129 results found
Harvey N, Takis PG, Lindon JC, et al., 2023, Optimization of diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy experiments for high-throughput automation in human metabolic phenotyping, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 95, Pages: 3147-3152, ISSN: 0003-2700
The diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY) experiment allows the calculation of diffusion coefficient values of metabolites in complex mixtures. However, this experiment has not yet been broadly used for metabolic profiling due to lack of a standardized protocol. Here we propose a pipeline for the DOSY experimental setup and data processing in metabolic phenotyping studies. Due to the complexity of biological samples, three experiments (a standard DOSY, a relaxation-edited DOSY, and a diffusion-edited DOSY) have been optimized to provide DOSY metabolic profiles with peak-picked diffusion coefficients for over 90% of signals visible in the one-dimensional 1H general biofluid profile in as little as 3 min 36 s. The developed parameter sets and tools are straightforward to implement and can facilitate the use of DOSY for metabolic profiling of human blood plasma and urine samples.
Li J, Gooderham N, Alotaibi A, 2023, Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced metastatic phenotype in colorectal cancer epithelial cells: mechanistic support for the role of microRNA-21, Cancers, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 2072-6694
The progression of colorectal cancer is promoted by changes in the genetic makeup of tumour cells giving them potential to leave the site of their origin to seed new metastatic tumours in other tissue; inflammation at the tumour site is a driver of these changes. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha is a pro-inflammatory molecule that is associated with the progression of metastatic cancer. Small biologically active RNAs, microRNAs, target the production of specific proteins and are proposed as agents of tumour change. One agent, microRNA-21, shown to be present in colorectal cancer, is known to target the formation of proteins involved in metastatic changes in cells. We investigated the relationship between TNF-α and microRNA-21 in colorectal cancer cells and show their involvement in promoting cell changes indicative of the metastatic state. In summary, we provide mechanistic support for a role of microRNA-21 in tumour necrosis factor-alpha promotion of cancer cell metastatic change.
Radhakrishnan ST, Gallagher KI, Mullish BH, et al., 2023, Rectal swabs as a viable alternative to faecal sampling for the analysis of gut microbiota functionality and composition, Scientific Reports, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Faecal or biopsy samples are frequently used to analyse the gut microbiota, but issues remain with the provision and collection of such samples. Rectal swabs are widely-utilised in clinical practice and previous data demonstrate their potential role in microbiota analyses; however, studies to date have been heterogenous, and there are a particular lack of data concerning the utility of swabs for the analysis of the microbiota’s functionality and metabolome. We compared paired stool and rectal swab samples from healthy individuals to investigate whether rectal swabs are a reliable proxy for faecal sampling. There were no significant differences in key alpha and beta diversity measures between swab and faecal samples, and inter-subject variability was preserved. Additionally, no significant differences were demonstrated in abundance of major annotated phyla. Inferred gut functionality using Tax4Fun2 showed excellent correlation between the two sampling techniques (Pearson’s coefficient r = 0.9217, P < 0.0001). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy enabled the detection of 20 metabolites, with overall excellent correlation identified between rectal swab and faecal samples for levels all metabolites collectively, although more variable degrees of association between swab and stool for levels of individual metabolites. These data support the utility of rectal swabs in both compositional and functional analyses of the gut microbiota.
