71 results found
Allen RW, Collier JS, Henstock TJ, 2022, The role of crustal accretion variations in determining slab hydration at an Atlantic subduction zone, Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, Vol: 127, ISSN: 2169-9356
We present a 2D P-wave velocity model from the outer rise region of the Lesser Antilles island arc, the first wide-angle seismic study of outer rise processes at an Atlantic subduction zone. The survey consists of 46 OBS receivers over a 174 km profile with velocities resolved to 15 km below top basement. The final velocity model, produced through tomographic inversion, shows a clear decrease in the velocity of the lower crust and upper mantle of the incoming plate as it approaches the trench. We attribute this drop to outer rise bend-related hydration, similar to Pacific cases, but superimposed on spatial variations in hydration generated at the slow-spreading ridge axis. In thin, tectonically controlled crust formed under magma-poor spreading conditions the superposition of these sources of hydration results in compressional velocities as low as 6.5 km s−1 beneath the PmP reflector. In contrast, segments of crust interpreted as having formed under magma-rich conditions show velocity reductions and inferred hydrous alteration more like that observed in the Pacific. Hence, variations in the style of crustal accretion, which is observed on 50–100 km length scales both along and across isochrons, is a primary control over the distribution of water within the slab at Atlantic subduction systems. This heterogeneous pattern of water storage within the slab is likely further complicated by along strike variations in outer rise bending, subducting fracture zones and deformation at segment ends and may have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of hazard at Atlantic subduction systems.
Bie L, Hicks S, Rietbrock A, et al., 2022, Imaging slab-transported fluids and their deep dehydration from seismic velocity tomography in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol: 586, Pages: 117535-117535, ISSN: 0012-821X
Volatiles play a pivotal role in subduction zone evolution, yet their pathways remain poorly constrained. Studying the Lesser Antilles subduction zone can yield new constraints, where old oceanic lithosphere formed by slow-spreading subducts slowly. Here we use local earthquakes recorded by the temporary VoiLA (Volatile recycling in the Lesser Antilles) deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers in the fore- and back-arc to characterize the 3-D seismic structure of the north-central Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Along the slab top, mapped based on seismicity, we find low Vp extending to 130–150 km depth, deeper than expected for magmatic oceanic crust. The slab's most prominent, elevated Vp/Vs anomalies are beneath the fore- and back-arc offshore Guadeloupe and Dominica, where two subducted fracture zones lie with the obliquely subducting boundary between Proto-Caribbean and Equatorial Atlantic lithosphere. These structures, therefore, enhance hydration of the oceanic lithosphere as it forms and evolves and the subsequent dehydration of mantle serpentinite when subducted. Above the slab, we image the asthenosphere wedge as a high Vp/Vs and moderate Vp feature, indicating slab-dehydrated fluids rising through the overlying cold boundary layer that might induce melting further to the west. Our results provide new evidence for the impact of spatially-variable oceanic plate formation processes on slab dehydration and mantle wedge volatile transfer that ultimately impact volcanic processes at the surface, such as the relatively high magmatic output observed on the north-central islands in the Lesser Antilles.
Braszus B, Goes S, Allen R, et al., 2021, Subduction history of the Caribbean from upper-mantle seismic imaging and plate reconstruction, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2041-1723
The margins of the Caribbean and associated hazards and resources have been shaped by a poorly understood history of subduction. Using new data, we improve teleseismic P-wave imaging of the eastern Caribbean upper mantle and compare identified subducted-plate fragments with trench locations predicted from plate reconstruction. This shows that material at 700–1200 km depth below South America derives from 90–115 Myr old westward subduction, initiated prior to Caribbean Large-Igneous-Province volcanism. At shallower depths, an accumulation of subducted material is attributed to Great Arc of the Caribbean subduction as it evolved over the past 70 Ma. We interpret gaps in these subducted-plate anomalies as: a plate window and tear along the subducted Proto-Caribbean ridge; tearing along subducted fracture zones, and subduction of a volatile-rich boundary between Proto-Caribbean and Atlantic domains. Phases of back-arc spreading and arc jumps correlate with changes in age, and hence buoyancy, of the subducting plate.
