90 results found
Chen L, Whyte J, 2021, Understanding design change propagation in complex engineering systems using a digital twin and design structure matrix, ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT, ISSN: 0969-9988
Whyte J, Davies A, 2021, Reframing systems integration: a process perspective on projects, Project Management Journal, Vol: 52, Pages: 237-249, ISSN: 8756-9728
The delivery of large-scale technical systems is achieved through project organizing. The concept of systems integration, with its distinct focus on the systems that projects deliver, is theoretically important as projects become more complex and face significant uncertainty. We reframe systems integration in interorganizational projects as a flexible and adaptive process of making constituent parts of systems work together. This process involves boundary-spanning structures and activities to address emergent complexity and uncertainty (that are both technological and organizational in nature). We discuss implications and highlight areas for further research on projects.
Mijic A, Whyte J, Fisk D, et al., 2021, The Centre for Systems Engineering and Innovation – 2030 vision and 10-year celebration
The 2030 vision of the Centre is to bring Systems Engineering and Innovation to Civil Infrastructure by changing how cross-sector infrastructure challenges are addressedin an integrated way using principles of systems engineering to maximise resilience, safety and sustainability in an increasingly complex world.We want to better understand the environmental and societal impacts of infrastructure interventions under uncertainty. This requires a change in current approaches to infrastructure systems engineering: starting from the natural environmentand its resources, encompassing societaluse of infrastructure and the supporting infrastructure assets and services.We argue for modelling that brings natural as well as built environments within the system boundaries to better understand infrastructure and to better assess sustainability. We seethe work as relevant to both the academic community and to a wide range of industry and policy applications that are working on infrastructure transition pathways towards fair, safe and sustainable society.This vision was developed through discussions between academics in preparation for the Centre for Systems Engineering and Innovation (CSEI) 10 years celebration. These rich discussions about the future of the Centre were inspired by developing themes for a celebration event, through which we have summarised the first 10 years of the Centre’s work and our vision for the future and identified six emerging research areas.
Mosca L, Jones K, Whyte J, et al., 2021, Platform Development in Mature Project-Based Industries, 37th EGOS Colloquium 2021, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) (Virtual)
Jones K, Mosca L, Whyte J, et al., 2021, The Role of Industry – University Collaboration in Construction, Publisher: Transforming Construction Network Plus, Digest Series
Zhou A, Mosca L, Whyte J, 2021, Project-Based Firms and platforms: Cases of Digitally-Enabled Product Platforms, 37th EGOS Colloquium 2021, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) (Virtual)
Zhou A, Mosca L, Whyte J, 2021, Open platform and value appropriation: cases from digitally-enabled product platforms, 28TH IPDMC Innovation and Product Development Management Conference 2021
Ernstsen SN, Whyte J, Thuesen C, et al., 2021, How Innovation Champions Frame the Future: Three Visions for Digital Transformation of Construction, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol: 147, ISSN: 0733-9364
Digital technologies are expected to create transformational change in the construction sector. Previous studies have either anticipated the impact of individual technologies or outlined a number of nontechnology-focused future scenarios. There is comparatively little work on how innovation champions frame the future by combining a range of digital technologies and trends (such as big data, the internet of things, and automation) to transform construction. Drawing on an interview-based study with UK construction professionals, this paper presents three emergent visions for digital transformation of the sector. These visions are efficient construction, user-data-driven built environment, and value-driven computational design. Arising in practitioner narratives, these visions all emphasize different technologies and are partially influenced, intertwined, and interconnected with technology, business, and policy discourses in the sector. Furthermore, the visions represent different trajectories for implementing digital technologies in the construction sector. This paper contributes to work on construction foresight and innovation discourses by articulating the multiplicity of visions for digital transformation of construction. This has implications for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers responsible for the digital transformation of construction toward possible, profitable, and desirable futures.
