18 results found
Wiggins BG, Wang Y-F, Burke A, et al., 2023, Endothelial sensing of AHR ligands regulates intestinal homeostasis, Nature, Vol: 621, Pages: 821-829, ISSN: 0028-0836
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the blood and lymphatic vasculature, and act as an essential physical barrier, control nutrient transport, facilitate tissue immunosurveillance, and coordinate angiogenesis/ lymphangiogenesis1,2. In the intestine, dietary and microbial cues are particularly important in the regulation of organ homeostasis. However, whether enteric ECs actively sense and integrate such signals is currently unknown. Here, we show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) acts as a critical node for EC-sensing of dietary metabolites in adult mice and human primary ECs. We first established a comprehensive single-cell endothelial atlas of the mouse small intestine, uncovering the cellular complexity and functional heterogeneity of blood and lymphatic ECs. Analyses of AHR mediated responses at single-cell resolution identified tissue-protective transcriptional signatures and regulatory networks promoting cellular quiescence and vascular normalcy at steady state. Endothelial AHR-deficiency in adult mice resulted in dysregulated inflammatory responses, and the initiation of proliferative pathways. Furthermore, endothelial sensing of dietary AHR ligands was required for optimal protection against enteric infection. In human ECs, AHR signalling promoted quiescence and restrained activation by inflammatory mediators. Together, our data provide a comprehensive dissection of the impact of environmental sensing across the spectrum of enteric endothelia, demonstrating that endothelial AHR signalling integrates dietary cues to maintain tissue homeostasis by promoting EC quiescence and vascular normalcy.
Wong J, David S, Sanchez Garrido J, et al., 2022, Recurrent emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenem resistance mediated by an inhibitory ompK36 mRNA secondary structure, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, Vol: 119, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0027-8424
Outer membrane porins in Gram-negative bacteria facilitate antibiotic influx. In Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), modifications in the porin OmpK36 are implicated in increasing resistance to carbapenems. Analysis of large KP genome collections, encompassing major healthcare-associated clones, revealed the recurrent emergence of a synonymous cytosine to thymine transition at position 25 (25c>t) in ompK36. We show that the 25c>t transition increases carbapenem resistance through depletion of OmpK36 from the outer membrane. The mutation attenuates KP in a murine pneumonia model, which accounts for its limited clonal expansion observed by phylogenetic analysis. However, in the context of carbapenem treatment, the 25c>t transition tips the balance towards treatment failure, thus accounting for its recurrent emergence. Mechanistically, the 25c>t transition mediates an intramolecular mRNA interaction between a uracil encoded by 25t and the first adenine within the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. This specific interaction leads to the formation of an RNA stem structure, which obscures the ribosomal binding site thus disrupting translation. While mutations reducing OmpK36 expression via transcriptional silencing are known, we uniquely demonstrate the repeated selection of a synonymous ompK36 mutation mediating translational suppression in response to antibiotic pressure.
David S, Wong JLC, Sanchez-Garrido J, et al., 2022, Widespread emergence of OmpK36 loop 3 insertions among multidrug-resistant clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae., PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 1553-7366
Mutations in outer membrane porins act in synergy with carbapenemase enzymes to increase carbapenem resistance in the important nosocomial pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP). A key example is a di-amino acid insertion, Glycine-Aspartate (GD), in the extracellular loop 3 (L3) region of OmpK36 which constricts the pore and restricts entry of carbapenems into the bacterial cell. Here we combined genomic and experimental approaches to characterise the diversity, spread and impact of different L3 insertion types in OmpK36. We identified L3 insertions in 3588 (24.1%) of 14,888 KP genomes with an intact ompK36 gene from a global collection. GD insertions were most common, with a high concentration in the ST258/512 clone that has spread widely in Europe and the Americas. Aspartate (D) and Threonine-Aspartate (TD) insertions were prevalent in genomes from Asia, due in part to acquisitions by KP sequence types ST16 and ST231 and subsequent clonal expansions. By solving the crystal structures of novel OmpK36 variants, we found that the TD insertion causes a pore constriction of 41%, significantly greater than that achieved by GD (10%) or D (8%), resulting in the highest levels of resistance to selected antibiotics. We show that in the absence of antibiotics KP mutants harbouring these L3 insertions exhibit both an in vitro and in vivo competitive disadvantage relative to the isogenic parental strain expressing wild type OmpK36. We propose that this explains the reversion of GD and TD insertions observed at low frequency among KP genomes. Finally, we demonstrate that strains expressing L3 insertions remain susceptible to drugs targeting carbapenemase-producing KP, including novel beta lactam-beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. This study provides a contemporary global view of OmpK36-mediated resistance mechanisms in KP, integrating surveillance and experimental data to guide treatment and drug development strategies.
