Imperial College London

DrJeffreyHardy

Faculty of Natural SciencesThe Grantham Institute for Climate Change

Sr Research Fellow (Society led low carbon transformations)
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)7736 273 157jeff.hardy Website

 
 
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Location

 

Grantham InstituteSherfield BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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32 results found

Pedro MS, Hardy J, Van Dam K, 2021, Agent-based simulation to assess the impact of electric vehicles on power networks: Swindon Borough Case Study, The 10th International Workshop on Agent-based Mobility, Traffic and Transportation Models, (ABMTRANS), Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 668-673, ISSN: 1877-0509

Due to air quality concerns and stricter carbon targets, surface transport electrification is quickly spreading, posing questions on the impact it will have on national and local electrical networks. This paper proposes an agent-based model to assess the per-minute weekday and weekend impact of the uptake of Electric Vehicles (EVs) over the next decade on local electrical and charging infrastructures, aimed at local decision-makers and stakeholders for transport electrification forecasting purposes. This study compares two scenarios, the first assessing the case where no restrictions are imposed on the daily charging events, and the second scenario where the peak electrical demand period between 5pm and 8.30pm is constrained for charging. Swindon Borough is selected as case study since it has one of UK’s highest EV adoption rates and has ambitious aims for decarbonisation. The results show that, over time, scenario two consistently lessened the constraints imposed on the grid by lowering the weekday and weekend peak loads up to 7% and 20%, respectively, and through lowering the usage rate of the charging infrastructure by around 12%. This scenario postponed the 5pm to 8.30pm EV charging demand to later hours, resulting in delayed load waves in residential areas that, over time, took values of higher proportion of the daily peak, forecasted to match it by 2036. However, controlling the EV demand through this strategy became less effective over time, and so, constraining charging between 7am and 2.30pm is suggested for further control. To conclude, this scenario can be portrayed in reality by adding flexibility to the grid, through the use of time-of-use tariffs (TOUTs), hence, if well implemented, postponing the upgrade of the grid and the charging infrastructure, presenting savings to the network operator, charging network stakeholders and EV users. The paper thus highlights the advantages of using a model of a heterogeneous population with fine spatial and te

Conference paper

Hall S, Anable J, Hardy J, Workman M, Mazur C, Matthews Yet al., 2021, Innovative energy business models appeal to specific consumer groups but may exacerbate existing inequalities for the disengaged, NATURE ENERGY, Vol: 6, Pages: 337-338, ISSN: 2058-7546

Journal article

Braunholtz-Speight T, McLachlan C, Mander S, Hannon M, Hardy J, Cairns I, Sharmina M, Manderson Eet al., 2021, The long term future for community energy in Great Britain: a co-created vision of a thriving sector and steps towards realising it, Energy Research and Social Science, ISSN: 2214-6296

he ‘three Ds’ of decarbonisation, decentralisation and digitisation are highlighted in many future energy visions[1-6]. These visions focus on developments such as the rise of distributed renewable electricity generation, smart local electricity grids and new technologies for electrifying transport and heat. The digitisation and decentralisation in these futures also place energy ’consumers’ - or simply ’people’ - centre stage [2, 7]. Together, these changes are often labelled as the “energy transition”.Community energy initiatives – which in Great Britain are taken to be mainly locally-based third sector groups working on renewable energy generation or energy efficiency - are among those that suggest a ‘fourth D’ of democratisation be added to these visions. Given their focus on renewables and place-based organisation, they would seem to have bright prospects in a decentralised, decarbonised, citizen-centred future [8]. However, in many countries policy support for smaller scale and citizen-led energy projects has fluctuated in recent years [9-12]. In Britain, rapid growth in the sector has stalled following major cuts in government policy support for small-scale renewables that made investment in new projects highly risky[13-15].

Journal article

Hall S, Anable J, Hardy J, Workman M, Mazur C, Matthews Yet al., 2021, Matching consumer segments to innovative utility business models, NATURE ENERGY, Vol: 6, Pages: 349-361, ISSN: 2058-7546

Journal article

Hall S, Anable J, Hardy J, Workman M, Mazur C, Matthews Yet al., 2021, Author Correction: Matching consumer segments to innovative utility business models (Nature Energy, (2021), 10.1038/s41560-021-00781-1), Nature Energy

In the version of this Article originally published, in Fig. 2 the final bar, labelled ‘3PC’, was missing, as was the corresponding data in the Supplementary Data file. The figure has been corrected in all versions of the Article and the Supplementary Data file replaced.