Schlaphorst D, Harmon N, Kendall JM, et al., 2021, Variation in Upper Plate Crustal and Lithospheric Mantle Structure in the Greater and Lesser Antilles From Ambient Noise Tomography, GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS, Vol: 22
Harmon N, Rychert CA, Goes S, et al., 2021, Widespread hydration of the back arc and the link to variable hydration of the incoming plate in the lesser Antilles from rayleigh wave imaging, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-27, ISSN: 1525-2027
Subduction zone dynamics are important for a better understanding of natural hazards, plate tectonics, and the evolution of the planet. Despite this, the factors dictating the location and style of volcanism are not well-known. Here we present Rayleigh Wave imaging of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone using the ocean bottom and land seismic data collected as a part of the VoiLA experiment. This region is an important global endmember that represents a slow (<19 mm/yr) convergence rate of old (80–120 Ma), Atlantic lithosphere formed at a slow spreading ridge. We image the fast slab, the fast-overriding plate and the slow mantle wedge across the entire arc. We find slow velocity anomalies (∼4.1 km/s) in the mantle wedge directly beneath the arc with local minima beneath Dominica/Martinique, Montserrat and the Grenadines. We observe that slow velocities in the wedge extend 200 km into the back arc west of Martinique. The slowest mantle wedge velocity anomaly is more muted than several global wedges, likely reflecting the lower temperatures and less partial melt predicted for the Antilles. Subducted fracture zones and plate boundaries are a potential source of hydration, since they are located near the anomalies, although not directly beneath them. To match our observations, geodynamic models with a broadly hydrated mantle wedge are required, which can be achieved via deep hydration of the slab, and fluid release further into the back arc. In addition, 3-D flow and melt migration or ponding are required to explain the shape and location of our anomalies.
Arosio R, Collier JS, Hawes J, et al., 2021, New perspectives on the English Channel megaflood hypothesis: High-resolution multibeam and seabed camera imaging of submarine landforms in the Northern Palaeovalley, Geomorphology, Vol: 382, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0169-555X
A network of large, bedrock-incised valleys is preserved on the seabed of the English Channel. Based on analysis of a 30 × 30 m bathymetric grid, the morphology of the valleys was interpreted to be a consequence of erosion by catastrophic flood processes from overspill of a large proglacial lake in the Southern North Sea. The significance of the “megaflood features” has since been recognized by the UK Government with the designation of their protected status in one of three Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the palaeovalley in the central English Channel. Here, we analyse recent multibeam bathymetry data (2 × 2 m DEM) from these MPAs, together with backscatter and high-definition seabed camera imagery. The new data allow us to ground truth and refine the earlier interpretation and recognize previously undiscovered finer features. Streamlined valley margins, streamlined islands and metres-deep scours eroded into the valley floor are described at higher detail, while new subtle features on the valley floor such as kilometre-long, sub-parallel inner channels and streamlined bedrock ridges are identified for the first time. These features are consistent with a high energy erosion origin. We also identify isolated large boulders (>1 m length) on flat seabed on the flanks of the palaeovalley, which are consistent with deposition from megaflood processes, although wave action during transgression/regression cannot be ruled out. Our new results enable more robust morphological evidence to support the influence of catastrophic flooding on bedrock valley incision in the English Channel.
Runya RM, McGonigle C, Quinn R, et al., 2021, Examining the Links between Multi-Frequency Multibeam Backscatter Data and Sediment Grain Size, REMOTE SENSING, Vol: 13
Chichester B, Rychert C, Harmon N, et al., 2020, Seafloor sediment thickness beneath the VoiLA broad-band ocean-bottom seismometer deployment in the Lesser Antilles from P-to-S delay times, GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 223, Pages: 1758-1768, ISSN: 0956-540X
Cooper GF, Macpherson CG, Blundy JD, et al., 2020, Variable water input controls evolution of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, Nature, Vol: 582, Pages: 525-529, ISSN: 0028-0836
Oceanic lithosphere carries volatiles, notably water, into the mantle through subduction at convergent plate boundaries. This subducted water exercises control on the production of magma, earthquakes, formation of continental crust and mineral resources. Identifying different potential fluid sources (sediments, crust and mantle lithosphere) and tracing fluids from their release to the surface has proved challenging1. Atlantic subduction zones are a valuable endmember when studying this deep water cycle because hydration in Atlantic lithosphere, produced by slow spreading, is expected to be highly non-uniform2. Here, as part of a multi-disciplinary project in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc3, we studied boron trace element and isotopic fingerprints of melt inclusions. These reveal that serpentine—that is, hydrated mantle rather than crust or sediments—is a dominant supplier of subducted water to the central arc. This serpentine is most likely to reside in a set of major fracture zones subducted beneath the central arc over approximately the past ten million years. The current dehydration of these fracture zones coincides with the current locations of the highest rates of earthquakes and prominent low shear velocities, whereas the preceding history of dehydration is consistent with the locations of higher volcanic productivity and thicker arc crust. These combined geochemical and geophysical data indicate that the structure and hydration of the subducted plate are directly connected to the evolution of the arc and its associated seismic and volcanic hazards.
