7 results found
Schimpe M, Varela Barreras J, Wu B, et al., 2021, Battery degradation-aware current derating: an effective method to prolong lifetime and ease thermal management, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 168, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0013-4651
To ensure the safe and stable operation of lithium-ion batteries in battery energy storage systems (BESS), the power/current is de-rated to prevent the battery from going outside the safe operating range. Most derating strategies use static limits for battery current, voltage, temperature and state-of-charge, and do not account for the complexity of battery degradation. Progress has been made with models of lithium plating for fast charging. However, this is a partial solution, does not consider other degradation mechanisms, and still requires complex optimization work, limiting widespread adoption. In this work, the calendar and cycle degradation model is analysed offline to predetermine the degradation rates. The results are integrated into the current-derating strategy. This framework can be adapted to any degradation model and allows flexible tuning. The framework is evaluated in simulations of an outdoors-installed BESS with passive thermal management, which operates in a residential photovoltaic application. In comparison to standard derating, the degradation-aware derating achieves: (1) increase of battery lifetime by 65%; (2) increase in energy throughput over lifetime by 49%, while III) energy throughput per year is reduced by only 9.5%. These results suggest that the derating framework can become a new standard in current derating.
Luo X, Varela Barreras J, Chambon C, et al., 2021, Hybridizing Lead-Acid Batteries with Supercapacitors: A Methodology, Energies, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1996-1073
Hybridizing a lead–acid battery energy storage system (ESS) with supercapacitors is a promising solution to cope with the increased battery degradation in standalone microgrids that suffer from irregular electricity profiles. There are many studies in the literature on such hybrid energy storage systems (HESS), usually examining the various hybridization aspects separately. This paper provides a holistic look at the design of an HESS. A new control scheme is proposed that applies power filtering to smooth out the battery profile, while strictly adhering to the supercapacitors’ voltage limits. A new lead–acid battery model is introduced, which accounts for the combined effects of a microcycle’s depth of discharge (DoD) and battery temperature, usually considered separately in the literature. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on the thermal parameters and an economic analysis were performed using a 90-day electricity profile from an actual DC microgrid in India to infer the hybridization benefit. The results show that the hybridization is beneficial mainly at poor thermal conditions and highlight the need for a battery degradation model that considers both the DoD effect with microcycle resolution and temperate impact to accurately assess the gain from such a hybridization.
Schimpe M, Barreras JV, Wu B, et al., 2020, Novel Degradation Model-Based Current Derating Strategy for Lithium-Ion-Batteries, Publisher: The Electrochemical Society, Pages: 3808-3808
<jats:p> Derating is the operation of an electrical or electronic device at less than its rated maximum capability in order to ensure safety, extend lifetime or avoid system shutdown. Relatively simple derating approaches have been proven effective for lithium-ion batteries. They are typically based on limiting battery charging and discharging currents to prevent operation outside certain operating areas, which are bounded by state-of-charge (SOC), voltage, or temperature levels, taken individually. The manufacturer’s datasheet provides hard limits for these operating areas, defining the so-called safe operating area (SOA). In order to prolong battery lifetime, more restrictive limits than the SOA can be defined, but this leads to reducing battery performance more frequently and intensively. However, it should be noted that these simple derating approaches do not fully capture the complexity of battery degradation mechanisms, since the actual rate of degradation is the result of an interaction of multiple operating conditions. Thus, they may overestimate or underestimate the optimal current limit. Indeed, many advanced degradation models that consider a combination of operating conditions have been proposed in the literature to predict the rate of degradation, in terms of capacity loss and/or internal resistance increase.</jats:p> <jats:p>With this in mind, we propose the integration of an advanced degradation model in the derating strategy and thereby reduce degradation without significant losses in performance. The degradation model calculates the maximum battery current that will ensure reduced degradation rates, both for calendar and cycle related ageing processes. The calendar ageing rate is limited by defining the SOC-dependent maximum temperature that will keep the rate below a certain level, and then limiting the current accordingly, aiming to reduce self-heating effects that lead to temperature rise. The cycle ageing
Bravo Diaz L, He X, Hu Z, et al., 2020, Review—meta-review of fire safety of lithium-ion batteries: industry challenges and research contributions, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol: 167, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0013-4651
The Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is an important technology for the present and future of energy storage, transport, and consumer electronics. However, many LIB types display a tendency to ignite or release gases. Although statistically rare, LIB fires pose hazards which are significantly different to other fire hazards in terms of initiation route, rate of spread, duration, toxicity, and suppression. For the first time, this paper collects and analyses the safety challenges faced by LIB industries across sectors, and compares them to the research contributions found in all the review papers in the field. The comparison identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities going forward. Industry and research efforts agree on the importance of understanding thermal runaway at the component and cell scales, and on the importance of developing prevention technologies. But much less research attention has been given to safety at the module and pack scales, or to other fire protection layers, such as compartmentation, detection or suppression. In order to close the gaps found and accelerate the arrival of new LIB safety solutions, we recommend closer collaborations between the battery and fire safety communities, which, supported by the major industries, could drive improvements, integration and harmonization of LIB safety across sectors.
de Castro R, Pinto C, Varela Barreras J, et al., 2019, Smart and hybrid balancing system: design, modeling, and experimental demonstration, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol: 68, Pages: 11449-11461, ISSN: 0018-9545
Performance of series connected batteries is limited by the “weakest link” effect, i.e., the cell or group of cells with the poorest performance in terms of temperature, power, or energy characteristics. To mitigate the “weakest link” effect, this study deals with the design, modeling, and experimental demonstration of a smart and hybrid balancing system (SHBS). A cell-to-cell shared energy transfer configuration is proposed, including a supercapacitor bank in the balancing bus, thus enabling hybridization. Energy is transferred from each battery module connected in series to the balancing bus, and vice-versa, by means of low-cost bi-directional dc-dc converters. The current setpoints of the converters are obtained by means of a smart balancing control strategy, implemented using convex optimization. The strategy is called “smart” because it pursues goals beyond the conventional state-of-charge equalization, including temperature and power capability equalization, and minimization of energy losses. Simulations show that the proposed SHBS is able to achieve all these goals effectively in an e-mobility application and are also used to assess the impact of different hybridization ratios and cooling conditions. Finally, an experimental setup is developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the SHBS.
Barreras JV, Pinto C, de Castro R, et al., 2014, Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs: A Paradigm Shift?, 2014 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Publisher: IEEE
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