Valdivia-Garcia MA, Chappell KE, Camuzeaux S, et al., 2022, Improved quantitation of short-chain carboxylic acids in human biofluids using 3-nitrophenylhydrazine derivatization and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, Vol: 221, ISSN: 0731-7085
Yates JR, Cristea IM, Dong M-Q, et al., 2022, Want to Publish in JPR? This Is What You Need to Know!, JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, Vol: 21, Pages: 2837-2839, ISSN: 1535-3893
Hu C, Wang B, Liu Z, et al., 2022, Sevoflurane but not propofol enhances ovarian cancer cell biology through regulating cellular metabolic and signaling mechanisms, CELL BIOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY, ISSN: 0742-2091
Nahok K, Selmi C, Sukmak M, et al., 2022, Reply to Chao et al. Comment on "Nahok et al. Monosodium Glutamate Induces Changes in Hepatic and Renal Metabolic Profiles and Gut Microbiome of Wistar Rats. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1865", NUTRIENTS, Vol: 14
Haonon O, Liu Z, Dangtakot R, et al., 2022, Opisthorchis viverrini infection induces metabolic disturbances in hamsters fed with high fat/high fructose diets: Implications for liver and kidney pathologies, JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY, Vol: 107, ISSN: 0955-2863
Webberley TS, Masetti G, Bevan RJ, et al., 2022, The Impact of Probiotic Supplementation on Cognitive, Pathological and Metabolic Markers in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease, FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 16
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 4
Ruban A, Miras A, glaysher M, et al., 2022, Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner for the management of Type 2 diabetes and obesity: a multicenter randomized controlled trial, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 275, Pages: 440-447, ISSN: 0003-4932
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical efficacy and safety of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) while in situ for 12 months and for 12 months after explantation.Summary Background Data: This is the largest randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the DJBL, a medical device used for the treatment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. Endoscopic interventions have been developed as potential alternatives to those not eligible or fearful of the risks of metabolic surgery.Methods: In this multicenter open-label RCT, 170 adults with inadequately controlled T2DM and obesity were randomized to intensive medical care with or without the DJBL. Primary outcome was the percentage of participants achieving a glycated hemoglobin reduction of ≥20% at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors at 12 and 24 months.Results: There were no significant differences in the percentage of patients achieving the primary outcome between both groups at 12 months [DJBL 54.6% (n = 30) vs control 55.2% (n = 32); odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44–2.0; P = 0.85]. Twenty-four percent (n = 16) patients achieved ≥15% weight loss in the DJBL group compared to 4% (n = 2) in the controls at 12 months (OR 8.3, 95% CI: 1.8–39; P = .007). The DJBL group experienced superior reductions in systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and alanine transaminase at 12 months. There were more adverse events in the DJBL group.Conclusions: The addition of the DJBL to intensive medical care was associated with superior weight loss, improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, and fatty liver disease markers, but not glycemia, only while the device was in situ. The benefits of the devices need to be balanced against the higher rate of adverse events when making clinical decisions.Trial Registration: ISRCTN30845205. isrctn.org; Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme, a Medical Research
Jones B, Sands C, Alexiadou K, et al., 2022, The metabolomic effects of tripeptide gut hormone infusion compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and caloric restriction, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 107, Pages: e767-e782, ISSN: 0021-972X
Context: The gut-derived peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), and peptide YY (PYY) are regulators of energy intake and glucose homeostasis, and are thought to contribute to the glucose-lowering effects of bariatric surgery. Objective: To establish the metabolomic effects of a combined infusion of GLP-1, OXM and PYY (tripeptide “GOP”) in comparison to a placebo infusion, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, and a very low-calorie diet (VLCD). Design and setting: Sub-analysis of a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of GOP infusion (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01945840), including VLCD and RYGB comparator groups. Patients and interventions: 25 obese patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were randomly allocated to receive a 4-week subcutaneous infusion of GOP (n=14) or 0.9% saline control (SAL; n=11). An additional 22 patients followed a VLCD, and 21 underwent RYGB surgery. Main outcome measures: Plasma and urine samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks into each intervention were subjected to cross-platform metabolomic analysis, followed by unsupervised and supervised modelling approaches to identify similarities and differences between the effects of each intervention. Results: Aside from glucose, very few metabolites were affected by GOP, contrasting with major metabolomic changes seen with VLCD and RYGB. Conclusions: Treatment with GOP provides a powerful glucose-lowering effect but does not replicate the broader metabolomic changes seen with VLCD and RYGB. The contribution of these metabolomic changes to the clinical benefits of RYGB remains to be elucidated.
Radhakrishnan ST, Alexander JL, Mullish BH, et al., 2022, Systematic Review: The association between the gut microbiota and medical therapies in inflammatory bowel disease, Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol: 55, Pages: 26-48, ISSN: 0269-2813
BackgroundThe gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with Faecalibacterium prausnitizii associated with protection, and certain genera (including Shigella and Escherichia) associated with adverse features. The variability of patient response to medical therapies in IBD is incompletely understood. Given the recognised contribution of the microbiota to treatment efficacy in other conditions, there may be interplay between the gut microbiota, IBD medical therapy and IBD phenotype.AimsTo evaluate the bidirectional relationship between IBD medical therapies and the gut microbiota.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE. All original studies analysing interactions between the gut microbiota and established IBD medical therapies were included.ResultsWe screened 1296 records; 19 studies were eligible. There was heterogeneity in terms of sample analysis, treatment protocols, and outcome reporting. Increased baseline α-diversity was observed in responders versus non-responders treated with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), infliximab, ustekinumab or vedolizumab. Higher baseline Faecalibacterium predicted response to infliximab and ustekinumab. A post-treatment increase in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was noted in responders to aminosalicylates, anti-TNF medications and ustekinumab; conversely, this species decreased in responders to EEN. Escherichia was a consistent marker of unfavourable drug response, and its presence in the gut mucosa correlated with inflammation in aminosalicylate-treated patients.ConclusionsBoth gut microbiota diversity and specific taxonomic features (including high abundance of Faecalibacterium) are associated with the efficacy of a range of IBD therapies. These findings hold promise for a potential role for the gut microbiota in explaining the heterogeneity of patient response to IBD treatments.
