114 results found
Haonon O, Liu Z, Dangtakot R, et al., 2021, Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Induces Metabolic and Fecal Microbial Disturbances in Association with Liver and Kidney Pathologies in Hamsters., J Proteome Res
Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) infection causes hepatobiliary diseases and is a major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. While several omics approaches have been employed to understand the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis, effects of Ov infection on the host systemic metabolism and fecal microbiota have not been fully explored. Here, we used a 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping approach to investigate Ov infection-induced metabolic disturbances at both the acute (1 month postinfection, 1 mpi) and chronic (4 mpi) stages in hamsters. A total of 22, 3, and 4 metabolites were found to be significantly different in the liver, serum, and urine, respectively, between Ov+ and Ov- groups. Elevated levels of hepatic amino acids and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle intermediates (fumarate and malate) were co-observed with liver injury in acute infection, whereas fibrosis-associated metabolites (e.g., glycine and glutamate) increased at the chronic infection stage. Lower levels of lipid signals ((CH2)n and CH2CH2CO) and higher levels of lysine and scyllo-inositol were observed in serum from Ov+ hamsters at 1 mpi compared to Ov- controls. Urinary levels of phenylacetylglycine (a host-bacterial cometabolite) and tauro-β-muricholic acid were higher in the Ov+ group, which coexisted with hepatic and mild kidney fibrosis. Furthermore, Ov+ animals showed higher relative abundances of fecal Methanobrevibacter (Archaea), Akkermansia, and Burkholderia-Paraburkholderia compared to the noninfected controls. In conclusion, along with liver and kidney pathologies, O. viverrini infection resulted in hepatic and mild renal pathologies, disturbed hepatic amino acid metabolism and the TCA cycle, and induced changes in the fecal microbial composition and urinary host-microbial cometabolism. This study provides the initial step toward an understanding of local and systemic metabolic responses of the host to O. viverrini infection.
Hu C, Iwasaki M, Liu Z, et al., 2021, Lung but not brain cancer cell malignancy inhibited by commonly used anesthetic propofol during surgery: Implication of reducing cancer recurrence risk, Journal of Advanced Research, Vol: 31, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2090-1232
IntroductionIntravenous anesthesia with propofol was reported to improve cancer surgical outcomes when compared with inhalational anesthesia. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms largely remain unknown.ObjectivesThe anti-tumor effects of propofol and the possible underlying mechanism including altered metabolic and signaling pathways were studied in the current study.MethodsThe cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells were analyzed with CCK-8, Ki-67 staining, wound healing, and Transwell assay, respectively. The protein changes were analyzed with Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The metabolomics alteration was studied with 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The gene expression regulations were analyzed with PCR gene array and qRT-PCR experiments.ResultsIn this study, we found that propofol reduced cell viability and inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, but not neuroglioma cells. In lung cancer cells, propofol downregulated glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1), p-Akt, p-Erk1/2, and hypoxia- inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 α ) expressions and upregulated pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression. Propofol increased intracellular glutamate and glycine but decreased acetate and formate whilst increased glucose, lactate, glutamine, succinate, pyruvate, arginine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine and glycerol, and decreased acetate, ethanol, isopropanol in the culture media of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, VEGFA, CTBP1, CST7, CTSK, CXCL12, and CXCR4 gene expressions were downregulated, while NR4A3, RB1, NME1, MTSS1, NME4, SYK, APC, and FAT1 were upregulated following the propofol treatment. Consistent with the phenotypical changes, these molecular and metabolic changes were not found in the neuroglioma cells.ConclusionOur findings indicated anti-tumor effects of propofol on the lung cancer but not brain cancer, through the regulation of tumor metasta
Alotaibi A, Li J, Gooderham N, 2021, Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) enhances dietary carcinogen-induced DNA damage in colorectal cancer epithelial cells through activation of JNK signaling pathway, Toxicology, Vol: 457, ISSN: 0300-483X
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) present in cooked meat are pro-carcinogens and considered to be potential risk factors for CRC. Their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects require metabolic activation primarily by cytochrome P450 1 family enzymes (CYPs); the expression of these enzymes can be modulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and the tumour microenvironment, involving mediators of inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key mediator of inflammation, modulates BaP- and PhIP-induced DNA damage in colon cancer epithelial cells. Importantly, we observed that TNF-α alone (0.1–100 pg/ml) induced DNA damage (micronuclei formation) in HCT-116 cells and co-treatment of TNF-α with BaP or PhIP showed higher levels of DNA damage compared to the individual single treatments. TNF-α alone or in combination with BaP or PhIP did not affect the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 (target genes of AhR signaling pathways). The DNA damage induced by TNF-α was elevated in p53 null HTC-116 cells compared to wild type cells, suggesting that TNF-α-induced DNA damage is suppressed by functional p53. In contrast, p53 status failed to affect BaP and PhIP induced micronucleus frequency. Furthermore, JNK and NF-κB signaling pathway were activated by TNF-α treatment but only inhibition of JNK significantly reduced TNF-α-induced DNA damage. Collectively, these findings suggest that TNF-α induced DNA damage involves JNK signaling pathway rather than AhR and NF-κB pathways in colon cancer epithelial cells.
