: 2397-334X
Betts MG, Wolf C, Pfeifer M, et al., 2019, Extinction filters mediate the global effects of habitat fragmentation on animals, Science, Vol: 366, Pages: 1236-1239, ISSN: 0036-8075
Habitat loss is the primary driver of biodiversity decline worldwide, but the effects of fragmentation (the spatial arrangement of remaining habitat) are debated. We tested the hypothesis that forest fragmentation sensitivity-affected by avoidance of habitat edges-should be driven by historical exposure to, and therefore species' evolutionary responses to disturbance. Using a database containing 73 datasets collected worldwide (encompassing 4489 animal species), we found that the proportion of fragmentation-sensitive species was nearly three times as high in regions with low rates of historical disturbance compared with regions with high rates of disturbance (i.e., fires, glaciation, hurricanes, and deforestation). These disturbances coincide with a latitudinal gradient in which sensitivity increases sixfold at low versus high latitudes. We conclude that conservation efforts to limit edges created by fragmentation will be most important in the world's tropical forests.
Cagua EF, Marrero HJ, Tylianakis JM, et al., 2019, The trade-offs of sharing pollinators: pollination service is determined by the community context
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>A fundamental feature of pollination systems is the indirect facilitation and competition that arises when plants species share pollinators. When plants share pollinators, the pollination service can be influenced. This depends not only on how many partners plant species share, but also by multiple intertwined factors like the plant species’ abundance, visitation, or traits. These factors inherently operate at the community level. However, most of our understanding of how these factors may affect the pollination service is based on systems of up to a handful of species. By examining comprehensive empirical data in eleven natural communities, we show here that the pollination service is—surprisingly—only partially influenced by the number of shared pollinators. Instead, the factors that most influence the pollination service (abundance and visit effectiveness) also introduce a trade-off between the absolute amount of conspecific pollen received and the amount relative to heterospecific pollen. Importantly, the ways plants appear to balance these trade-offs depend strongly on the community context, as most species showed flexibility in the strategy they used to cope with competition for pollination.</jats:p>
Ho H-C, Tylianakis JM, Zheng JX, et al., 2019, Predation risk influences food-web structure by constraining species diet choice, Ecology Letters, Vol: 22, Pages: 1734-1745, ISSN: 1461-023X
The foraging behaviour of species determines their diet and, therefore, also emergent food-web structure. Optimal foraging theory (OFT) has previously been applied to understand the emergence of food-web structure through a consumer-centric consideration of diet choice. However, the resource-centric viewpoint, where species adjust their behaviour to reduce the risk of predation, has not been considered. We develop a mechanistic model that merges metabolic theory with OFT to incorporate the effect of predation risk on diet choice to assemble food webs. This 'predation-risk-compromise' (PR) model better captures the nestedness and modularity of empirical food webs relative to the classical optimal foraging model. Specifically, compared with optimal foraging alone, risk-mitigated foraging leads to more-nested but less-modular webs by broadening the diet of consumers at intermediate trophic levels. Thus, predation risk significantly affects food-web structure by constraining species' ability to forage optimally, and needs to be considered in future work.
Orme CDL, Mayor S, Dos Anjos L, et al., 2019, Publisher Correction: Distance to range edge determines sensitivity to deforestation, Nature Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 3, Pages: 1131-1131, ISSN: 2397-334X
Correction to: Nature Ecology & Evolution https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0889-z, published online 06 May 2019.
Orme D, Mayor S, dos Anjos L, et al., 2019, Distance to range edge determines sensitivity to deforestation, Nature Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 3, Pages: 886-891, ISSN: 2397-334X
It is generally assumed that deforestation affects a species consistently across space, however populations near their geographic range edge may exist at their niche limits and therefore be more sensitive to disturbance. We found that both within and across Atlantic Forest bird species, populations are more sensitive to deforestation when near their range edge. In fact, the negative effects of deforestation on bird occurrences switched to positive in the range core (>829 km), in line with Ellenberg’s rule. We show that the proportion of populations at their range core and edge varies across Brazil, suggesting deforestation effects on communities, and hence the most appropriate conservation action, also vary geographically.
