Imperial College London

DrJuliaSanchez Garrido

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Research Laboratory Manager







1.40Flowers buildingSouth Kensington Campus





I am a research associate working in the Centre for Bacterial Resistance Biology (previously known as the Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection; CMBI) in the Gad Frankel Lab. My current research focusses on host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface, focussing on the intestine and lungs. When using the gut model I primarily using Citrobacter rodentium, a natural mouse pathogen that infects the colon in the presence of the endogenous microbiota and models pathogenic E.coli infection in humans. These pathogens express a type III secretion system molecular syringe that injects bacterial effectors into the target cells, subverting host pathways and allowing successful colonisation, thus making C. rodentium an invaluable tool to investigate virulence mechanisms, mucosal immunity and host adaptation. Our lung model has focussed on the study of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading cause of opportunistic infections in hospital and healthcare-associated settings worldwide which has been associated with increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance.

I did my PhD with Dr Avinash Shenoy, where my work was centred on inflammasomes, cell death and nutrient signalling and mainly used tissue culture and cell biology techniques. While I have now incorporated in vivo models to my research, molecular and cell biology are still a main part of research and my interests still lie on the host response to infection.

Outside research I also enjoy taking part and organising science outreach activities, especially those oriented towards families and children, and have been involved in the Imperial Festival, which later became the Great Exhibition Road Festival, since 2018 (first as a participant, later as a coordinator). I was part of the CMBI postdoc association from 2020-2023, where we work together with the principal investigators and the CMBI postgraduate group to make the centre a great place to work, collaborate and do research, and I have also been a postdoc representative for first for the department of infectious diseases (2020-2022), and then for the Department of Life Sciences (since 2022). I am also part of the London Infection Postdoc Network committee, a network we put together after the COVID19 pandemic made us aware of the lack of communication between postdocs from different research centres and institutions in London despite the geographical proximity ( ).

Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Wong J, David S, Sanchez Garrido J, et al., 2022, Recurrent emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenem resistance mediated by an inhibitory ompK36 mRNA secondary structure, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol:119, ISSN:0027-8424, Pages:1-12

David S, Wong JLC, Sanchez-Garrido J, et al., 2022, Widespread emergence of OmpK36 loop 3 insertions among multidrug-resistant clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae., PLOS Pathogens, Vol:18, ISSN:1553-7366, Pages:1-23

Sanchez Garrido J, Ruano-Gallego D, Choudhary JS, et al., 2022, The type III secretion system effector network hypothesis, Trends in Microbiology, Vol:30, ISSN:0966-842X, Pages:524-533

Sanchez Garrido J, Alberdi L, Chatterjee S, et al., 2021, Type III secretion system effector subnetworks elicit distinct host immune responses to infection, Current Opinion in Microbiology, Vol:64, ISSN:1369-5274, Pages:19-26

Mylona E, Sanchez Garrido J, Nguyen Hoang Thu T, et al., 2021, Very long O-antigen chains of Salmonella Paratyphi A inhibit inflammasome activation and pyroptotic cell death, Cellular Microbiology, Vol:23, ISSN:1462-5814, Pages:1-14

Ruano-Gallego D, Sanchez-Garrido J, Kozik Z, et al., 2021, Type III secretion system effectors form robust and flexible intracellular virulence networks, Science, Vol:371, ISSN:0036-8075, Pages:1-21

Sanchez-Garrido J, Shenoy A, 2020, Regulation and repurposing of nutrient sensing and autophagy in innate immunity, Autophagy, Vol:17, ISSN:1554-8627, Pages:1571-1591

Sanchez Garrido J, Slater SL, Clements A, et al., 2020, Vying for the control of inflammasomes: the cytosolic frontier of enteric bacterial pathogen - host interactions, Cellular Microbiology, Vol:22, ISSN:1462-5814, Pages:1-19

Subbarao S, Sanchez-Garrido J, Krishnan N, et al., 2020, Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of inflammasomes reduces the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in macrophages, Scientific Reports, Vol:10, ISSN:2045-2322

Watson J, Sanchez-garrido J, Goddard P, et al., 2019, Shigella sonnei O-Antigen Inhibits Internalization, Vacuole Escape, and Inflammasome Activation, MBIO, Vol:10, ISSN:2150-7511, Pages:1-14

Mullineaux-Sanders C, Sanchez-Garrido J, Hopkins EGD, et al., 2019, <i>Citrobacter rodentium</i>-host-microbiota interactions: immunity, bioenergetics and metabolism, Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol:17, ISSN:1740-1526, Pages:701-715

Goddard P, Sanchez Garrido J, Slater S, et al., 2019, Enteropathogenic E. coli stimulates effector-driven rapid caspase-4 activation in human macrophages, Cell Reports, Vol:27, ISSN:2211-1247, Pages:1008-1017.e6

Sanchez-Garrdio J, Sancho-Shimizu V, Shenoy A, 2018, Regulated proteolysis of p62/SQSTM1 enables differential control of autophagy and nutrient sensing, Science Signaling, Vol:11, ISSN:1937-9145

Pallett MA, Crepin VF, Serafini N, et al., 2017, Bacterial virulence factor inhibits caspase-4/11 activation in intestinal epithelial cells, Mucosal Immunology, Vol:10, ISSN:1935-3456, Pages:602-612

Eleftheriadou I, Dieringer M, Poh XY, et al., 2017, Selective transduction of astrocytic and neuronal CNS subpopulations by lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with Chikungunya virus envelope, Biomaterials, Vol:123, ISSN:1878-5905, Pages:1-14

Eldridge MJG, Sanchez Garrido J, Hoben GF, et al., 2017, The atypical ubiquitin E2 conjugase UBE2L3 is an indirect caspase-1 target and controls IL-1beta secretion by inflammasomes, Cell Reports, Vol:18, ISSN:2211-1247, Pages:1285-1297

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