Li J, 2021, Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass-induced bacterial perturbation contributes to altered host-bacterial co-metabolic phenotype, Microbiome, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2049-2618
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery, used to achieve effective weight loss in individuals with severe obesity, modifies the gut microbiota and systemic metabolism in both humans and animal models. The aim of the current study was to understand better the metabolic functions of the altered gut microbiome by conducting deep phenotyping of bariatric surgery patients and bacterial culturing to investigate causality of the metabolic observations. METHODS: Three bariatric cohorts (n = 84, n = 14 and n = 9) with patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB), respectively, were enrolled. Metabolic and 16S rRNA bacterial profiles were compared between pre- and post-surgery. Faeces from RYGB patients and bacterial isolates were cultured to experimentally associate the observed metabolic changes in biofluids with the altered gut microbiome. RESULTS: Compared to SG and LGB, RYGB induced the greatest weight loss and most profound metabolic and bacterial changes. RYGB patients showed increased aromatic amino acids-based host-bacterial co-metabolism, resulting in increased urinary excretion of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetylglutamine, 4-cresyl sulphate and indoxyl sulphate, and increased faecal excretion of tyramine and phenylacetate. Bacterial degradation of choline was increased as evidenced by altered urinary trimethylamine-N-oxide and dimethylamine excretion and faecal concentrations of dimethylamine. RYGB patients' bacteria had a greater capacity to produce tyramine from tyrosine, phenylalanine to phenylacetate and tryptophan to indole and tryptamine, compared to the microbiota from non-surgery, normal weight individuals. 3-Hydroxydicarboxylic acid metabolism and urinary excretion of primary bile acids, serum BCAAs and dimethyl sulfone were also perturbed following bariatric surgery. CONCLUSION: Altered bacterial composition and metabolism contribute to metabolic observations in biofluid
Nahok K, Phetcharaburanin J, Li J, et al., 2021, Monosodium Glutamate Induces Changes in Hepatic and Renal Metabolic Profiles and Gut Microbiome of Wistar Rats, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 13
Barker GF, Pechlivanis A, Bello AT, et al., 2021, Aa022 a high-fiber low-fat diet increases fecal levels of lithocholic acid derivative 3-ketocholanic acid, Digestive Disease Week, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S393-S394, ISSN: 0016-5085
Radhakrishnan ST, Mullish BH, Gallagher K, et al., 2021, RECTAL SWABS AS A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO FECAL SAMPLING FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GUT MICROBIOME FUNCTIONALITY AS WELL AS COMPOSITION, Publisher: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, Pages: S733-S733, ISSN: 0016-5085
Gholkar MS, Li JV, Daswani PG, et al., 2021, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolite profiling of guava leaf extract: an attempt to develop a prototype for standardization of plant extracts., BMC Complement Med Ther, Vol: 21
BACKGROUND: Herbal medicines are fast gaining popularity. However, their acceptability by modern practitioners is low which is often due to lack of standardization. Several approaches towards standardization of herbals have been employed. The current study attempted to recognize key peaks from 1H NMR spectra which together would comprise of a spectral fingerprint relating to efficacy of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf extract as an antidiarrhoeal when a number of unidentified active principles are involved. METHODS: Ninety samples of guava leaves were collected from three locations over three seasons. Hydroalcoholic (water and ethanol, 50:50) extracts of these samples were prepared and their 1H NMR spectra were acquired. Spectra were also obtained for quercetin, ferulic acid and gallic acid as standards. Eight bioassays reflecting different stages of diarrhoeal pathogenesis were undertaken and based on pre-decided cut-offs, the extracts were classified as 'good' or 'poor' extracts. The bioactivity data was then correlated with the 1H NMR profiles using Regression or Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). RESULTS: OPLS-DA showed seasonal and regional segregation of extracts. Significant models were established for seven bioassays, namely those for anti-bacterial activity against Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae, adherence of E. coli, invasion of E. coli and S. flexneri and production and binding of toxin produced by V. cholerae. It was observed that none of the extracts were good or bad across all the bioassays. The spectral analysis showed multiple peaks correlating with a particular activity. Based on NMR and LC-MS/MS, it was noted that the extracts contained quercetin, ferulic acid and gallic acid. However, they did not correlate with the peaks that segregated extracts with good and poor activity. CONCLUSIONS: The current study identified key peaks in 1H NMR spectra contributing to the anti-diarrhoeal activity of guava leaf extracts. Th
Jukes Z, Freier A, Glymenaki M, et al., 2021, Lipid profiling of mouse intestinal organoids for studying APC mutations, Bioscience Reports: molecular and cellular biology of the cell surface, Vol: 41, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0144-8463
Inactivating mutations including both germline and somatic mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene drives most familial and sporadic colorectal cancers. Understanding the metabolic implications of this mutation will aid to establish its wider impact on cellular behaviour and potentially inform clinical decisions. However, to date, alterations in lipid metabolism induced by APC mutations remain unclear. Intestinal organoids have gained widespread popularity in studying colorectal cancer and chemotherapies, because their 3D structure more accurately mimics an in vivo environment. Here, we aimed to investigate intra-cellular lipid disturbances induced by APC gene mutations in intestinal organoids using a reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-MS)-based lipid profiling method. Lipids of the organoids grown from either wild-type (WT) or mice with APC mutations (Lgr5–EGFP-IRES-CreERT2Apcfl/fl) were extracted and analysed using RP-UHPLC-MS. Levels of phospholipids (e.g. PC(16:0/16:0), PC(18:1/20:0), PC(38:0), PC(18:1/22:1)), ceramides (e.g. Cer(d18:0/22:0), Cer(d42:0), Cer(d18:1/24:1)) and hexosylceramides (e.g. HexCer(d18:1/16:0), HexCer(d18:1/22:0)) were higher in Apcfl/fl organoids, whereas levels of sphingomyelins (e.g. SM(d18:1/14:0), SM(d18:1/16:0)) were lower compared with WT. These observations indicate that cellular metabolism of sphingomyelin was up-regulated, resulting in the cellular accumulation of ceramides and production of HexCer due to the absence of Apcfl/fl in the organoids. Our observations demonstrated lipid profiling of organoids and provided an enhanced insight into the effects of the APC mutations on lipid metabolism, making for a valuable addition to screening options of the organoid lipidome.