Journal article

Rebecca F, Hardy J, 2020, Are we seeing clearly? The need for aligned vision and supporting strategies to deliver net-zero electricity systems, Energy Policy, Vol: 147, ISSN: 0301-4215

This paper explores the trends, step changes and innovations that could impact the integration of renewable energy into electricity systems, explores interventions that may be required, and identifies key areas for policy makers to consider. A Delphi approach is used to collect, synthesise, and seek consensus across expert viewpoints. Over sixty experts across a range of geographies including the US, Europe, New-Zealand, Australia, Africa, India and China participated. They identified 26 trends, 20 step changes, and 26 innovations that could lead to major shifts in the design, operation, or management of electricity systems. Findings suggest that key challenges are not technological. Instead they are with delivering an aligned vision, supported by institutional structures, to incentivise, facilitate, and de-risk the delivery of a completely different type of energy system. There is a clear role for government and policy to provide a future energy vision and steer on strategic issues to deliver it; to create space for new actors and business models aligned with this vision; and to create an environment where research, development, demonstration and deployment can promote technologies, system integration and business model innovation at a rate commensurate with delivering net-zero electricity systems.

Journal article

Hardy J, Mazur C, 2020, Enabling conditions for consumer-centric business models in the UK energy market, Frontiers in Energy Research, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2296-598X

To achieve ambitious UK decarbonisation targets, consumers will need to engage with energy services more so than they have done to date. This engagement could be active or delegated, where in the latter consumers pass responsibility for engagement to a third party in return for ceding some control over decisions. To date, insight into the barriers to consumer adoption of future business models has been limited. To address this gap this study explored benefits, risks and enabling conditions using two extreme consumer-centric business models, 3rd Party Control and Shared Economy, using elements of a backcasting approach. The approach yielded information from stakeholders on what would have to be true for one of the business models to dominate the market. The results show substantial agreement across the expert groups on five key issues that will need to be addressed in the near-term to enable energy business model innovation in the UK market. These are: (1) Space to enable business model innovation is crucial; (2) Smart devices and data must be interoperable and secure; (3) Energy businesses need to improve service standards; (4) Solutions are required for consumers in all situations; and (5) Targeted carbon regulation is required.

Journal article

Hardy J, Morris M, Hannon M, Morstyn T, Gaura Eet al., 2020, Policy & Regulatory Landscape Review Series – Working Paper 2: Digital energy platforms, Policy & Regulatory Landscape Review Series – Working Paper 2: Digital energy platforms, Publisher: University of Strathclyde Publishing

The policy and regulatoryreview seriesAs our energy system undergoes a transition to adecarbonised, digitalised and decentralised one, itis vital that we understand how smart local energysystems (SLES) could provide a more efficient, saferand better experience all round.Our team are focused on understanding the policy,regulatory and market frameworks in which SLES inthe UK can operate optimally in the future. In orderto understand where (and whether) changes need tobe made, it is important to have a baseline of whattoday’s arrangements are.The purpose of this review series is to analyse theevidence and gaps in the policy and regulatorylandscape of today’s (smart) local energy systems inthe UK.We are conducting this review in a series of ‘sprints’each of which will have a particular focus. The firstreport, published in September 2019, was a review ofthe policy and regulation related to electricity storageand electric vehicles. The findings of this, as well asmore information about the review, can be found inour first working paper: Working Paper 1: Electricitystorage & electric vehicles. This second report focuseson digital energy platforms. The methodology usedfor this review can be found in the Appendix.