Davy R, Collier JS, Henstock TJ, et al., 2020, Wide‐angle seismic imaging of two modes of crustal accretion in mature Atlantic Ocean crust, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2169-9313
We present a high‐resolution 2‐D P‐wave velocity model from a 225 km long active seismic profile, collected over ~60‐75 Ma central Atlantic crust. The profile crosses five ridge segments separated by a transform and three non‐transform offsets. All ridge discontinuities share similar primary characteristics, independent of the offset. We identify two types of crustal segment. The first displays a classic two‐layer velocity structure with a high gradient layer 2 (~0.9 s‐1) above a lower gradient layer 3 (0.2 s‐1). Here PmP coincides with the 7.5 km s‐1 contour and velocity increases to >7.8 km s‐1 within 1 km below. We interpret these segments as magmatically‐robust, with PmP representing a petrological boundary between crust and mantle. The second has a reduced contrast in velocity gradient between upper and lower crust, and PmP shallower than the 7.5 km s‐1 contour. We interpret these segments as tectonically dominated, with PmP representing a serpentinized (alteration) front. Whilst velocity depth profiles fit within previous envelopes for slow‐spreading crust, our results suggest that such generalizations give a misleading impression of uniformity. We estimate that the two crustal styles are present in equal proportions on the floor of the Atlantic. Within two tectonically dominated segments we make the first wide‐angle seismic identifications of buried oceanic core complexes in mature (> 20 Ma) Atlantic Ocean crust. They have a ~20 km wide “domal” morphology with shallow basement and increased upper‐crustal velocities. We interpret their mid‐crustal seismic velocity inversions as alteration and rock‐type assemblage contrasts across crustal‐scale detachment faults.
Bie L, Rietbrock A, Hicks S, et al., 2020, Along‐arc heterogeneity in local seismicity across the lesser antilles subduction zone from a dense ocean‐bottom seismometer network, Seismological Research Letters, Vol: 91, Pages: 237-247, ISSN: 0895-0695
The Lesser Antilles arc is only one of two subduction zones where slow‐spreading Atlantic lithosphere is consumed. Slow‐spreading may result in the Atlantic lithosphere being more pervasively and heterogeneously hydrated than fast‐spreading Pacific lithosphere, thus affecting the flux of fluids into the deep mantle. Understanding the distribution of seismicity can help unravel the effect of fluids on geodynamic and seismogenic processes. However, a detailed view of local seismicity across the whole Lesser Antilles subduction zone is lacking. Using a temporary ocean‐bottom seismic network we invert for hypocenters and 1D velocity model. A systematic search yields a 27 km thick crust, reflecting average arc and back‐arc structures. We find abundant intraslab seismicity beneath Martinique and Dominica, which may relate to the subducted Marathon and/or Mercurius Fracture Zones. Pervasive seismicity in the cold mantle wedge corner and thrust seismicity deep on the subducting plate interface suggest an unusually wide megathrust seismogenic zone reaching ∼65km∼65 km depth. Our results provide an excellent framework for future understanding of regional seismic hazard in eastern Caribbean and the volatile cycling beneath the Lesser Antilles arc.
Estimating the location of geologic and tectonic features on a subducting plate is important for interpreting their spatial relationships with other observables including seismicity, seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies, and the location of ore deposits and arc volcanism in the over-riding plate. Here we present two methods for estimating the location of predictable features such as seamounts, ridges and fracture zones on the slab. One uses kinematic reconstructions of plate motions, and the other uses multidimensional scaling to flatten the slab onto the surface of the Earth. We demonstrate the methods using synthetic examples and also using the test case of fracture zones entering the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. The two methods produce results that are in good agreement with each other in both the synthetic and real examples. In the Lesser Antilles, the subducted fracture zones trend northwards of the surface projections. The two methods begin to diverge in regions where the multidimensional scaling method has its greatest likely error. Wider application of these methods may help to establish spatial correlations globally.