Promraksa B, Katrun P, Phetcharaburanin J, et al., 2021, Metabolic Changes of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells in Response to Coniferyl Alcohol Treatment, BIOMOLECULES, Vol: 11
Ritler D, Rufener R, Li JV, et al., 2021, Author Correction: In vitro metabolomic footprint of the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode., Sci Rep, Vol: 11
Seyfried F, Phetcharaburanin J, Glymenaki M, et al., 2021, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in Zucker rats induces bacterial and systemic metabolic changes independent of caloric restriction-induced weight loss, Gut Microbes, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1949-0976
Mechanisms of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate weight loss-independent bacterial and metabolic changes, as well as the absorption of bacterial metabolites and bile acids through the hepatic portal system following RYGB surgery. Three groups of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were included: RYGB (n = 11), sham surgery and body weight matched with RYGB (Sham-BWM, n = 5), and sham surgery fed ad libitum (Sham-obese, n = 5). Urine and feces were collected at multiple time points, with portal vein and peripheral blood obtained at the end of the study. Metabolic phenotyping approaches and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to determine the biochemical and bacterial composition of the samples, respectively. RYGB surgery-induced distinct metabolic and bacterial disturbances, which were independent of weight loss through caloric restriction. RYGB resulted in lower absorption of phenylalanine and choline, and higher urinary concentrations of host-bacterial co-metabolites (e.g., phenylacetylglycine, indoxyl sulfate), together with higher fecal trimethylamine, suggesting enhanced bacterial aromatic amino acid and choline metabolism. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were lower in feces and portal vein blood from RYGB group compared to Sham-BWM, accompanied with lower abundances of Lactobacillaceae, and Ruminococcaceae known to contain SCFA producers, indicating reduced bacterial fiber fermentation. Fecal γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) was found in higher concentrations in RYGB than that in Sham groups and could play a role in the metabolic benefits associated with RYGB surgery. While no significant difference in urinary BA excretion, RYGB lowered both portal vein and circulating BA compared to Sham groups. These findings provide a valuable resource for how dynamic, multi-systems changes impact on overall metabolic health, and may provide potential therapeutic targets for developing downstream non-surgical treatment for
Prommajun P, Phetcharaburanin J, Namwat N, et al., 2021, Metabolic Profiling of Praziquantel-mediated Prevention of Opisthorchis viverrini-induced Cholangiocyte Transformation in the Hamster Model of Cholangiocarcinoma., Cancer Genomics Proteomics, Vol: 18, Pages: 29-42
BACKGROUND: Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) infection-induced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a major public health problem in northeastern Thailand. Praziquantel was shown to prevent CCA development in an Ov-infected hamster model; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we used a hamster model with Ov and N-nitrosodimethylamine-induced CCA to study the mechanisms of praziquantel action. The liver tissues from the hamsters with and without praziquantel treatment were analyzed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS: A total of 14 metabolites were found to be significantly different between the two groups. Furthermore, the combination of acetate, inosine and sarcosine was shown to exert an anti-inflammatory effect through interleukin-6 inhibition in a macrophage cell line, suggesting a mechanism by which praziquantel may prevent inflammation caused by Ov, cholangiocyte transformation and further CCA develpoment. CONCLUSION: These findings might avail the development of a preventive strategy for CCA in high-risk populations.