Sanchez Garrido J, Ruano-Gallego D, Choudhary JS, et al., 2022, The type III secretion system effector network hypothesis, Trends in Microbiology, Vol: 30, Pages: 524-533, ISSN: 0966-842X
Type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are key virulence factors that underpin the infection strategy of many clinically important Gram-negative pathogens, including Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp, enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and their murine equivalent, Citrobacter rodentium. The cellular processes or proteins targeted by the effectors can be common to multiple pathogens or pathogen-specific. The main approach to understanding T3SS-mediated pathogenesis has been to determine the contribution of one effector at a time, with the aim to piece together individual functions and unveil infection mechanisms. However, in contrast to this prevailing approach, simultaneous deletion of multiple effectors revealed that they function as an interconnected network in vivo, uncoveringeffector co-dependency and context-dependent effector essentiality. This paradigm shift in T3SS biology is at the heart of this opinion.
Mullineaux Sanders C, Kozik Z, Sanchez Garrido J, et al., 2022, Citrobacter rodentium infection induces persistent molecular changes and interferon gamma-dependent major histocompatibility complex class II expression in the colonic epithelium, mBio, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2150-7511
Most studies of infections at mucosal surfaces have focused on the acute phase of the disease. Consequently, little is known about the molecular processes that underpin tissue recovery and the long-term consequences postinfection. Here, we conducted temporal deep quantitative proteomic analysis of colonic intestinal epithelial cells (cIECs) from mice infected with the natural mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium over time points corresponding to the late steady-state phase (10 days postinfection [DPI]), the clearance phase (13 to 20 DPI), and 4 weeks after the pathogen has been cleared (48 DPI). C. rodentium, which relies on a type III secretion system to infect, is used to model infections with enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We observe a strong upregulation of inflammatory signaling and nutritional immunity responses during the clearance phase of the infection. Despite morphological tissue recovery, chromogranin B (ChgB)-positive endocrine cells remained significantly below baseline levels at 48 DPI. In contrast, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in antigen processing and presentation 4 weeks after pathogen clearance. In particular, long-term changes were characterized by a persistent interferon gamma (IFN-γ) response and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules in 60% of the EpCAM+ cIECs, which were not seen in Ifnγ−/− mice. Nonetheless, both wild-type and Ifnγ−/− mice mounted similar systemic and colonic IgG responses to C. rodentium and were equally protected from rechallenge, suggesting that cIEC MHCII is not necessary for protective immunity against C. rodentium.
Sanchez Garrido J, Alberdi L, Chatterjee S, et al., 2021, Type III secretion system effector subnetworks elicit distinct host immune responses to infection, Current Opinion in Microbiology, Vol: 64, Pages: 19-26, ISSN: 1369-5274
Citrobacter rodentium, a natural mouse pathogen which colonises the colon of immuno-competent mice, provides a robust model for interrogating host-pathogen-microbiota interactions in vivo. This model has been key to providing new insights into local host responses to enteric infection, including changes inintestinal epithelial cell immuno metabolism and mucosal immunity. C. rodent iuminjects 31 bacterial effectors into epithelial cells via a type III secretion system (T3SS). Recently, these effectors were shown to be able to form multiple intracellular subnetworks which can withstand significant contractions whilst maintaining virulence. Here we highlight recent advances in understanding gut mucosal responses to infection and effector biology, as well as potential uses for artificial intelligence (AI) in understanding infectious diseaseand speculate on the role of T3SS effector networks in host adaption.