Suksawat M, Phetcharaburanin J, Klanrit P, et al., 2022, Metabolic Phenotyping Predicts Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Chemosensitivity in Patients With Cholangiocarcinoma., Front Public Health, Vol: 10
Gemcitabine and cisplatin serve as appropriate treatments for patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Our previous study using histoculture drug response assay (HDRA), demonstrated individual response patterns to gemcitabine and cisplatin. The current study aimed to identify predictive biomarkers for gemcitabine and cisplatin sensitivity in tissues and sera from patients with CCA using metabolomics. Metabolic signatures of patients with CCA were correlated with their HDRA response patterns. The tissue metabolic signatures of patients with CCA revealed the inversion of the TCA cycle that is evident with increased levels of citrate and amino acid backbones as TCA cycle intermediates, and glucose which corresponds to cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. The protein expression levels of CSC markers were examined on tissues and showed the significantly inverse association with the responses of patients to cisplatin. Moreover, the elevation of ethanol level was observed in gemcitabine- and cisplatin-sensitive group. In serum, a lower level of glucose but a higher level of methylguanidine was observed in the gemcitabine-responders as non-invasive predictive biomarker for gemcitabine sensitivity. Collectively, our findings indicate that these metabolites may serve as the predictive biomarkers in clinical practice which not only predict the chemotherapy response in patients with CCA but also minimize the adverse effect from chemotherapy.
Ferreira MR, Sands CJ, Li J, et al., 2021, Impact of pelvic radiation therapy for prostate cancer on global metabolic profiles and microbiota-driven gastrointestinal late side effects: a longitudinal observational study, International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics, Vol: 111, Pages: 1204-1213, ISSN: 0360-3016
PurposeRadiation therapy to the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLNRT) is part of the curative treatment of high-risk prostate cancer. Yet, the broader influence of radiation therapy on patient physiology is poorly understood. We conducted comprehensive global metabolomic profiling of urine, plasma, and stools sampled from patients undergoing PLNRT for high-risk prostate cancer.Methods and MaterialsSamples were taken from 32 patients at 6 timepoints: baseline, 2 to 3 and 4 to 5 weeks of PLNRT; and 3, 6, and 12 months after PLNRT. We characterized the global metabolome of urine and plasma using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and of stools with nuclear magnetic resonance. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to investigate metabolic changes between timepoints for each biofluid and assay and determine metabolites of interest.ResultsMetabolites in urine, plasma and stools changed significantly after PLNRT initiation. Metabolic profiles did not return to baseline up to 1 year post-PLNRT in any biofluid. Molecules associated with cardiovascular risk were increased in plasma. Pre-PLNRT fecal butyrate levels directly associated with increasing gastrointestinal side effects, as did a sharper fall in those levels during and up to 1 year postradiation therapy, mirroring our previous results with metataxonomics.ConclusionsWe showed for the first time that an overall metabolic effect is observed in patients undergoing PLNRT up to 1 year posttreatment. These metabolic changes may effect on long-term morbidity after treatment, which warrants further investigation.
