Imperial College London

Dr Julianne K. Viola

Central FacultyCentre for Higher Education Research and Scholarship

Research Associate



+44 (0)20 7594 3392j.viola




Sherfield BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Hutto, N and Viola, J},
booktitle = {Neuroscience for Social Work Current Research and Practice},
editor = {Matto and Strolin-Goltzman and Ballan},
pages = {263--277},
publisher = {Springer Publishing Company},
title = {Toxic Stress and Brain Development in Young Homeless Children},
year = {2013}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Families are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. homeless population. Thirty-seven percent of the homeless population, or 236,181 families with children, were homeless in 2011 (National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH), 2012). According to the National Center for Family Homelessness (NCFH), 1.6 million children, or 1 in 45 children, were homeless in 2010, an increase by 6.7% from 2009. Homeless children comprise 22% of the overall homeless population; one-half of these children are under the age of six (Hong & Piescher, 2012; Burt et al., 1999). It has been estimated that children under the age of five have the highest shelter utilization rates of homeless individuals of all age groups (Culhane & Metraux, 1999). Homeless children and their families experience significant stress because of their housing status, often compounded by past traumatic experiences such as illness, violence, or separation. Although there is some evidence that life shocks and stressors can cause homelessness itself, such as the birth of a child with severe health conditions, the experience of homelessness has been shown to be directly related to toxic stress (Curtis et al., 2012). Homeless children are known to experience more developmental delays and emotional and behavioral problems than nonhomeless children, which can have long-term effects on their socioemotional development and relationship-building skills (Bassuk, Murphy, Thompson Coupe, Kenney, & Beach, 2011). This chapter discusses the effects of toxic stress on development
AU - Hutto,N
AU - Viola,J
EP - 277
PB - Springer Publishing Company
PY - 2013///
SN - 9780826108760
SP - 263
TI - Toxic Stress and Brain Development in Young Homeless Children
T1 - Neuroscience for Social Work Current Research and Practice
ER -