Amin A, Frampton J, Liu Z, et al., 2021, Differential effects of L- and D-phenylalanine on pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone release in humans: a randomised crossover study., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 147-157, ISSN: 1462-8902
AIMS: High-protein meals stimulate pancreatic hormone release, and high-protein diets improve glucose homeostasis and decrease energy intake. These effects are partly mediated by gastrointestinal sensing of the amino acid products of protein digestion, including L-phenylalanine. Animal models suggest the calcium-sensing receptor mediates the glycaemic and anorectic effects of L-phenylalanine. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding L-phenylalanine on appetite, and the specificity of its effects on hormone release. MATERIALS & METHODS: Dose-finding study: non-randomised, unblinded, crossover study conducted October 2017 to December 2017 at the NIHR Imperial Clinical Research Facility in 5 participants. Assessed the tolerability of escalating doses of oral L-phenylalanine (0g, 3g, 6g, 10g). Acute study: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study conducted from January to May 2018 at the NIHR Imperial Clinical Research Facility in 11 participants. Investigated the effects of oral 10g L-phenylalanine relative to D-phenylalanine and placebo on gastroenteropancreatic hormone (insulin, glucagon, GIP, PYY, GLP-1) and glucose concentrations, visual analogue scales for subjective appetite and energy intake at an ad libitum meal served 70 minutes post-ingestion. RESULTS: L-phenylalanine was well-tolerated and increased insulin and glucagon concentrations prior to meal ingestion at several timepoints relative to placebo and D-phenylalanine (P<0.05). L-phenylalanine also increased GIP concentrations relative to D-phenylalanine (P=0.0420) and placebo (P=0.0249) 70 minutes following ingestion. L-phenylalanine reduced postprandial glucose AUC70-150mins relative to placebo (P=0.0317) but did not affect subjective appetite or energy intake (P>0.05). D-phenylalanine increased postprandial PYY AUC70-150mins concentrations relative to placebo (P=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of L-phenylalanine, but not D-phenylalanine, increases insulin, glucagon a
Liu Z, Coales I, Penney N, et al., 2020, A subset of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass bacterial consortium colonizes the gut of non-surgical rats without inducing host-microbial metabolic changes, mSystems, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2379-5077
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective weight loss surgery, resulting in a characteristic increase of fecal Gammaproteobacteria. The contribution of this compositional change to metabolic benefits of RYGB is currently debatable. Therefore, this study employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic profiling to monitor the dynamic colonization of the RYGB microbial consortium and their metabolic impact on the host. Eleven Wistar rats received vancomycin and enrofloxacin, followed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) of cecal slurry obtained from either RYGB- or sham-operated rats. Urine and feces from the microbiota recipients (RYGB microbiota recipients [RYGBr], n = 6; sham microbiota recipients [SHAMr], n = 5) were collected pre- and post-antibiotics and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 16 days post-FMT. No significant differences in body weight and food intake were observed between RYGBr and SHAMr. While neither group reached the community richness of that of their donors, by day 6, both groups reached the richness and diversity of that prior to antibiotic treatment. However, the typical signature of RYGB microbiome—increased Enterobacteriaceae—was not replicated in these recipients after two consecutive FMT, suggesting that the environmental changes induced by the anatomical rearrangements of RYGB could be key for sustaining such a consortium. The transplanted bacteria did not induce the same metabolic signature of urine and feces as those previously reported in RYGB-operated rats. Future work is required to explore environmental factors that shape the RYGB microbiota in order to further investigate the metabolic functions of the RYGB microbiota, thereby teasing out the mechanisms of the RYGB surgery.IMPORTANCE Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in a long-term gut bacterial shift toward Gammaproteobacteria in both patients and rodents. The contribution of this compositional shift, or the RYGB bacterial cons
Diederen K, Li JV, Donachie GE, et al., 2020, Exclusive enteral nutrition mediates gut microbial and metabolic changes that are associated with remission in children with Crohn's disease, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322
A nutritional intervention, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in patients with pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). We characterized changes in the fecal microbiota and metabolome to identify the mechanism of EEN. Feces of 43 children were collected prior, during and after EEN. Microbiota and metabolites were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and NMR. Selected metabolites were evaluated in relevant model systems. Microbiota and metabolome of patients with CD and controls were different at all time points. Amino acids, primary bile salts, trimethylamine and cadaverine were elevated in patients with CD. Microbiota and metabolome differed between responders and non-responders prior to EEN. EEN decreased microbiota diversity and reduced amino acids, trimethylamine and cadaverine towards control levels. Patients with CD had reduced microbial metabolism of bile acids that partially normalized during EEN. Trimethylamine and cadaverine inhibited intestinal cell growth. TMA and cadaverine inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion by primary human monocytes. A diet rich in free amino acids worsened inflammation in the DSS model of intestinal inflammation. Trimethylamine, cadaverine, bile salts and amino acids could play a role in the mechanism by which EEN induces remission. Prior to EEN, microbiota and metabolome are different between responders and non-responders.