Whyte J, Mijic A, Myers RJ, et al., 2020, A research agenda on systems approaches to infrastructure, Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, Vol: 37, Pages: 214-233, ISSN: 1029-0249
At a time of system shocks, significant underlying challenges are revealed in current approaches to delivering infrastructure, including that infrastructure users in many societies feel distant from nature. We set out a research agenda on systems approaches to infrastructure, drawing on ten years of interdisciplinary work on operating infrastructure, infrastructure interventions and lifecycles. Research insights and directions on complexity, systems integration, data-driven systems engineering, infrastructure life-cycles, and the transition towards zero pollution are summarised. This work identifies a need to better understand the natural and societal impacts of infrastructure interventions under uncertainty. We argue for a change in current approaches to infrastructure: starting from the natural environment and its resources, encompassing societal use of infrastructure and the supporting infrastructure assets and services. To support such proposed new systems approaches to infrastructure, researchers need to develop novel modelling methods, forms of model integration, and multi-criteria indicators.
Soman R, Molina Solana M, Whyte J, 2020, Linked-Data based Constraint-Checking (LDCC) to support look-ahead planning in construction, Automation in Construction, Vol: 120, ISSN: 0926-5805
In the construction sector, complex constraints are not usually modeled in conventional scheduling and 4D building information modeling software, as they are highly dynamic and span multiple domains. The lack of embedded constraint relationships in such software means that, as Automated Data Collection (ADC) technologies become used, it cannot automatically deduce the effect of deviations to schedule. This paper presents a novel method, using semantic web technologies, to model and validate complex scheduling constraints. It presents a Linked-Data based Constraint-Checking (LDCC) approach, using the Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL). A prototype web application is developed using this approach and evaluated using an OpenBIM dataset. Results demonstrate the potential of LDCC to check for constraint violation in distributed construction data. This novel method (LDCC) and its first prototype is a contribution that can be extended in future research in linked-data, BIM based rule-checking, lean construction and ADC.
Simpson K, Whyte J, Childs P, 2020, Data-centric innovation in retrofit: A bibliometric review of dwelling retrofit across North Western Europe, Energy and Buildings, Vol: 229, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0378-7788
Data-centric innovation can inform the development of effective retrofit strategies through novel methods of collecting, analysing and sharing data. This bibliometric review uses a text-mining tool to identify research trends in dwelling retrofit research across North Western Europe. The review identifies a major focus on energy efficiency, with sub-themes on: 1) energy performance, 2) heat, power and control technologies, 3) indoor environment quality and 4) retrofit practice. In dwelling retrofit, there is now an established research tradition of using data-centric methods in monitoring and modelling energy performance to inform and learn from energy efficiency interventions. Building on the state-of-the-art, our analyses suggest opportunities for data-centric methods to consider the indoor environment quality and material impacts resulting from energy performance improvements. This information can then be openly communicated across the supply chain. Thus the paper discusses the retrofit themes and data-centric methods within North Western Europe, for an emerging trajectory of data-centric retrofit research and practice.
Shi F, K Soman R, Han J, et al., 2020, Addressing adjacency constraints in rectangular floor plans using Monte-Carlo Tree Search, Automation in Construction, Vol: 115, ISSN: 0926-5805
Manually laying out the floor plan for buildings with highly-dense adjacency constraints at the early design stage is a labour-intensive problem. In recent decades, computer-based conventional search algorithms and evolutionary methods have been successfully developed to automatically generate various types of floor plans. However, there is relatively limited work focusing on problems with highly-dense adjacency constraints common in large scale floor plans such as hospitals and schools. This paper proposes an algorithm to generate the early-stage design of floor plans with highly-dense adjacency and non-adjacency constraints using reinforcement learning based on off-policy Monte-Carlo Tree Search. The results show the advantages of the proposed algorithm for the targeted problem of highly-dense adjacency constrained floor plan generation, which is more time-efficient, more lightweight to implement, and having a larger capacity than other approaches such as Evolution strategy and traditional on-policy search.
Whyte J, Nussbaum T, 2020, Transition and temporalities: spanning temporal boundaries as projects end and operations begin, Project Management Journal, ISSN: 1938-9507
Hsu P-Y, Aurisicchio M, Angeloudis P, et al., 2020, Understanding and visualizing schedule deviations in construction projects using fault tree analysis, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol: 27, Pages: 2501-2522, ISSN: 0969-9988
Delays in construction projects are both disruptive and expensive. Thus, potential causes of schedule deviation need to be identified and mitigated. In previous research, delay factors were predominantly identified through surveys administered to stakeholders in construction projects. Such delay factors are typically considered individually and presented at the same level without explicitly examining their sequence of occurrence and inter-relationships. In reality, owing to the complex structure of construction projects and long execution time, non-conformance to schedule occurs by a chain of cascading events. An understanding of these linkages is important not only for minimising the delays but also for revealing the liability of stakeholders. To explicitly illustrate the cause–effect and logical relationship between delay factors and further identify the primary factors which possess the highest significance toward the overall project schedule delay, the fault tree analysis (FTA) method, a widely implemented approach to root cause problems in safety-critical systems, has been systematically and rigorously executed.