McDermott C, Collier JS, Lonergan L, et al., 2019, Seismic velocity structure of seaward-dipping reflectors on the South American continental margin, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol: 521, Pages: 14-24, ISSN: 0012-821X
Seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) are a key feature within the continent to ocean transition zone of volcanic passive margins. Here we conduct an automated pre-stack depth-migration imaging analysis of commercial seismic data from the volcanic margins of South America. The method used an isotropic, ray-based approach of iterative velocity model building based on the travel time inversion of residual pre-stack depth migration move-out. We find two distinct seismic velocity patterns within the SDRs. While both types show a general increase in velocity with depth consistent with expected compaction and alteration/metamorphic trends, those SDRs that lie within faulted half grabens also have high velocity zones at their down-dip ends. The velocity anomalies are generally concordant with the reflectivity and so we attribute them to the presence of dolerite sills that were injected into the lava pile. The sills therefore result from late-stage melt delivery along the large landward-dipping faults that bound them. In contrast the more outboard SDRs show no velocity anomalies, are more uniform spatially and have unfaulted basal contacts. Our observations imply that the SDRs document a major change in rift architecture, with magmatism linked with early extension and faulting of the upper brittle crust transitioning into more organised, dike-fed eruptions similar to seafloor spreading.
Allen R, Collier J, Stewart A, et al., 2019, The role of arc migration in the development of the Lesser Antilles: a new tectonic model for the Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Caribbean, Geology, Vol: 47, Pages: 891-895, ISSN: 0091-7613
Continental arc systems often show evidence of large-scale migration both towards and away from the incoming plate. In oceanic arc systems however, whilst slab roll-back and the associated processes of back-arc spreading and arc migration towards the incoming plate are commonplace, arc migration away from the incoming plate is rarely observed. We present a new compilation of marine magnetic anomaly and seismic data in order to propose a new tectonic model for the eastern Caribbean region that includes arc migration in both directions. We synthesise new evidence to show two phases of back-arc spreading and eastward arc migration towards the incoming Atlantic. A third and final phase of arc migration to the west subdivided the earlier back-arc basin on either side of the present-day Lesser Antilles Arc. This is the first example of regional multi-directional arc migration in an intra-oceanic setting and has implications for along-arc structural and geochemical variations. The back and forth arc migrations are probably due to the constraints the neighbouring American plates impose on this isolated subduction system rather than variations in subducting slab buoyancy.
Lonergan L, Collier J, McDermott C, et al., 2019, Seismic velocity structure of two types of seaward-dipping reflectors on the South American continental margin
Seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) are a key feature within the continent-to-ocean transition zone of volcanic passive margins. They are formed by volcanic activity during continental breakup. Along the volcanic margins of South America, we have mapped and documented two distinct types of SDR: Type I that are relatively straight and lie within faulted half-grabens that are partially overlain by Type II that are more curved and have unfaulted basal contacts. Here we conduct an automated, pre-stack, depth-migration imaging analysis on commercial seismic data to determine more about their physical properties. We find that the two SDR classes have distinct seismic velocity characteristics. While both types show a general increase in velocity with depth consistent with expected compaction and alteration/metamorphic trends, the Type I SDRs also have high velocity zones at their down-dip ends. We attribute these elevated velocities to the presence of less porous and/or more mafic rocks. We interpret them as the remnants of volcanic feeder systems along the large landward-dipping faults that bound these SDRs. Our observations imply that the SDRs document a major change in rift architecture, with magmatism linked with early tectonic stretching of the upper brittle crust transitioning into dike-fed eruptions similar to seafloor spreading.
García-Moreno D, Gupta S, Collier JS, et al., 2019, Middle–Late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Dover Strait inferred from buried and submerged erosional landforms, Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol: 203, Pages: 209-232, ISSN: 0277-3791
Prominent landforms, either buried or preserved at the seafloor, provide important constraints on the processes that led to the opening and present-day configuration of the Dover Strait. Here, we extend previous investigations on two distinct landform features, the Fosse Dangeard and Lobourg Channel, to better understand the poly-phase history of their formation and inferences for the opening and Pleistocene evolution of the Dover Strait. The Fosse Dangeard consist of several interconnected palaeo-depressions. Their morphology and spatial distribution are interpreted to be the result of plunge-pool erosion generated at the base of north-eastward retreating waterfalls. Their infills comprise internal erosional surfaces that provide evidence for the occurrence of several erosional episodes following their initial incision. The Lobourg Channel comprises various sets of erosional features, attesting to the occurrence of several phases of intense fluvial and/or flood erosion. The last one of these carved a prominent inner channel, which truncates the uppermost infill of the Fosse Dangeard. The morphology of the Lobourg inner channel and the erosional features associated with its incision strongly resemble landforms found in megaflood-eroded terrains, indicating that this valley was likely eroded by one or several megafloods. Our study therefore corroborates the existence of waterfalls in the Dover Strait at least once during the Pleistocene Epoch. It also provides evidence of the occurrence of multiple episodes of fluvial and flood erosion, including megafloods. Finally, this study allows us to establish a relative chronology of the erosional/depositional episodes that resulted in the present-day morphology of this region.