Koller KR, Wilson A, Normolle DP, et al., 2021, Dietary fibre to reduce colon cancer risk in Alaska Native people: the Alaska FIRST randomised clinical trial protocol., BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2044-6055
INTRODUCTION: Diet, shown to impact colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, is a modifiable environmental factor. Fibre foods fermented by gut microbiota produce metabolites that not only provide food for the colonic epithelium but also exert regulatory effects on colonic mucosal inflammation and proliferation. We describe methods used in a double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial with Alaska Native (AN) people to determine if dietary fibre supplementation can substantially reduce CRC risk among people with the highest reported CRC incidence worldwide. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Eligible patients undergoing routine screening colonoscopy consent to baseline assessments and specimen/data collection (blood, urine, stool, saliva, breath and colon mucosal biopsies) at the time of colonoscopy. Following an 8-week stabilisation period to re-establish normal gut microbiota post colonoscopy, study personnel randomise participants to either a high fibre supplement (resistant starch, n=30) or placebo (digestible starch, n=30) condition, repeating stool sample collection. During the 28-day supplement trial, each participant consumes their usual diet plus their supplement under direct observation. On day 29, participants undergo a flexible sigmoidoscopy to obtain mucosal biopsy samples to measure the effect of the supplement on inflammatory and proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk, with follow-up assessments and data/specimen collection similar to baseline. Secondary outcome measures include the impact of a high fibre supplement on the oral and colonic microbiome and biofluid metabolome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approvals were obtained from the Alaska Area and University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Boards and Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium and Southcentral Foundation research review bodies. A data safety monitoring board, material transfer agreements and weekly study team meetings provide regular oversight throughout the study. Study findings will first be shared with AN
Haonon O, Liu Z, Dangtakot R, et al., 2021, Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Induces Metabolic and Fecal Microbial Disturbances in Association with Liver and Kidney Pathologies in Hamsters, JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, Vol: 20, Pages: 3940-3951, ISSN: 1535-3893
Hu C, Iwasaki M, Liu Z, et al., 2021, Lung but not brain cancer cell malignancy inhibited by commonly used anesthetic propofol during surgery: Implication of reducing cancer recurrence risk, Journal of Advanced Research, Vol: 31, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2090-1232
IntroductionIntravenous anesthesia with propofol was reported to improve cancer surgical outcomes when compared with inhalational anesthesia. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms largely remain unknown.ObjectivesThe anti-tumor effects of propofol and the possible underlying mechanism including altered metabolic and signaling pathways were studied in the current study.MethodsThe cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells were analyzed with CCK-8, Ki-67 staining, wound healing, and Transwell assay, respectively. The protein changes were analyzed with Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The metabolomics alteration was studied with 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The gene expression regulations were analyzed with PCR gene array and qRT-PCR experiments.ResultsIn this study, we found that propofol reduced cell viability and inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, but not neuroglioma cells. In lung cancer cells, propofol downregulated glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1), p-Akt, p-Erk1/2, and hypoxia- inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 α ) expressions and upregulated pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression. Propofol increased intracellular glutamate and glycine but decreased acetate and formate whilst increased glucose, lactate, glutamine, succinate, pyruvate, arginine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine and glycerol, and decreased acetate, ethanol, isopropanol in the culture media of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, VEGFA, CTBP1, CST7, CTSK, CXCL12, and CXCR4 gene expressions were downregulated, while NR4A3, RB1, NME1, MTSS1, NME4, SYK, APC, and FAT1 were upregulated following the propofol treatment. Consistent with the phenotypical changes, these molecular and metabolic changes were not found in the neuroglioma cells.ConclusionOur findings indicated anti-tumor effects of propofol on the lung cancer but not brain cancer, through the regulation of tumor metasta
Alotaibi A, Li J, Gooderham N, 2021, Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) enhances dietary carcinogen-induced DNA damage in colorectal cancer epithelial cells through activation of JNK signaling pathway, Toxicology, Vol: 457, ISSN: 0300-483X
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) present in cooked meat are pro-carcinogens and considered to be potential risk factors for CRC. Their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects require metabolic activation primarily by cytochrome P450 1 family enzymes (CYPs); the expression of these enzymes can be modulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and the tumour microenvironment, involving mediators of inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key mediator of inflammation, modulates BaP- and PhIP-induced DNA damage in colon cancer epithelial cells. Importantly, we observed that TNF-α alone (0.1–100 pg/ml) induced DNA damage (micronuclei formation) in HCT-116 cells and co-treatment of TNF-α with BaP or PhIP showed higher levels of DNA damage compared to the individual single treatments. TNF-α alone or in combination with BaP or PhIP did not affect the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 (target genes of AhR signaling pathways). The DNA damage induced by TNF-α was elevated in p53 null HTC-116 cells compared to wild type cells, suggesting that TNF-α-induced DNA damage is suppressed by functional p53. In contrast, p53 status failed to affect BaP and PhIP induced micronucleus frequency. Furthermore, JNK and NF-κB signaling pathway were activated by TNF-α treatment but only inhibition of JNK significantly reduced TNF-α-induced DNA damage. Collectively, these findings suggest that TNF-α induced DNA damage involves JNK signaling pathway rather than AhR and NF-κB pathways in colon cancer epithelial cells.