K Soman R, Whyte J, 2020, Codification challenges for data science in construction, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol: 146, Pages: 04020072-1-04020072-18, ISSN: 0733-9364
New forms of data science, including machine learning and data analytics, are enabled by machine-readable informationbut are not widely deployed in construction. Aqualitative study of information flow in three projects usingBuilding Information Modelling (BIM) in the late designand construction phaseis used to identify the challenges of codification whichlimit the application of data science.Despite substantial efforts to codify information with ‘Common Data Environment(CDE)’ platforms to structure and transfer digital information within and between teams, participants work across multiple media in both structured and unstructured ways. Challenges of codification identified in this paper relate to software usage (interoperability, translation, modelling, and file-based sharing), information sharing (unstructured information, document control, workarounds, process change,and multiple CDEs), and construction process information(loss of constraints and low level of detail). This paper contributes to the current understanding of data science in construction by articulating the codification challenges and their implications for data quality dimensions,such as accuracy, completeness, accessibility, consistency, timeliness, and provenance.It concludes with practical implications for developingand using machine-readable information and directions for research to extract insight from data and support future automation.
Mosca L, Jones K, Davies A, et al., 2020, Platform Thinking for Construction, Publisher: Transforming Construction Network Plus, Digest Series
Simpson C, Whyte J, Childs P, 2020, Residential retrofit: A review of themes, data-centric methods and future directions to accelerate net zero, CIBSE Technical Symposium
Chen L, Whyte J, 2020, Analysing Interdependencies of Complex Engineering Systems Using a Digital Twin-Driven Design Structure Matrix, Construction Research Congress (CRC) on Construction Research and Innovation to Transform Society, Publisher: AMER SOC CIVIL ENGINEERS, Pages: 417-426
Zhang R, Zhou A, Tahmasebi S, et al., 2019, Long-standing themes and new developments in offsite construction: the case of UK housing, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering, Vol: 172, Pages: 29-35, ISSN: 0965-089X
This paper reviews the evolution of offsite construction methods in UK housing over the past 15 years and puts this in an international context. Long-standing themes include targets for construction productivity, challenges of labour shortages and skills, desire to learn across sectors and a need to develop new business models. Newer developments include research and development funding through the UK government’s ‘transforming construction’ initiative, higher pre-manufactured value and increased digitisation. The paper concludes with recommendations for practice, policy and research.
Nikolić D, Maftei L, Whyte J, 2019, Becoming familiar: how infrastructure engineers begin to use collaborative virtual reality in their interdisciplinary practice, Journal of Information Technology in Construction, Vol: 24, Pages: 489-508, ISSN: 1400-6529
The design community has recently shown increased interest in using virtual reality (VR) in project review contexts. While single-user headsets currently attract most VR-related attention, room-like immersive VR environments can help facilitate design team engagement and shared exploration of projects. However, to date relatively little research concerns how large-scale VR environments are used in and adapted for professional practice. To address this gap, we set up a bespoke portable VR display system called 3D-MOVE in a major UK construction office to investigate how project team members used and evaluated collaborative VR processes. Over a three-month period, we conducted ten video-recorded VR sessions to observe how engineering professionals familiarize themselves with VR in order to help inform its deployment in practice. The study results show that emergent discussions about design models and questioning of design-related assumptions dominated all observed sessions, even though they were staged as technology demonstrations; which supports the social aspects of large-scale collaborative VR processes. However, before participants could focus on design review, they had to familiarize themselves with the VR technology and time required to do so varied depending on the complexity of the VR configuration. As the participants engaged with the VR environment, they reflected on their processes, requirements and expectations and provided feedback for improving the VR experience. Articulating this familiarization with collaborative VR can inform its deployment with respect to minimizing the learning curve and any distractions or discomfort associated with its use while maximizing the aspects of value-added collaborative engagement. Additional considerations concerning content, interactivity and logistics emerged as necessary to address before VR technologies can become standard practice.