Armitage JJ, Collier JS, 2018, The thermal structure of volcanic passive margins, Petroleum Geoscience, Vol: 24, Pages: 393-401, ISSN: 1354-0793
Over the past ten years we have numerically modelled the properties of the magmatism generated at four of the key areas where the ‘mantle plume–volcanic margin hypothesis’ is expected to be valid: the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, India–Seychelles and Afar. Our model incorporates many of the original assumptions in the classic White and McKenzie model, with pure shear of the lithospheric mantle, passive upwelling and decompressional melting. Our model is however two- rather than one-dimensional, can capture the rift history (extension rate changes and axis jumps) and tracks mantle depletion during melting. In all four of our study areas we require the sub-lithospheric mantle to be 100 – 200°C hotter than ‘normal’, non-volcanic margins to explain the characteristics of the magmatism. In the three passive margin cases we find this excess temperature is limited to a 50 – 100 km thick layer. We require this layer temperature to drop along-strike away from the proposed sites of plume impact at the base of the lithosphere. However, we also find that lithospheric thickness and rift history are as important as temperature for controlling the magmatism. Our work therefore lends support to the hypothesis that the excess magmatism at volcanic margins is due to a thermal anomaly in the asthenosphere, albeit with consideration of extra parameters.
Bosence DWJ, Collier JS, Fleckner S, et al., 2018, Discriminating between the origins of remotely sensed circular structures: carbonate mounds, diapirs or periclinal folds? Purbeck Limestone Group, Weymouth Bay, UK, Journal of the Geological Society, Vol: 175, Pages: 742-756, ISSN: 0016-7649
Many sedimentary rock successions contain plan-view circular structures, such as impacts, diapirs and carbonate build-ups. When remotely sensed, it can be difficult to discriminate between their formation mechanisms. Here we examine this problem by assessing the origins of circular structures imaged in high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data from Weymouth Bay, UK. The imagery shows 30–150 m across, concave-down structures within the upper Purbeck Limestone Group on the southern limb of the Purbeck Anticline. Similar structures have not been identified in the extensive outcrops around the bay. The morphology and geological setting of the structures are consistent with three different interpretations: carbonate mounds, periclinal folds and evaporite diapirs. However, none of these structures has been previously recorded in the upper Purbeck Limestone Group outcrops of this internationally renowned geological region. We apply a scoring system to 25 features of the circular structures to discriminate between these three alternative interpretations. This analysis indicates that evaporite diapirs are the least likely and carbonate mounds the most likely origin of the structures. The presence of carbonate mounds revises the upper Purbeck palaeofacies distribution in its type area and provides an analogue for the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs in lacustrine mounds.
McDermott C, Lonergan L, Collier JS, et al., 2018, Characterization of seaward-dipping reflectors along the South American Atlantic Margin and implications for continental breakup, Tectonics, Vol: 37, Pages: 3303-3327, ISSN: 0278-7407
Thick packages of lavas forming seaward‐dipping reflectors (SDRs) are diagnostic features of volcanic passive margins. Despite their significance to continental breakup studies, their formation mechanism is still debated. We use ~22,000 km of high‐quality, depth‐migrated, seismic data to document the three‐dimensional geometry of SDRs offshore South America. We find two types: Type I are planar and occur as fault‐bounded wedges. Type II are characterized by reflections that become more convex‐upward in the downdip direction and terminate against a subhorizontal base. We interpret the transition from Type I to Type II SDRs to represent a continuum from continental rifting to full plate separation with formation of new, subaerially generated, magmatic crust. Type I SDRs formed in half grabens during the stretching of continental crust, while Type II lavas infill the space produced by flexing of the crust due to the solidification of the underlying feeder dikes as the magmatic crust moved away from the spreading center. Type II SDRs vary in length and thickness along the margin. In the north, close to the Paraná flood basalts, they are long (tens of kilometers), reach thicknesses of up to 15 km, and have an across margin width of up to 600 km. To the south the Type II SDRs are thinner with lava lengths of <10 km. We propose that Type II lavas in the north erupted from a subaerial, plate spreading center above the Tristan mantle plume and that the shorter lava flows to the south indicates eruption into water, consistent with a cooler, off‐plume mantle.