Report

Braunholtz-Speight T, Sharmina M, Manderson E, Hannon M, Hardy J, Mander Set al., 2020, Business models and financial characteristics of community energy in the UK, Nature Energy, Vol: 5, Pages: 169-177, ISSN: 2058-7546

Community energy projects take a decentralised and participatory approach to low-carbon energy. We present a quantitative analysis of business models, financing mechanisms and financial performance of UK community energy projects, based on a new survey. We find that business models depend on technology, project size, and fine-tuning of operations to local contexts. While larger projects rely more on loans, community shares are the most common and cheapest financial instrument in the sector. Community energy has pioneered low-cost citizen finance for renewables, but its future is threatened by reductions, and instability, in policy support. Over 90% of the projects in our sample make a financial surplus during our single-year snapshot, but this falls to just 20% if we remove income from price guarantee mechanisms, such as the Feed-in Tariff. Renewed support and/or business model innovations are therefore needed for the sector to realise its potential contribution to the low-carbon energy transition.

Journal article

Braunholtz-Speight T, Sharmina M, Manderson E, McLachlan C, Hannon M, Hardy J, Mander Set al., 2020, Price support allows communities to raise low-cost citizen finance for renewable energy projects, NATURE ENERGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 127-128, ISSN: 2058-7546

Journal article

Hall S, Mazur C, Hardy J, Workman M, Powell Met al., 2020, Prioritising business model innovation: What needs to change in the United Kingdom energy system to grow low carbon entrepreneurship?, Energy Research & Social Science, Vol: 60, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2214-6296

‘What needs to change in the United Kingdom energy system, to allow low carbon business models to thrive?’ Earlier work by the authors has reported that up to £21bn of new financial value could be available to electricity utilities by 2050, in a low-carbon UK power sector. This represents up to 30% of future electricity markets. To capture new value, electricity utility business models need to evolve. This research used an elite ‘decision theatre’ method, in the UK, USA, and Europe, to decide on the most important changes required to the energy system to enable new [low-carbon] utility business models to thrive. The results show that there is substantial agreement on the five requirements for change, these are: (1) Clear national heat and electric transport strategies; (2) Commitment to sufficient carbon prices; (3) Simpler, principles-based regulation across the energy value chain; (4) Accessible markets for flexibility and other energy services; and (5) Managing consumers’ exposure to risk. These were the changes that participants considered most important to foster low-carbon utility business model innovation. This work suggests focusing on business model innovation as opposed to technological innovation could accelerate decarbonisation, and extends the use of the Decision Theatre method in social science energy research.

Journal article

Hardy J, Morris M, 2019, Policy & Regulatory Landscape Review Series - Working Paper 1: Electricity storage & electric vehicles, Publisher: University of Strathclyde Publishing

This is the first Working Paper in a series that reviewsthe current policy and regulatory landscape relatedto smart local energy systems (SLES) in the UK. Eachreview will have a particular focus; this report focuseson policy and regulation related to electricity storageand electric vehicles.Our aim is to produce useful and usable outputs toour stakeholders as soon as we have information.We’re seeking your feedback on how useful andinformative these outputs are so that we can improvefuture reports, in particular on the following:• Have we captured all the relevant information –if not, what have we missed?• How could we improve the presentation of theinformation?• How could we improve the clarity of theinformation?• What future SLES relevant topics should weprioritise?• How can we best keep these outputs live andrelevant – are you aware of approaches we coulddraw inspiration from?

Report

Mazur C, Hall S, Hardy J, Workman Met al., 2019, Technology is not a barrier: A survey of energy system technologies required for innovative electricity business models driving the low carbon energy revolution, Energies, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1996-1073

Energy system decarbonisation and changing consumer behaviours will create and destroy new markets in the electric power sector. This means that the energy industry will have to adapt their business models in order to capture these pools of value. Recent work explores how changes to the utility business model that include digital, decentralised or service-based offers could both disrupt the market and accelerate low carbon transitions. However, it is unclear whether these business models are technologically feasible. To answer this question, we undertook an expert panel study to determine the readiness levels of key enabling technologies. The result is an analysis of what technologies may hinder electricity business model innovation and where more research or development is necessary. The study shows that none of the business models that are compatible with a low carbon power sector are facing technology barriers that cannot be overcome, but there is still work to be done in the domain of system integration. We conclude that, especially in the field of energy system coordination and operation, there is a need for comprehensive demonstration trials which can iteratively combine and test information and communications technology (ICT) solutions. This form of innovation support would require a new approach to energy system trials.