Loo RL, Chan Q, Antti H, et al., 2020, Manuscript Strategy for improved characterisation of human metabolic phenotypes using a COmbined Multiblock Principal components Analysis with Statistical Spectroscopy (COMPASS), Bioinformatics, Vol: 36, Pages: 5229-5236, ISSN: 1367-4803
MOTIVATION: Large-scale population omics data can provide insight into associations between gene-environment interactions and disease. However, existing dimension reduction modelling techniques are often inefficient for extracting detailed information from these complex datasets. RESULTS: Here we present an interactive software pipeline for exploratory analyses of population-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data using a COmbined Multiblock Principal components Analysis with Statistical Spectroscopy (COMPASS) within the R-library hastaLaVista framework. Principal component analysis models are generated for a sequential series of spectral regions (blocks) to provide more granular detail defining sub-populations within the dataset. Molecular identification of key differentiating signals is achieved by implementing statistical correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) on the full spectral data to define feature patterns. Finally, the distributions of cross-correlation of the reference patterns across the spectral dataset is used to provide population statistics for identifying underlying features arising from drug intake, latent diseases and diet. The COMPASS thus provides an efficient semi-automated approach for screening population datasets. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Source code is available at https://github.com/cheminfo/COMPASS. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Ruban A, Glaysher MA, Miras AD, et al., 2020, A duodenal sleeve bypass device added to intensive medical therapy for obesity with type 2 diabetes: a RCT, Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-130, ISSN: 2050-4365
BackgroundThe EndoBarrier® (GI Dynamics Inc., Boston, MA, USA) is an endoluminal duodenal–jejunal bypass liner developed for the treatment of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Meta-analyses of its effects on glycaemia and weight have called for larger randomised controlled trials with longer follow-up.ObjectivesThe primary objective was to compare intensive medical therapy with a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner with intensive medical therapy without a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner, comparing effectiveness on the metabolic state as defined by the International Diabetes Federation as a glycated haemoglobin level reduction of ≥ 20%. The secondary objectives were to compare intensive medical therapy with a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner with intensive medical therapy without a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner, comparing effectiveness on the metabolic state as defined by the International Diabetes Federation as a glycated haemoglobin level of < 42 mmol/mol, blood pressure of < 135/85 mmHg, and the effectiveness on total body weight loss. Additional secondary outcomes were to investigate the cost-effectiveness and mechanism of action of the effect of a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner on brain reward system responses, insulin sensitivity, eating behaviour and metabonomics.DesignA multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.SettingImperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust.ParticipantsPatients aged 18–65 years with a body mass index of 30–50 kg/m2 and with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus who were on oral glucose-lowering medications.InterventionsParticipants were randomised equally to receive intensive medical therapy alongside a duodenal–jejunal bypass liner device (n = 85) or intensive medical therapy alone for 12 months (n = 85), and were followed up
Taylor H, Serrano-Contreras JI, McDonald JAK, et al., 2020, Multiomic features associated with mucosal healing and inflammation in paediatric Crohn's disease, Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol: 52, Pages: 1491-1502, ISSN: 0269-2813
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal microbiota has an important role in mucosal immune homoeostasis and may contribute to maintaining mucosal healing in Crohn's disease (CD). AIM: To identify changes in the microbiota, metabolome and protease activity associated with mucosal healing in established paediatric CD. METHODS: Twenty-five participants aged 3-18 years with CD, disease duration of over 6 months, and maintenance treatment with biological therapy were recruited. They were divided into a low calprotectin group (faecal calprotectin <100 μg/g, "mucosal healing," n = 11), and a high calprotectin group (faecal calprotectin >100 μg/g, "mucosal inflammation," n = 11). 16S gene-based metataxonomics, 1 H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling and protease activity assays were performed on stool samples. RESULTS: Relative abundance of Dialister species was six times greater in the low calprotectin group (q = 0.00999). Alpha and beta diversity, total protease activity and inferred metagenomic profiles did not differ between groups. Pentanoate (valerate) and lysine were principal discriminators in a machine-learning model which differentiated high and low calprotectin samples using NMR spectra (R2 0.87, Q2 0.41). Mean relative concentration of pentanoate was 1.35-times greater in the low calprotectin group (95% CI 1.03-1.68, P = 0.036) and was positively correlated with Dialister. Mean relative concentration of lysine was 1.54-times greater in the high calprotectin group (95% CI 1.05-2.03, P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: This multiomic study identified an increase in Dialister species and pentanoate, and a decrease in lysine, in patients with "mucosal healing." It supports further investigation of these as potential novel therapeutic targets in CD.
Vonhof EV, Piotto M, Holmes E, et al., 2020, Improved spatial resolution of metabolites in tissue biopsies using high-resolution magic-angle-spinning slice localization NMR spectroscopy., Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 92, Pages: 11516-11519, ISSN: 0003-2700
High-resolution magic-angle-spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR) is a well-established technique for assessing the biochemical composition of intact tissue samples. In this study, we utilized a method based on HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy with slice localization (SLS) to achieve spatial resolution of metabolites. The obtained 7 slice spectra from each of the model samples (i.e., chicken thigh muscle with skin and murine renal biopsy including medulla (M) and cortex (C)) showed distinct metabolite compositions. Furthermore, we analyzed previously acquired 1H HR-MAS NMR spectra of separated cortex and medulla samples using multivariate statistical methods. Concentrations of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) were found to be significantly higher in the renal medulla compared to the cortex. Using GPC as a biomarker, we identified the tissue slices that were predominantly the cortex or medulla. This study demonstrates that HR-MAS SLS combined with multivariate statistics has the potential for identifying tissue heterogeneity and detailed biochemical characterization of complex tissue samples.