Westhead RK, McCarthy DJ, Collier JS, et al., 2018, Spatial variability of the Purbeck-Wight Fault Zone-a long-lived tectonic element in the southern UK, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol: 129, Pages: 436-451, ISSN: 0016-7878
New seamless onshore to offshore bedrock (1:10. k scale) mapping for the Lyme Bay area is used to resolve the westward termination of the Purbeck-Wight Fault Zone (PWFZ) structure, comprising one of the most prominent, long-lived (Variscan-Cimmerian-Alpine) structural lineaments in the southern UK. The study area lies south of the Variscan Frontal Thrust and overlays the basement Variscide Rhenohercynian Zone, in a region of dominant E-W tectonic fabric and a secondary conjugate NW-SE/NE-SW fabric. The PWFZ comprises one of the E-W major structures, with a typical history including Permian to early Cretaceous growth movement (relating to basement Variscan Thrust reactivation) followed by significant Alpine (Helvetic) inversion. Previous interpretations of the PWFZ have been limited by the low resolution (1:250. k scale) of the available offshore BGS mapping, and our study fills this gap. We describe a significant change in structural style of the fault zone from east to west. In the Weymouth Bay area, previous studies demonstrate the development of focussed strain associated with the PWFZ, accompanied by distributed strain, N-S fault development, and potential basement uplift in its hangingwall. In the Lyme Bay area to the west, faulting is dominantly E-W, with N-S faulting absent. Comparison of the newly mapped faulting networks to gravity data suggests a spatial relationship between this faulting variation and basement variability and uplift.
Allen RW, Berry C, Henstock T, et al., 2018, 30 years in the life of an active submarine volcano: A time-lapse bathymetry study of the Kick-‘em-Jenny Volcano, Lesser Antilles, G3: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol: 19, Pages: 715-731, ISSN: 1525-2027
Effective monitoring is an essential part of identifying and mitigating volcanic hazards. In the submarine environment this is more difficult than onshore because observations are typically limited to land-based seismic networks and infrequent shipboard surveys. Since the first recorded eruption in 1939, the Kick-‘em-Jenny (KeJ) volcano, located 8km off northern Grenada, has been the source of 13 episodes of T-phase signals. These distinctive seismic signals, often coincident with heightened body-wave seismicity, are interpreted as extrusive eruptions. They have occurred with a recurrence interval of around a decade, yet direct confirmation of volcanism has been rare. By conducting new bathymetric surveys in 2016 and 2017 and reprocessing 4 legacy datasets spanning 30 years we present a clearer picture of the development of KeJ through time. Processed grids with a cell size of 5m and vertical precision on the order of 1-4m allow us to correlate T-phase episodes with morphological changes at the volcano's edifice. In the time-period of observation 7.09x106 m3 of material has been added through constructive volcanism – yet 5 times this amount has been lost through landslides. Limited recent magma production suggests that KeJ may be susceptible to larger eruptions with longer repeat times than have occurred during the study interval, behavior more similar to sub-aerial volcanism in the arc than previously thought. T-phase signals at KeJ have a varied origin and are unlikely to be solely the result of extrusive submarine eruptions. Our results confirm the value of repeat swath bathymetry surveys in assessing submarine volcanic hazards.
Collier JS, McDermott C, Warner G, et al., 2017, New constraints on the age and style of continental breakup in the South Atlantic from magnetic anomaly data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol: 477, Pages: 27-40, ISSN: 0012-821X
We present new constraints on the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean from a joint interpretation of marine magnetic anomaly grids and forward modelling of conjugate profiles. We use 45,000 km of recently collected commercial ship track data combined with 561,000 km of publically available data. The new data cover the critical ocean–continental transition zones and allow us to identify and downgrade some poorly navigated older ship tracks relied upon in earlier compilations. Within the final grids the mean cross-over error is 14 nT computed from 8,227 ship track intersections. The forward modelling used uniformly magnetised bodies whose shapes were constrained from coincident deep-seismic reflection data. We find the oldest magnetic anomalies to date from M10r (134.2 Ma, late Valanginian) north of the Falkland-Agulhas Fracture Zone and M3 (129.3 Ma, Barremian) south of the Rio Grande Fracture Zone. Hence, assuming the GPTS used is correct, continental breakup was contemporaneous with the Parana and Etendeka continental flood basalts. Many of the landward linear anomalies overlap seismically mapped Seaward Dipping Reflectors (SDRs). We interpret this to mean that a significant portion of the SDRs overlay crust formed by subaerial seafloor spreading. Here crustal accretion is envisaged to be similar to that at mid-ocean ridges, but sheet lava flows (that later form the SDRs) rather than pillow basalts form the extrusive component. Segmentation of the linear anomalies generated implies that this stage of continental breakup is organised and parallels the seafloor spreading centre that follows. Our results call into question the common assumption that at volcanic continental margins the first linear magnetic anomalies represent the start of conventional (submarine) oceanic crustal generation.