Journal article

Sandys L, Hardy J, Rhodes A, Green Ret al., 2018, Redesigning Regulation: Powering from the future, Redesigning Regulation: Powering from the future, London, UK

The electricity sector is already going through unprecedented change, and new solutions to new challenges are ready to shape a transformed sector with new opportunities and new risks. The question is whether incremental change provided through issue specific changes, derogations or technology specific responses will unlock the new consumer and system advantages. Or should we recognise that the innovation in all parts of the system is totally transformative and changes the fundamentals of what the market is and what we need to regulate?Regulators and policy makers are currently sitting in the middle addressing the legacy concerns while looking hesitantly at the future. They have a choice – whether to try to squeeze the transformed system into the architecture of the past or to embark on a ‘managed’ revolution to embrace the new structure of the future of electricity.This report proposes regulatory actions needed to meet the challenges and opportunities of a transformed energy system – reimagining the market design, refocusing regulation, opening up consumer choice, and unlocking the power of supply-chain pressures while shaping a new ‘retailer’ market. In addition, it proposes much greater use of energy-system data, and a recalibration of security of supply to drive greater efficiencies and unlock demand reduction.

Report

Miu LM, Wisniewska N, Mazur C, Hardy J, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, A simple assessment of housing retrofit policies for the UK: what should succeed the energy company obligation?, Energies, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1996-1073

Despite the need for large-scale retrofit of UK housing to meet emissions reduction targets, progress to date has been slow and domestic energy efficiency policies have struggled to accelerate housing retrofit processes. There is a need for housing retrofit policies that overcome key barriers within the retrofit sector while maintaining economic viability for customers, funding organizations, and effectively addressing UK emission reductions and fuel poverty targets. In this study, we use a simple assessment framework to assess three policies (the Variable Council Tax, the Variable Stamp Duty Land Tax, and Green Mortgage) proposed to replace the UK’s current major domestic retrofit programme known as the Energy Company Obligation (ECO). We show that the Variable Council Tax and Green Mortgage proposals have the greatest potential for overcoming the main barriers to retrofit policies while maintaining economic viability and contributing to high-level UK targets. We also show that, while none of the assessed schemes are capable of overcoming all retrofit barriers on their own, a mix of all three policies could address most barriers and provide key benefits such as wide coverage of property markets, operation on existing financial infrastructures, and application of a “carrot-and-stick” approach to incentivize retrofit. Lastly, we indicate that the specific support and protection of fuel-poor households cannot be achieved by a mix of these policies and a complementary scheme focused on fuel-poor households is required.

Journal article

Sandys L, Hardy J, Green R, 2017, Reshaping Regulation: Powering from the Future, Reshaping Regulation: Powering from the Future, London, UK

The UK has a global reputation for being at the forefront of energy regulation. This report aims to welcome the dynamism, opportunities and transformation that our energy sector can achieve through a new set of regulatory principles that embraces the changing nature of energy, technology and primarily consumers. It does not examine incremental change or how to manage the “transition”. Instead, the report authors have designed their work around the destination rather than the journey - planning from the future. Instead of starting with the current system or incumbent thinking, they aim to shape the new system from a blank sheet of paper, taking into consideration the needs of the consumer through a set of guiding principles. The report recommendations require a culture shift that some of the existing players in the energy market will embrace, but others will resist. Some companies will change their culture, their recruitment and their business models; others will hold on to their existing models for dear life. This piece of work aims to complement the important and persuasive work being undertaken elsewhere, such as the Energy System Catapult’s Future Power System Architecture project, the Energy Networks Association Open Networks project and the various Ofgem projects, including its work on Insights for Future Regulation.