West K, Kanu C, Maric T, et al., 2020, Longitudinal metabolic and gut bacterial profiling of pregnant women with previous bariatric surgery, Gut, Vol: 69, Pages: 1452-1459, ISSN: 0017-5749
Due to the global increase in obesity rates and success of bariatric surgery in weight reduction, an increasing number of women now present pregnant with a previous bariatric procedure. This study investigates the extent of bariatric-associated metabolic and gut microbial alterations during pregnancy and their impact on fetal development.DesignA parallel metabonomic (1H NMR spectroscopy) and gut bacterial (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) profiling approach was used to determine maternal longitudinal phenotypes associated with malabsorptive/mixed (n=25) or restrictive (n=16) procedures, compared to women with similar early pregnancy body mass index but without bariatric surgery (n=70). Metabolic profiles of offspring at birth were also analysed.ResultsPrevious malabsorptive, but not restrictive, procedures induced significant changes in maternal metabolic pathways involving branched-chain and aromatic amino acids with decreased circulation of leucine, isoleucine and isobutyrate, increased excretion of microbial-associated metabolites of protein putrefaction (phenylacetlyglutamine, p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate), and a shift in the gut microbiota. Urinary concentration of phenylacetylglutamine was significantly elevated in malabsorptive patients relative to controls (P=0.001) and was also elevated in urine of neonates born from these mothers (P=0.021). Furthermore, the maternal metabolic changes induced by malabsorptive surgery were associated with reduced maternal insulin resistance and fetal/birth weight.ConclusionMetabolism is altered in pregnant women with a previous malabsorptive bariatric surgery. These alterations may be beneficial for maternal outcomes, but the effect of elevated levels of phenolic and indolic compounds on fetal and infant health should be investigated further.
Hu C, Liu Z, Zhao H, et al., 2020, A biochemical comparison of the lung, colonic, brain, renal, and ovarian cancer cell lines using 1H-NMR spectroscopy, Bioscience Reports, Vol: 40, ISSN: 0144-8463
Cancer cell lines are very often used for cancer research. However, continuous genetic instability-induced heterogeneity of cell lines can hinder the reproducibility of cancer research. Molecular profiling approaches including transcriptomics, chromatin modification profiling and proteomics are used to evaluate the phenotypic characteristics of cell lines. However, these do not reflect the metabolic function at the molecular level. Metabolic phenotyping is a powerful tool to profile the biochemical composition of cell lines. In this study, 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping was used to detect metabolic differences among 5 cancer cell lines, namely, lung (A549), colonic (Caco2), brain (H4), renal (RCC), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cells. The concentrations of choline, creatine, lactate, alanine, fumarate and succinate varied remarkably among different cell types.The significantly higher intracellular concentrations of glutathione, myo-inositol, and phosphocholine were found in the SKOV3 cell line relative to other cell lines. Glutamate is higher in both SKOV3 and RCC cells compared to other cell lines. For cell culture media analysis, isopropanol was found to be the highest in RCC media, followed by A549 and SKOV3 media, while acetone was the highest in A549, followed by RCC and SKOV3. These results demonstrated that 1H-NMR-based metabolic phenotyping approach allows us to characterize specific metabolic signatures of cancer cell lines and provides phenotypical information of cellular metabolism.
Guo Y, Li Y, Zhang Y, et al., 2020, Post-operative delirium associated with metabolic alterations following hemi-arthroplasty in older patients, Age and Ageing, Vol: 49, Pages: 88-95, ISSN: 0002-0729
Backgroundpost-operative delirium (POD) is a common complication in older patients, though a possible link between metabolic changes and POD development has yet to be investigated.Methodsolder patients with hip fracture who underwent hemi-arthroplasty were recruited, and delirious states were assessed for 3 days after surgery using the confusion assessment method-Chinese revision. Simultaneously, fasting blood samples were collected on the morning of surgery and on the first post-operative day. Ultimately, 244 older patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed. Blood samples from 60 patients with POD and 60 matched controls were analysed using metabolomics platforms.Resultssixty patients (24.6%) developed POD. Principal component analysis scores plot and cross-validated scores plots from orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis were implemented to visualise the differences in metabolites between the two groups before and after surgery (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that levels of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids were lower in the POD group than in the NPOD (non-POD) group both before and after surgery; tricarboxylic cycle intermediate levels were lower in the POD group than in the NPOD group, but glycolysis products were higher in the POD group than in the NPOD group after surgery. Furthermore, the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)/aromatic amino acid ratio was lower in the POD group than in the NPOD group after surgery.Conclusionsmetabolic abnormalities, including deficiencies in ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, perturbations in tricarboxylic cycle and oxidative stress and metabolic imbalances in BCAA and AAA might contribute to POD development.