Gómez-Creutzberg C, Lagisz M, Nakagawa S, et al., 2019, Consistent trade-offs in ecosystem services between land covers with different production intensities
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Sustaining multiple ecosystem services across a landscape requires an understanding of how consistently services are shaped by different categories of land uses. Yet, this understanding is generally constrained by the availability of fine-resolution data for multiple services across large areas and the spatial variability of land-use effects on services. We systematically surveyed published literature for New Zealand (1970 – 2015) to quantify the supply of 17 services across 25 land covers (as a proxy for land use). We found a consistent trade-off in the services supplied by anthropogenic land covers with a high production intensity (e.g., cropping) versus those with extensive or no production. In contrast, forest cover was not associated with any distinct patterns of service supply. By drawing on existing research findings we reveal complementarity and redundancy (potentially influencing resilience) in service supply from different land covers. This can guide practitioners in shaping land systems that sustainably support human well-being.</jats:p>
Adair KL, Lindgreen S, Poole AM, et al., 2019, Above and belowground community strategies respond to different global change drivers, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Donoso I, Garcia D, Martinez D, et al., 2017, Complementary effects of species abundances and ecological neighborhood on the occurrence of fruit-frugivore interactions, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2296-701X
Species interactions are traditionally seen as the outcome of both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. Among them, the two most frequently studied are the neutral role of species abundances in determining encounter probability and the deterministic role of species identity (traits and evolutionary history) in determining the compatibility of interacting species. Nevertheless, the occurrence of pairwise interactions also depends on the spatio-temporal context imposed by the ecological neighborhood (i.e., the indirect effect of other local species sharing traits and interaction potential with the focal ones). Although a few studies have begun to examine neighborhood effects on community interactions, these have not incorporated neighborhood structure as a complementary driver of pairwise interactions within an integrative approach. Here we describe the spatial structure of pairwise interactions between three fleshy-fruited tree species and six frugivorous thrush species within the same locality of the Cantabrian Range (Iberian Peninsula). Using a spatio-temporally fine-grained dataset sampled during 3 years, we aimed to detect spatial patterns of interactions and to evaluate their concordance across years. We also evaluated the simultaneous roles played by species abundance, species identity and the ecological neighborhood in determining the pairwise interaction frequencies based on fruit removal. Our results showed that the abundances of fruit and bird species involved in plant-frugivore interactions, and the spatial patterns of these interactions, varied among years, and this was mainly due to different fruiting landscapes responding to masting events of distinct plant species. Despite high interannual differences in species abundances and pairwise interaction frequencies, the main mechanisms underpinning the occurrence of pairwise interactions remained constant. Most of the variability in pairwise interactions was always explained by interacting fruit and bird
Staniczenko PPA, Lewis OT, Tylianakis JM, et al., 2017, Predicting the effect of habitat modification on networks of interacting species., Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723
A pressing challenge for ecologists is predicting how human-driven environmental changes will affect the complex pattern of interactions among species in a community. Weighted networks are an important tool for studying changes in interspecific interactions because they record interaction frequencies in addition to presence or absence at a field site. Here we show that changes in weighted network structure following habitat modification are, in principle, predictable. Our approach combines field data with mathematical models: the models separate changes in relative species abundance from changes in interaction preferences (which describe how interaction frequencies deviate from random encounters). The models with the best predictive ability compared to data requirement are those that capture systematic changes in interaction preferences between different habitat types. Our results suggest a viable approach for predicting the consequences of rapid environmental change for the structure of complex ecological networks, even in the absence of detailed, system-specific empirical data.In a changing world, the ability to predict the impact of environmental change on ecological communities is essential. Here, the authors show that by separating species abundances from interaction preferences, they can predict the effects of habitat modification on the structure of weighted species interaction networks, even with limited data.
Lyver PO, Tylianakis JM, 2017, Indigenous peoples: Conservation paradox, Science, Vol: 357, Pages: 142-143, ISSN: 0036-8075
Broussard MA, Mas F, Howlett B, et al., 2017, Possible mechanisms of pollination failure in hybrid carrot seed and implications for industry in a changing climate, PLOS One, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
Approximately one-third of our food globally comes from insect-pollinated crops. The dependence on pollinators has been linked to yield instability, which could potentially become worse in a changing climate. Insect-pollinated crops produced via hybrid breeding (20% of fruit and vegetable production globally) are especially at risk as they are even more reliant on pollinators than open-pollinated plants. We already observe a wide range of fruit and seed yields between different cultivars of the same crop species, and it is unknown how existing variation will be affected in a changing climate. In this study, we examined how three hybrid carrot varieties with differential performance in the field responded to three temperature regimes (cooler than the historical average, average, and warmer that the historical average). We tested how temperature affected the plants' ability to set seed (seed set, pollen viability) as well as attract pollinators (nectar composition, floral volatiles). We found that there were significant intrinsic differences in nectar phenolics, pollen viability, and seed set between the carrot varieties, and that higher temperatures did not exaggerate those differences. However, elevated temperature did negatively affect several characteristics relating to the attraction and reward of pollinators (lower volatile production and higher nectar sugar concentration) across all varieties, which may decrease the attractiveness of this already pollinator-limited crop. Given existing predictions of lower pollinator populations in a warmer climate, reduced attractiveness would add yet another challenge to future food production.