Gupta S, Collier JS, Garcia-Moreno D, et al., 2017, Two-stage opening of the Dover Strait and the origin of island Britain, Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723
Late Quaternary separation of Britain from mainland Europe is considered to be a consequence of spillover of a large proglacial lake in the Southern North Sea basin. Lake spillover is inferred to have caused breaching of a rock ridge at the Dover Strait, although this hypothesis remains untested. Here we show that opening of the Strait involved at least two major episodes of erosion. Sub-bottom records reveal a remarkable set of sediment-infilled depressions that are deeply incised into bedrock that we interpret as giant plunge pools. These support a model of initial erosion of the Dover Strait by lake overspill, plunge pool erosion by waterfalls and subsequent dam breaching. Cross-cutting of these landforms by a prominent bedrock-eroded valley that is characterised by features associated with catastrophic flooding indicates final breaching of the Strait by high-magnitude flows. These events set-up conditions for island Britain during sea-level highstands and caused large-scale re-routing of NW European drainage.
Collier J, 2017, A megaflood in the English Channel, Astronomy and Geophysics, Vol: 58, Pages: 2.38-2.42, ISSN: 1366-8781
Island Britain is deeply embedded in our psyche. Indeed, the white cliffs of Dover are a modern icon of our national identity, with the perception that the English Channel (La Manche) repeatedly protected us from “unwanted continental influences” throughout history. But when did this concept of Britishness evolve? It is well known that, less than 500 000 years ago, when our hominid ancestors battled with the glacial world, southern Britain was physically connected to northern France via a rock ridge at the Dover Strait. This allowed them, and other land animals, to migrate back-and-forth as the climate cooled and warmed. This land bridge disappeared to form the isolated Britain we know today, but how it did so has been the subject of much debate. Did it just slowly erode away in a series of cliff falls as it was weakened by tides and storms, as we see around the coastline today, or did something more dramatic happen? Once posed, this question remained unanswered for more than 50 years, until in 2003 we took to the water with the latest geophysical equipment and discovered an astonishing landscape below the waves. Over the following years we have slowly pieced together evidence for an array of features carved into the floor of the English Channel that we believe show that the rock ridge was removed by a catastrophic event. This event literally changed the course of our history, with the implications resounding right up to the political climate of today.
Collier J, 2017, A megaflood in the English Channel, ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS, Vol: 58, Pages: 38-42, ISSN: 1366-8781
Sanderson DJ, Dix JK, Westhead KR, et al., 2017, Bathymetric mapping of the coastal and offshore geology and structure of the Jurassic Coast, Weymouth Bay, UK, Journal of the Geological Society, Vol: 174, Pages: 498-508, ISSN: 0016-7649
Four hundred square kilometres of 1 m binned, full coverage swath bathymetry data, integrated with similar resolution onshore topography, have been used to generate a seamless onshore to offshore bedrock map covering an extensive area adjacent to the ‘Jurassic Coast’ World Heritage site. Analysis of these data provides new insights into the structural development of the Purbeck Monocline Cenozoic inversion structure; in particular, variations in the expression of strain between the hanging-wall block and the fault inversion zone. The footwall to the basin-bounding faults compartmentalized deformation and uplift, and acted as a buttress to compression. The data also show a limited thickness changes within the major lithostratigraphical divisions, and a notable absence of basin-related extensional faulting in the offshore area that is in marked contrast to the more extensively studied onshore region. This indicates that prior to inversion, the basin evolved by intermittent activity on a few major extensional faults. This improved understanding of the development of the basin and inversion structures results from our ability to integrate and quantitatively manipulate these high-resolution and spatially extensive offshore and onshore datasets.