Ritler D, Rufener R, Li JV, et al., 2019, In vitro metabolomic footprint of the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode., Sci Rep, Vol: 9
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a zoonotic disease that is deadly if left untreated. AE is caused by the larval metacestode stage of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. Better knowledge on the host-parasite interface could yield novel targets for improvement of the treatment against AE. We analyzed culture media incubated with in vitro grown E. multilocularis metacestodes by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify the unknown metabolic footprint of the parasite. Moreover, we quantitatively analyzed all amino acids, acetate, glucose, lactate, and succinate in time-course experiments using liquid chromatography and enzymatic assays. The E. multilocularis metacestodes consumed glucose and, surprisingly, threonine and produced succinate, acetate, and alanine as major fermentation products. The metabolic composition of vesicle fluid (VF) from in vitro grown E. multilocularis metacestodes was different from parasite-incubated culture medium with respect to the abundance, but not the spectrum, of metabolites, and some metabolites, in particular amino acids, accumulated in the VF. Overall, this study presents the first characterization of the in vitro metabolic footprint of E. multilocularis metacestodes and VF composition, and it provides the basis for analyses of potentially targetable pathways for future drug development.
Ocvirk S, Wilson AS, Posma JM, et al., 2019, A prospective cohort analysis of gut microbial co-metabolism in Alaska Native and rural African people at high and low risk of colorectal cancer, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 111, Pages: 406-419, ISSN: 0002-9165
BACKGROUND: Alaska Native (AN) people have the world's highest recorded incidence of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) (∼91:100,000), whereas rural African (RA) people have the lowest risk (<5:100,000). Previous data supported the hypothesis that diet affected CRC risk through its effects on the colonic microbiota that produce tumor-suppressive or -promoting metabolites. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether differences in these metabolites may contribute to the high risk of CRC in AN people. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study assessed dietary intake from 32 AN and 21 RA healthy middle-aged volunteers before screening colonoscopy. Analysis of fecal microbiota composition by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and fecal/urinary metabolites by 1H-NMR spectroscopy was complemented with targeted quantification of fecal SCFAs, bile acids, and functional microbial genes. RESULTS: Adenomatous polyps were detected in 16 of 32 AN participants, but not found in RA participants. The AN diet contained higher proportions of fat and animal protein and less fiber. AN fecal microbiota showed a compositional predominance of Blautia and Lachnoclostridium, higher microbial capacity for bile acid conversion, and low abundance of some species involved in saccharolytic fermentation (e.g., Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae), but no significant lack of butyrogenic bacteria. Significantly lower concentrations of tumor-suppressive butyrate (22.5 ± 3.1 compared with 47.2 ± 7.3 SEM µmol/g) coincided with significantly higher concentrations of tumor-promoting deoxycholic acid (26.7 ± 4.2 compared with 11 ± 1.9 µmol/g) in AN fecal samples. AN participants had lower quantities of fecal/urinary metabolites than RA participants and metabolite profiles correlated with the abundance of distinct microbial genera in feces. The main microbial and metabolic CRC-associated markers were not significantly altered in
Jukes CA, Ijaz UZ, Buckley A, et al., 2019, Bile salt metabolism is not the only factor contributing to Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile disease severity in the murine model of disease, Gut Microbes, Vol: 11, Pages: 481-496, ISSN: 1949-0976
Susceptibility of patients to antibiotic-associated C. difficile disease is intimately associated with specific changes to gut microbiome composition. In particular, loss of microbes that modify bile salt acids (BSA) play a central role; primary bile acids stimulate spore germination whilst secondary bile acids limit C. difficile vegetative growth. To determine the relative contribution of bile salt (BS) metabolism on C. difficile disease severity, we treated mice with three combinations of antibiotics prior to infection. Mice given clindamycin alone became colonized but displayed no tissue pathology while severe disease, exemplified by weight loss and inflammatory tissue damage occurred in animals given a combination of five antibiotics and clindamycin. Animals given only the five antibiotic cocktails showed only transient colonization and no disease. C. difficile colonization was associated with a reduction in bacterial diversity, an inability to amplify bile salt hydrolase (BSH) sequences from fecal DNA and a relative increase in primary bile acids (pBA) in cecal lavages from infected mice. Further, the link between BSA modification and the microbiome was confirmed by the isolation of strains of Lactobacillus murinus that modified primary bile acids in vitro, thus preventing C. difficile germination. Interestingly, BSH activity did not correlate with disease severity which appeared linked to alternations in mucin, which may indirectly lead to increased exposure of the epithelial surface to inflammatory signals. These data confirm the role of microbial metabolic activity in protection of the gut and highlights the need for greater understanding the function of bacterial communities in disease prevention.