Li J, 2021, Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass-induced bacterial perturbation contributes to altered host-bacterial co-metabolic phenotype, Microbiome, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2049-2618
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery, used to achieve effective weight loss in individuals with severe obesity, modifies the gut microbiota and systemic metabolism in both humans and animal models. The aim of the current study was to understand better the metabolic functions of the altered gut microbiome by conducting deep phenotyping of bariatric surgery patients and bacterial culturing to investigate causality of the metabolic observations. METHODS: Three bariatric cohorts (n = 84, n = 14 and n = 9) with patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB), respectively, were enrolled. Metabolic and 16S rRNA bacterial profiles were compared between pre- and post-surgery. Faeces from RYGB patients and bacterial isolates were cultured to experimentally associate the observed metabolic changes in biofluids with the altered gut microbiome. RESULTS: Compared to SG and LGB, RYGB induced the greatest weight loss and most profound metabolic and bacterial changes. RYGB patients showed increased aromatic amino acids-based host-bacterial co-metabolism, resulting in increased urinary excretion of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetylglutamine, 4-cresyl sulphate and indoxyl sulphate, and increased faecal excretion of tyramine and phenylacetate. Bacterial degradation of choline was increased as evidenced by altered urinary trimethylamine-N-oxide and dimethylamine excretion and faecal concentrations of dimethylamine. RYGB patients' bacteria had a greater capacity to produce tyramine from tyrosine, phenylalanine to phenylacetate and tryptophan to indole and tryptamine, compared to the microbiota from non-surgery, normal weight individuals. 3-Hydroxydicarboxylic acid metabolism and urinary excretion of primary bile acids, serum BCAAs and dimethyl sulfone were also perturbed following bariatric surgery. CONCLUSION: Altered bacterial composition and metabolism contribute to metabolic observations in biofluid
Nahok K, Phetcharaburanin J, Li J, et al., 2021, Monosodium Glutamate Induces Changes in Hepatic and Renal Metabolic Profiles and Gut Microbiome of Wistar Rats, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 13
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 5
Barker GF, Pechlivanis A, Bello AT, et al., 2021, Aa022 a high-fiber low-fat diet increases fecal levels of lithocholic acid derivative 3-ketocholanic acid, Digestive Disease Week, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S393-S394, ISSN: 0016-5085
Radhakrishnan ST, Mullish BH, Gallagher K, et al., 2021, RECTAL SWABS AS A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO FECAL SAMPLING FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GUT MICROBIOME FUNCTIONALITY AS WELL AS COMPOSITION, Society-for-Surgery-of-the-Alimentary-Tract Annual Meeting at Digestive Disease Week (DDW), Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S733-S733, ISSN: 0016-5085
Gholkar MS, Li JV, Daswani PG, et al., 2021, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolite profiling of guava leaf extract: an attempt to develop a prototype for standardization of plant extracts., BMC Complement Med Ther, Vol: 21
BACKGROUND: Herbal medicines are fast gaining popularity. However, their acceptability by modern practitioners is low which is often due to lack of standardization. Several approaches towards standardization of herbals have been employed. The current study attempted to recognize key peaks from 1H NMR spectra which together would comprise of a spectral fingerprint relating to efficacy of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf extract as an antidiarrhoeal when a number of unidentified active principles are involved. METHODS: Ninety samples of guava leaves were collected from three locations over three seasons. Hydroalcoholic (water and ethanol, 50:50) extracts of these samples were prepared and their 1H NMR spectra were acquired. Spectra were also obtained for quercetin, ferulic acid and gallic acid as standards. Eight bioassays reflecting different stages of diarrhoeal pathogenesis were undertaken and based on pre-decided cut-offs, the extracts were classified as 'good' or 'poor' extracts. The bioactivity data was then correlated with the 1H NMR profiles using Regression or Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). RESULTS: OPLS-DA showed seasonal and regional segregation of extracts. Significant models were established for seven bioassays, namely those for anti-bacterial activity against Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae, adherence of E. coli, invasion of E. coli and S. flexneri and production and binding of toxin produced by V. cholerae. It was observed that none of the extracts were good or bad across all the bioassays. The spectral analysis showed multiple peaks correlating with a particular activity. Based on NMR and LC-MS/MS, it was noted that the extracts contained quercetin, ferulic acid and gallic acid. However, they did not correlate with the peaks that segregated extracts with good and poor activity. CONCLUSIONS: The current study identified key peaks in 1H NMR spectra contributing to the anti-diarrhoeal activity of guava leaf extracts. Th