Report

Hardy JJE, Hall S, Sophie-Wegner M, Workman Met al., 2017, Valuing energy futures; a comparative analysis of value pools across UK energy system scenarios, Applied Energy, Vol: 206, Pages: 815-828, ISSN: 0306-2619

Electricity markets in liberalised nations are composed primarily of private firms that make strategic decisions about how to secure competitive advantage. Energy transitions, driven by decarbonisation targets and technological innovation, will create new markets and destroy old ones in a re-configuration of the power sector. This research suggests that by 2050 up to 21 bnGBP per year of new financial value is available in the UK electricity system, and that depending on scenario, these new values represent up to 31% of the entire electricity sector. To service these markets business model innovation and new firm strategies are needed in electric power provision. Energy scenarios can inform strategic decisions over business model adaptation, but to date scenario modelling has not directly addressed firm strategy and behaviour. This is due in part to neo-classical assumptions of firm rationality and perfect foresight. This research adopts a resource based view of the firm rooted in evolutionary economics to argue that quantifying the relative size of the markets created and destroyed by energy transitions can provide useful insight into firm behaviour and innovation policy.

Journal article

Deswarte FEI, Clark JH, Wilson AJ, Hardy JJE, Marriott R, Chahal SP, Jackson C, Heslop G, Birkett M, Bruce TJ, Whiteley Get al., 2007, Toward an integrated straw-based biorefinery, BIOFUELS BIOPRODUCTS & BIOREFINING-BIOFPR, Vol: 1, Pages: 245-254, ISSN: 1932-104X

Journal article

Budarin V, Clark JH, Hardy JJE, Luque R, Milkowski K, Tavener SJ, Wilson AJet al., 2006, Starbons: New starch-derived mesoporous carbonaceous materials with tunable properties, ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, Vol: 45, Pages: 3782-3786, ISSN: 1433-7851

Journal article

Macquarrie DJ, Hardy JJE, Hubert S, Deveaux AJ, Bandini M, Alvarez RL, Chabrel Met al., 2006, New heterogeneous catalysts derived from chitosan for clean technology applications, 227th National Meeting of the American-Chemical Society, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, Pages: 170-183, ISSN: 0097-6156

Conference paper

Clark JH, Budarin V, Deswarte FEI, Hardy JJE, Kerton FM, Hunt AJ, Luque R, Macquarrie DJ, Milkowski K, Rodriguez A, Samuel O, Tavener SJ, White RJ, Wilson AJet al., 2006, Green chemistry and the biorefinery: A partnership for a sustainable future, GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 8, Pages: 853-860, ISSN: 1463-9262

Journal article

Deswarte FEI, Clark JH, Hardy JJE, Rose PMet al., 2006, The fractionation of valuable wax products from wheat straw using CO2, GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 8, Pages: 39-42, ISSN: 1463-9262

Journal article

Macquarrie DJ, Hardy JJE, 2005, Applications of functionalized chitosan in catalysis, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 44, Pages: 8499-8520, ISSN: 0888-5885

Journal article

Deswarte FEI, Clark JH, Hardy JJE, 2005, Extraction of high-value chemicals from wheat straw by supercritical carbon dioxide, 230th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, Pages: U61-U62, ISSN: 0065-7727

Conference paper

Deswarte FEI, Hunt AJ, Budarin VL, Clark JH, Hardy JJE, Kerton FMet al., 2005, Expanded starch as renewable stationary phase for column and flash chromatography, 230th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, Pages: U697-U697, ISSN: 0065-7727

Conference paper

Deswarte FEI, Clark J, Hardy J, 2005, Extraction of high-value chemicals from wheat straw with applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries., 229th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, Pages: U57-U57, ISSN: 0065-7727

Conference paper

Budarin V, Clark JH, Deswarte FEI, Hardy JJE, Hunt AJ, Kerton FMet al., 2005, Delicious not siliceous: expanded carbohydrates as renewable separation media for column chromatography, CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Pages: 2903-2905, ISSN: 1359-7345

Journal article

Hardy JJE, Hubert S, Macquarrie DJ, Wilson AJet al., 2004, Chitosan-based heterogeneous catalysts for Suzuki and Heck reactions, GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 6, Pages: 53-56, ISSN: 1463-9262

Journal article

Tavener S, Hardy J, Hart N, Goddard Aet al., 2003, Teaching green chemistry: from lemons to lemonade bottles, GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 5, Pages: G46-G48, ISSN: 1463-9262

Journal article

Hardy J, 2001, A greener future with biodiesel, GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 3, Pages: G56-G58, ISSN: 1463-9262

Journal article

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