Taposeea CA, Armitage JJ, Collier JS, 2016, Asthenosphere and lithosphere structure controls on early onset oceanic crust production in the southern South Atlantic, Tectonophysics, Vol: 716, Pages: 4-20, ISSN: 0040-1951
The southern South Atlantic has often been considered a classic example of continental break-up in the presence of a starting mantle plume. Evidence for a mantle plume includes the Paranà-Etendeka continental flood basalts, which are associated with the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, and the wide-spread presence of seaward dipping reflectors and high-velocity lower-crustal bodies along the conjugate margins. Observations from seaward dipping reflector distributions suggested that lithospheric segmentation played a major role in the pattern of volcanism during break-up in this region, and consequent numerical modelling was used to test this. We tested this hypothesis ourselves by measuring the thickness of the earliest oceanic crust generated. This was done through the use of 37 measurements of initial oceanic crustal thickness from wide-angle and multichannel seismic profiles collected along the conjugate margins. These measurements show that at 450. km. south of the Paranà-Etendeka flood basalts the oceanic crust is thicker than the global average at 11.7. km. Farther south the oceanic crust thins, reaching 6.1. km at a distance of 2300. km along-strike. Overall, the along-strike trend of oceanic crustal thickness is linear with a regression coefficient of 0.7 and little indication of segmentation. From numerical models representing extension of the lithosphere, we find that observed melt volumes are matched with the presence of a hot layer. If we assume this region of hot mantle has a thickness of 100. km, its excess temperature relative to the asthenosphere has to decrease from 200 to 50. C, north to south. This decrease in temperature, also seen in published thermobarometry results, suggests that temperature was the primary control of volcanism during the opening of the southern South Atlantic.
Schlaphorst D, Kendall JM, Collier JS, et al., 2016, Water, oceanic fracture zones and the lubrication of subducting plate boundaries - insights from seismicity, Geophysical Journal International, Vol: 204, Pages: 1405-1420, ISSN: 0956-540X
We investigate the relationship between subduction processes and related seismicity for the Lesser Antilles Arc using the Gutenberg-Richter law. This power lawdescribes the earthquakemagnitude distribution, with the gradient of the cumulative magnitude distribution being commonly known as the b-value. The Lesser Antilles Arc was chosen because of its alongstrike variability in sediment subduction and the transition from subduction to strike-slip movement towards its northern and southern ends. The data are derived from the seismicity catalogues from the Seismic Research Centre of The University of the West Indies and the Observatoires Volcanologiques et Sismologiques of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and consist of subcrustal events primarily from the slab interface. The b-value is found using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for a maximum-likelihood straight line-fitting routine. We investigate spatial variations in b-values using a grid-search with circular cells as well as an along-arc projection. Tests with different algorithms and the two independent earthquake cataloges provide confidence in the robustness of our results. We observe a strong spatial variability of the b-value that cannot be explained by the uncertainties. Rather than obtaining a simple north-south b-value distribution suggestive of the dominant control on earthquake triggering being water released from the sedimentary cover on the incoming American Plates, or a b-value distribution that correlates with on the obliquity of subduction, we obtain a series of discrete, high b-value 'bull's-eyes' along strike. These bull's-eyes, which indicate stress release through a higher fraction of small earthquakes, coincide with the locations of known incoming oceanic fracture zones on the American Plates. We interpret the results in terms of water being delivered to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone in the vicinity of fracture zones providing lubrication and thus changing the character of the related
Collier JS, Oggioni F, Gupta S, et al., 2015, Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis, Global and Planetary Change, Vol: 135, Pages: 190-206, ISSN: 0921-8181
Recognising ice-age catastrophic megafloods is important because they had significant impact on large-scale drainage evolution and patterns of water and sediment movement to the oceans, and likely induced very rapid, short-term effects on climate. It has been previously proposed that a drainage system on the floor of the English Channel was initiated by catastrophic flooding in the Pleistocene but this suggestion has remained controversial. Here we examine this hypothesis through an analysis of key landform features. We use a new compilation of multi- and single-beam bathymetry together with sub-bottom profiler data to establish the internal structure, planform geometry and hence origin of a set of 36 mid-channel islands. Whilst there is evidence of modern-day surficial sediment processes, the majority of the islands can be clearly demonstrated to be formed of bedrock, and are hence erosional remnants rather than depositional features. The islands display classic lemniscate or tear-drop outlines, with elongated tips pointing downstream, typical of streamlined islands formed during high-magnitude water flow. The length-to-width ratio for the entire island population is 3.4 ± 1.3 and the degree-of-elongation or k-value is 3.7 ± 1.4. These values are comparable to streamlined islands in other proven Pleistocene catastrophic flood terrains and are distinctly different to values found in modern-day rivers. The island geometries show a correlation with bedrock type: with those carved from Upper Cretaceous chalk having larger length-to-width ratios (3.2 ± 1.3) than those carved into more mixed Paleogene terrigenous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones (3.0 ± 1.5). We attribute these differences to the former rock unit having a lower skin friction which allowed longer island growth to achieve minimum drag. The Paleogene islands, although less numerous than the Chalk islands, also assume more perfect lemniscate shapes. These lithologies therefore
Collier J, 2015, Q&A: Jenny Collier:, Astronomy & Geophysics, Vol: 56, Pages: 5.39-5.39, ISSN: 1366-8781
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