Tomasetto F, Tylianakis JM, Reale M, et al., 2017, Intensified agriculture favors evolved resistance to biological control, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol: 114, Pages: 3885-3890, ISSN: 1091-6490
Increased regulation of chemical pesticides and rapid evolutionof pesticide resistance have increased calls for sustainable pestmanagement. Biological control offers sustainable pest suppres-sion, partly because evolution of resistance to predators andparasitoids is prevented by several factors (e.g., spatial or tempo-ral refuges from attacks, reciprocal evolution by control agents,and contrasting selection pressures from other enemy species).However, evolution of resistance may become more probableas agricultural intensification reduces the availability of refugesand diversity of enemy species, or if control agents have geneticbarriers to evolution. Here, we use 21 years of field data from196 sites across New Zealand to show that parasitism of a keypasture pest (Listronotus bonariensis, Argentine stem weevil) byan introduced parasitoid (Microctonus hyperodae) was initiallynationally successful, but then declined by 44% (leading to pasturedamage of c. NZD$160m p.a.). This decline was not attributable toparasitoid numbers released, elevation or local climatic variables atsample locations. Rather, in all locations the decline began 7 years(14 host generations) following parasitoid introduction, despite re-leases being staggered across locations in different years. Finally,we demonstrate experimentally that declining parasitism ratesoccurred in ryegrassLolium perenne, which is grown nationwide inhigh-intensity pastures, but not in adjacent plots of a less-commonpasture grass (Lolium multiflorum), indicating that resistance toparasitism is host-plant dependent. We conclude that low plantand enemy biodiversity in intensive large-scale agriculture mayfacilitate the evolution of host resistance by pests and threatenthe long-term viability of biological control.
Peralta G, Frost CM, Didham RK, et al., 2017, Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy, ECOLOGY, Vol: 98, Pages: 995-1005, ISSN: 0012-9658
Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level.
Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, et al., 2016, The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project, Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 7, Pages: 145-188, ISSN: 2045-7758
The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
Bell T, Tylianakis JM, 2016, Microbes in the Anthropocene: spillover of agriculturally selected bacteria and their impact on natural ecosystems, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Soil microbial communities are enormously diverse, with at least millions of species and trillions of genes unknown to science or poorly described. Soil microbial communities are key components of agriculture, for example in provisioning nitrogen and protecting crops from pathogens, providing overall ecosystem services in excess of $1000bn per year. It is important to know how humans are affecting this hidden diversity. Much is known about the negative consequences of agricultural intensification on higher-organisms, but almost nothing is known about how alterations to landscapes affect microbial diversity, distributions and processes. Wereview what is known about spatial flows of microbes and their response to land use change, and outline nine hypotheses to advance research of microbiomes across landscapes. We hypothesise that intensified agriculture selects for certain taxa and genes, which then “spill over” into adjacent unmodified areas and generate a halo of genetic differentiation around agricultural fields.Consequently, the spatial configuration and management intensityof different habitats combines with the dispersal ability of individual taxa to determine the extent of spillover, which canimpact the functioning of adjacent unmodified habitats. When landscapes are heterogeneous and dispersal rates are high, this will select for large genomes that allow exploitation of multiple habitats, a process that may be accelerated through horizontal gene transfer.Continued expansion of agriculture will increase genotypic similarity, making microbial community functioning increasingly variable in human-dominated landscapes, potentially also impactingthe consistent provisioning of ecosystem services.While the resulting economic costs have not been calculated, it is clear that dispersal dynamics of microbes s
Tylianakis JM, Frost CM, Peralta G, et al., 2016, Apparent competition drives community-wide parasitism rates and changes in host abundance across ecosystem boundaries, Nature Communications, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2041-1723
Species have strong indirect effects on others, and predicting these effects is a central challenge in ecology. Prey species sharing an enemy (predator or parasitoid) can be linked by apparent competition, but it is unknown whether this process is strong enough to be a community-wide structuring mechanism that could be used to predict future states of diverse food webs. Whether species abundances are spatially coupled by enemy movement across different habitats is also untested. Here, using a field experiment, we show that predicted apparent competitive effects between species, mediated via shared parasitoids, can significantly explain future parasitism rates and herbivore abundances. These predictions are successful even across edges between natural and managed forests, following experimental reduction of herbivore densities by aerial spraying over 20ha. This result shows that trophic indirect effects propagate across networks and habitats in important, predictable ways, with implications for landscape planning, invasion biology and biological control.
De Palma A, Purvis A, 2016, Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: effects of geographic and taxonomic biases, Scientific Reports, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2045-2322
Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Europe, overrepresenting bumblebees and raising concerns that model results may not be generalizable to other regions and taxa. To assess whether the geographic and taxonomic biases of data could undermine effectiveness of models for conservation policy, we have collated from the published literature a global dataset of bee diversity at sites facing land-use change and intensification, and assess whether bee responses to these pressures vary across 11 regions (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe; North, Central and South America; Australia and New Zealand; South East Asia; Middle and Southern Africa) and between bumblebees and other bees. Our analyses highlight strong regionally-based responses of total abundance, species richness and Simpson's diversity to land use, caused by variation in the sensitivity of species and potentially in the nature of threats. These results suggest that global extrapolation of models based on geographically and taxonomically restricted data may underestimate the true uncertainty, increasing the risk of ecological surprises.
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