Jukes Z, Freier A, Glymenaki M, et al., 2021, Lipid profiling of mouse intestinal organoids for studying APC mutations, Bioscience Reports: molecular and cellular biology of the cell surface, Vol: 41, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0144-8463
Inactivating mutations including both germline and somatic mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene drives most familial and sporadic colorectal cancers. Understanding the metabolic implications of this mutation will aid to establish its wider impact on cellular behaviour and potentially inform clinical decisions. However, to date, alterations in lipid metabolism induced by APC mutations remain unclear. Intestinal organoids have gained widespread popularity in studying colorectal cancer and chemotherapies, because their 3D structure more accurately mimics an in vivo environment. Here, we aimed to investigate intra-cellular lipid disturbances induced by APC gene mutations in intestinal organoids using a reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-MS)-based lipid profiling method. Lipids of the organoids grown from either wild-type (WT) or mice with APC mutations (Lgr5–EGFP-IRES-CreERT2Apcfl/fl) were extracted and analysed using RP-UHPLC-MS. Levels of phospholipids (e.g. PC(16:0/16:0), PC(18:1/20:0), PC(38:0), PC(18:1/22:1)), ceramides (e.g. Cer(d18:0/22:0), Cer(d42:0), Cer(d18:1/24:1)) and hexosylceramides (e.g. HexCer(d18:1/16:0), HexCer(d18:1/22:0)) were higher in Apcfl/fl organoids, whereas levels of sphingomyelins (e.g. SM(d18:1/14:0), SM(d18:1/16:0)) were lower compared with WT. These observations indicate that cellular metabolism of sphingomyelin was up-regulated, resulting in the cellular accumulation of ceramides and production of HexCer due to the absence of Apcfl/fl in the organoids. Our observations demonstrated lipid profiling of organoids and provided an enhanced insight into the effects of the APC mutations on lipid metabolism, making for a valuable addition to screening options of the organoid lipidome.
Promraksa B, Katrun P, Phetcharaburanin J, et al., 2021, Metabolic Changes of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells in Response to Coniferyl Alcohol Treatment, BIOMOLECULES, Vol: 11
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 2
Ritler D, Rufener R, Li JV, et al., 2021, Author Correction: In vitro metabolomic footprint of the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode., Sci Rep, Vol: 11
Seyfried F, Phetcharaburanin J, Glymenaki M, et al., 2021, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in Zucker rats induces bacterial and systemic metabolic changes independent of caloric restriction-induced weight loss, Gut Microbes, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1949-0976
Mechanisms of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate weight loss-independent bacterial and metabolic changes, as well as the absorption of bacterial metabolites and bile acids through the hepatic portal system following RYGB surgery. Three groups of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were included: RYGB (n = 11), sham surgery and body weight matched with RYGB (Sham-BWM, n = 5), and sham surgery fed ad libitum (Sham-obese, n = 5). Urine and feces were collected at multiple time points, with portal vein and peripheral blood obtained at the end of the study. Metabolic phenotyping approaches and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to determine the biochemical and bacterial composition of the samples, respectively. RYGB surgery-induced distinct metabolic and bacterial disturbances, which were independent of weight loss through caloric restriction. RYGB resulted in lower absorption of phenylalanine and choline, and higher urinary concentrations of host-bacterial co-metabolites (e.g., phenylacetylglycine, indoxyl sulfate), together with higher fecal trimethylamine, suggesting enhanced bacterial aromatic amino acid and choline metabolism. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were lower in feces and portal vein blood from RYGB group compared to Sham-BWM, accompanied with lower abundances of Lactobacillaceae, and Ruminococcaceae known to contain SCFA producers, indicating reduced bacterial fiber fermentation. Fecal γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) was found in higher concentrations in RYGB than that in Sham groups and could play a role in the metabolic benefits associated with RYGB surgery. While no significant difference in urinary BA excretion, RYGB lowered both portal vein and circulating BA compared to Sham groups. These findings provide a valuable resource for how dynamic, multi-systems changes impact on overall metabolic health, and may provide potential therapeutic targets for developing downstream non-surgical treatment for