Sabino AR, Tavares SS, Riffel A, et al., 2019, H-1 NMR metabolomic approach reveals chlorogenic acid as a response of sugarcane induced by exposure to Diatraea saccharalis, INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, Vol: 140, ISSN: 0926-6690
Cameron SJS, Alexander JL, Bolt F, et al., 2019, Evaluation of direct from sample metabolomics of human feces using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 91, Pages: 13448-13457, ISSN: 0003-2700
Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in the investigation of the human fecal metabolome. However, current approaches require time-consuming sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and consequently long analytical run times. Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) is a method of ambient ionization mass spectrometry and has been utilized in the metabolic profiling of a diverse range of biological materials, including human tissue, cell culture lines, and microorganisms. Here, we describe the use of an automated, high-throughput REIMS robotic platform for direct analysis of human feces. Through the analysis of fecal samples from five healthy male participants, REIMS analytical parameters were optimized and used to assess the chemical information obtainable using REIMS. Within the fecal samples analyzed, bile acids, including primary, secondary, and conjugate species, were identified, and phospholipids of possible bacterial origin were detected. In addition, the effect of storage conditions and consecutive freeze/thaw cycles was determined. Within the REIMS mass spectra, the lower molecular weight metabolites, such as fatty acids, were shown to be significantly affected by storage conditions for prolonged periods at temperatures above −80 °C and consecutive freeze/thaw cycles. However, the complex lipid region was shown to be unaffected by these conditions. A further cohort of 50 fecal samples, collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery, were analyzed using the optimized REIMS parameters and the complex lipid region mass spectra used for multivariate modeling. This analysis showed a predicted separation between pre- and post-surgery specimens, suggesting that REIMS analysis can detect biological differences, such as microbiome-level differences, which have traditionally been reliant upon methods utilizing extensive sample preparations and chromatographic separations and/or DNA sequencing.
Ferreira MR, Andreyev HJN, Mohammed K, et al., 2019, Microbiota- and radiotherapy-induced gastrointestinal side-effects (MARS) study: a large pilot study of the microbiome in acute and late-radiation enteropathy, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 25, Pages: 6487-6500, ISSN: 1078-0432
Purpose: Radiotherapy is important in managing pelvic cancers. However, radiation enteropathy may occur and can be dose limiting. The gut microbiota may contribute to the pathogenesis of radiation enteropathy. We hypothesized that the microbiome differs between patients with and without radiation enteropathy.Experimental Design: Three cohorts of patients (n = 134) were recruited. The early cohort (n = 32) was followed sequentially up to 12 months post-radiotherapy to assess early radiation enteropathy. Linear mixed models were used to assess microbiota dynamics. The late cohort (n = 87) was assessed cross-sectionally to assess late radiation enteropathy. The colonoscopy cohort compared the intestinal mucosa microenvironment in patients with radiation enteropathy (cases, n = 9) with healthy controls (controls, n = 6). Fecal samples were obtained from all cohorts. In the colonoscopy cohort, intestinal mucosa samples were taken. Metataxonomics (16S rRNA gene) and imputed metataxonomics (Piphillin) were used to characterize the microbiome. Clinician- and patient-reported outcomes were used for clinical characterization.Results: In the acute cohort, we observed a trend for higher preradiotherapy diversity in patients with no self-reported symptoms (P = 0.09). Dynamically, diversity decreased less over time in patients with rising radiation enteropathy (P = 0.05). A consistent association between low bacterial diversity and late radiation enteropathy was also observed, albeit nonsignificantly. Higher counts of Clostridium IV, Roseburia, and Phascolarctobacterium significantly associated with radiation enteropathy. Homeostatic intestinal mucosa cytokines related to microbiota regulation and intestinal wall maintenance were significantly reduced in radiation enteropathy [IL7 (P = 0.05), IL12/IL23p40 (P = 0.03), IL15 (P = 0.05), and IL16 (P = 0.009)]. IL15 inversely correlated with counts of Roseburia and Propionibacterium.Conclusions: The microbiota presents opportunities t
Nahok K, Li JV, Phetcharaburanin J, et al., 2019, Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) renders alkalinizing properties and Its urinary metabolic markers of MSG consumption in rats, Biomolecules, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2218-273X
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavor enhancer and its effects on human health are still debated. We aimed to investigate whether MSG can act as alkalinizing agent in murine models and if its metabolites are biomarkers of MSG consumption. For this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were given water added with 1 g% MSG or three types of control water, including sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). At 14 days, urinary pH, electrolytes, urinary metabolites and ion-exchanger gene expression were determined. The results revealed that MSG-treated rats had significantly more alkaline urine and higher levels of urinary sodium and bicarbonate similar to NaHCO3 controls. These changes correlated with a lower expression of ion-exchanger genes, namely, CAII, NBC1, and AE1, which are involved in bicarbonate kidney reabsorption. The urinary metabolic profiles also revealed similar patterns for the MSG and NaHCO3 groups. In conclusion, MSG exhibits similar properties to NaHCO3, an alkalinizing agent, with regard to inducing alkaline urine, reducing bicarbonate kidney reabsorption, and generating a specific urinary metabolic pattern. We believe that these observations will be useful to further study the MSG effects in humans.
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