Jones K, Davies A, Mosca L, et al., 2019, Changing Business Models: Implications for Construction, Publisher: Transforming Construction Network Plus, Digest Series
Zhou ASJ, Chen L, Whyte J, 2019, Information Exchange in Platform Approaches to Design for Manufacture and Assembly, 36th International Conference of CIB W78
Hall DM, Whyte JK, Lessing J, 2019, Mirror-breaking strategies to enable digital manufacturing in Silicon Valley construction firms: a comparative case study, CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS, ISSN: 0144-6193
Mosca L, Whyte J, Zhang R, 2019, Regional Innovation Systems and the Transformation of construction into a Manufacturing Process., 35th Annual ARCOM conference
Comi A, Whyte J, Jaradat S, 2019, Constructing shared professional vision in design work: the role of visual objects and their material mediation, Design Studies, ISSN: 0142-694X
Balasubrahmaniam M, Kuttantharappel Soman R, Whyte J, et al., 2019, Temporality, innovation and megaproject-to-megaproject learning across continents in the case of Crossrail and Nagpur Metro, 35th European Group for Organizational Studies Colloqium
Whyte JK, 2019, How digital information transforms project delivery models, Project Management Journal, Vol: 50, Pages: 177-194, ISSN: 1938-9507
This study articulates how increasingly pervasive digital information transforms project delivery models. It builds on and extends literatures on innovation and knowledge codification, analysing London’s evolving digital innovation ecosystem across fifteen years of industry/government initiatives and infrastructure megaprojects. Findings suggests profound and ongoing changes in digitally-enabled project delivery models. Novel contributions are: first, to identify new generations of integrated solutions; second, to articulate changes in supply-chains and relationships with owners, operators and end-users; and third, to recognize the growing importance of digital workflows and analytics, rather than documents. There are implications for project management practice and scholarship.
Tee R, Davies A, Whyte JK, 2019, Modular designs and integrating practices: managing collaboration through coordination and cooperation, Research Policy, Vol: 48, Pages: 51-61, ISSN: 0048-7333
Collaboration in large-scale projects introduces challenges involving both coordination (the ability to collaborate) as well as cooperation (the willingness to do so). Existing research has shown how modular designs can improve coordination by locating interdependencies within rather than between different modules. Based on an in-depth case study of collaboration in a large-scale infrastructure project, our study highlights an effect of modularity on collaboration that previously has been overlooked. Specifically, we show that while modular designs may help overcome coordination challenges by reducing interdependencies between modules, they can in turn hamper collaboration by emphasizing specialization within modules. Therefore, though existing work typically perceives modularity and integration as opposites, we clarify how they can also act as complements. In particular, we show how firms need to complement modular designs with integrating practices that stimulate cooperation. Overall, we contribute to the literature on collaboration and modularity by explaining when and how organizations can combine modularity and integration.
Comi A, Whyte J, 2018, Future making and visual artefacts: an ethnographic study of a design project, Organization Studies, Vol: 39, Pages: 1055-1083, ISSN: 1741-3044
Current research on strategizing and organizing has explored how practitioners make sense of an uncertain future, but provides limited explanations of how they actually make a realizable course of action for the future. A focus on making rather than sensemaking brings into view the visual artefacts that practitioners use in giving form to what is ‘not yet’ – drawings, models and sketches. We explore how visual artefacts are used in making a realizable course of action, by analysing ethnographic data from an architectural studio designing a development strategy for their client. We document how visual artefacts become enrolled in practices of imagining, testing, stabilizing and reifying, through which abstract imaginings of the future are turned into a realizable course of action. We then elaborate on higher-order findings that are generalizable to a wide range of organizational settings, and discuss their implications for future research in strategizing and organizing. This paper contributes in two ways: first, it offers future making as an alternative perspective on how practitioners orient themselves towards the future (different from current perspectives such as foreseeing, future perfect thinking and wayfinding). Second, it advances our understanding of visual artefacts and their performativity in the making of organizational futures.
Senthilvel M, K Soman R, Mahalingam A, et al., 2018, Towards Digital Delivery of Metro-rail Projects in India, The 7th World Construction Symposium
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