Prommajun P, Phetcharaburanin J, Namwat N, et al., 2021, Metabolic Profiling of Praziquantel-mediated Prevention of Opisthorchis viverrini-induced Cholangiocyte Transformation in the Hamster Model of Cholangiocarcinoma, CANCER GENOMICS & PROTEOMICS, Vol: 18, Pages: 29-42, ISSN: 1109-6535
Amin A, Frampton J, Liu Z, et al., 2021, Differential effects of L- and D-phenylalanine on pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone release in humans: a randomised crossover study., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 147-157, ISSN: 1462-8902
AIMS: High-protein meals stimulate pancreatic hormone release, and high-protein diets improve glucose homeostasis and decrease energy intake. These effects are partly mediated by gastrointestinal sensing of the amino acid products of protein digestion, including L-phenylalanine. Animal models suggest the calcium-sensing receptor mediates the glycaemic and anorectic effects of L-phenylalanine. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding L-phenylalanine on appetite, and the specificity of its effects on hormone release. MATERIALS & METHODS: Dose-finding study: non-randomised, unblinded, crossover study conducted October 2017 to December 2017 at the NIHR Imperial Clinical Research Facility in 5 participants. Assessed the tolerability of escalating doses of oral L-phenylalanine (0g, 3g, 6g, 10g). Acute study: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study conducted from January to May 2018 at the NIHR Imperial Clinical Research Facility in 11 participants. Investigated the effects of oral 10g L-phenylalanine relative to D-phenylalanine and placebo on gastroenteropancreatic hormone (insulin, glucagon, GIP, PYY, GLP-1) and glucose concentrations, visual analogue scales for subjective appetite and energy intake at an ad libitum meal served 70 minutes post-ingestion. RESULTS: L-phenylalanine was well-tolerated and increased insulin and glucagon concentrations prior to meal ingestion at several timepoints relative to placebo and D-phenylalanine (P<0.05). L-phenylalanine also increased GIP concentrations relative to D-phenylalanine (P=0.0420) and placebo (P=0.0249) 70 minutes following ingestion. L-phenylalanine reduced postprandial glucose AUC70-150mins relative to placebo (P=0.0317) but did not affect subjective appetite or energy intake (P>0.05). D-phenylalanine increased postprandial PYY AUC70-150mins concentrations relative to placebo (P=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of L-phenylalanine, but not D-phenylalanine, increases insulin, glucagon a
Liu Z, Coales I, Penney N, et al., 2020, A subset of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass bacterial consortium colonizes the gut of non-surgical rats without inducing host-microbial metabolic changes, mSystems, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2379-5077
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective weight loss surgery, resulting in a characteristic increase of fecal Gammaproteobacteria. The contribution of this compositional change to metabolic benefits of RYGB is currently debatable. Therefore, this study employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic profiling to monitor the dynamic colonization of the RYGB microbial consortium and their metabolic impact on the host. Eleven Wistar rats received vancomycin and enrofloxacin, followed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) of cecal slurry obtained from either RYGB- or sham-operated rats. Urine and feces from the microbiota recipients (RYGB microbiota recipients [RYGBr], n = 6; sham microbiota recipients [SHAMr], n = 5) were collected pre- and post-antibiotics and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 16 days post-FMT. No significant differences in body weight and food intake were observed between RYGBr and SHAMr. While neither group reached the community richness of that of their donors, by day 6, both groups reached the richness and diversity of that prior to antibiotic treatment. However, the typical signature of RYGB microbiome—increased Enterobacteriaceae—was not replicated in these recipients after two consecutive FMT, suggesting that the environmental changes induced by the anatomical rearrangements of RYGB could be key for sustaining such a consortium. The transplanted bacteria did not induce the same metabolic signature of urine and feces as those previously reported in RYGB-operated rats. Future work is required to explore environmental factors that shape the RYGB microbiota in order to further investigate the metabolic functions of the RYGB microbiota, thereby teasing out the mechanisms of the RYGB surgery.IMPORTANCE Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in a long-term gut bacterial shift toward Gammaproteobacteria in both patients and rodents. The contribution of this compositional shift, or the RYGB bacterial cons
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