Mylona E, Sanchez Garrido J, Nguyen Hoang Thu T, et al., 2021, Very long O-antigen chains of Salmonella Paratyphi A inhibit inflammasome activation and pyroptotic cell death, Cellular Microbiology, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1462-5814
Salmonella Paratyphi A (SPtA) remains one of the leading causes of enteric (typhoid) fever. Yet, despite the recent increased rate of isolation from patients in Asia, our understanding of its pathogenesis is incomplete. Here we investigated inflammasome activation in human macrophages infected with SPtA. We found that SPtA induces GSDMD‐mediated pyroptosis via activation of caspase‐1, caspase‐4 and caspase‐8. Although we observed no cell death in the absence of a functional Salmonella pathogenicity island‐1 (SPI‐1) injectisome, HilA‐mediated overexpression of the SPI‐1 regulon enhances pyroptosis. SPtA expresses FepE, an LPS O‐antigen length regulator, which induces the production of very long O‐antigen chains. Using a ΔfepE mutant we established that the very long O‐antigen chains interfere with bacterial interactions with epithelial cells and impair inflammasome‐mediated macrophage cell death. Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) serovar has a lower FepE expression than SPtA, and triggers higher pyroptosis, conversely, increasing FepE expression in STm reduced pyroptosis. These results suggest that differential expression of FepE results in serovar‐specific inflammasome modulation, which mirrors the pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory strategies employed by STm and SPtA, respectively. Our studies point towards distinct mechanisms of virulence of SPtA, whereby it attenuates inflammasome‐mediated detection through the elaboration of very long LPS O‐polysaccharides.
Ruano-Gallego D, Sanchez-Garrido J, Kozik Z, et al., 2021, Type III secretion system effectors form robust and flexible intracellular virulence networks, Science, Vol: 371, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 0036-8075
Infections with many Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, rely on type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors. We hypothesized that while hijacking processes within mammalian cells, the effectors operate as a robust network that can tolerate substantial contractions. This was tested in vivo using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (encoding 31 effectors). Sequential gene deletions showed that effector essentiality for infection was context dependent and that the network could tolerate 60% contraction while maintaining pathogenicity. Despite inducing very different colonic cytokine profiles (e.g., interleukin-22, interleukin-17, interferon-γ, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), different networks induced protective immunity. Using data from >100 distinct mutant combinations, we built and trained a machine learning model able to predict colonization outcomes, which were confirmed experimentally. Furthermore, reproducing the human-restricted enteropathogenic E. coli effector repertoire in C. rodentium was not sufficient for efficient colonization, which implicates effector networks in host adaptation. These results unveil the extreme robustness of both T3SS effector networks and host responses.
Sanchez-Garrido J, Shenoy A, 2020, Regulation and repurposing of nutrient sensing and autophagy in innate immunity, Autophagy, Vol: 17, Pages: 1571-1591, ISSN: 1554-8627
Nutrients not only act as building blocks but also as signaling molecules. Nutrient-availability promotes cell growth and proliferation and suppresses catabolic processes, such as macroautophagy/autophagy. These effects are mediated by checkpoint kinases such as MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase), which is activated by amino acids and growth factors, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is activated by low levels of glucose or ATP. These kinases have wide-ranging activities that can be co-opted by immune cells upon exposure to danger signals, cytokines or pathogens. Here, we discuss recent insight into the regulation and repurposing of nutrient-sensing responses by the innate immune system during infection. Moreover, we examine how natural mutations and pathogen-mediated interventions can alter the balance between anabolic and autophagic pathways leading to a breakdown in tissue homeostasis and/or host defense.
Sanchez Garrido J, Slater SL, Clements A, et al., 2020, Vying for the control of inflammasomes: the cytosolic frontier of enteric bacterial pathogen - host interactions, Cellular Microbiology, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1462-5814
Enteric pathogen-host interactions occur at multiple interfaces,includingthe intestinal epitheliumand deeper organsof the immune system. Microbial ligands and activities are detected by host sensorsthat elicit a range of immune responses. Membrane-bound Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic inflammasomepathways are key signal transducers that trigger production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as cytokines and chemokinesand regulate cell deathin response to infection. In recent years, the inflammasomes have emerged as a key frontier in the tusslebetween bacterial pathogens and the host. Inflammasomes are complexes that activate caspase-1and are regulated by related caspases, such as caspase-11, -4, -5 and -8.Importantly, enteric bacterial pathogens can actively engage or evade inflammasome signalling systems. Extracellular, vacuolar and cytosolic bacteria have developed divergent strategies to subvert inflammasomes. While some pathogens take advantage of inflammasomeactivation(e.g. Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter pylori), others(e.g. E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia sp.) deploy a range of virulence factors, mainly type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effectors, that subvert or inhibit inflammasomes. In this review we focus on inflammasomepathwaysand their immune functions and discuss how enteric bacterial pathogens interact with them.These studies have not only shed light on the inflammasome-mediated immunity, but also the exciting area of mammalian cytosolic immune
Subbarao S, Sanchez-Garrido J, Krishnan N, et al., 2020, Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of inflammasomes reduces the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in macrophages, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. Host-directed therapy may enhance the immune response, reduce tissue damage and shorten treatment duration. The inflammasome is integral to innate immune responses but over-activation has been described in tuberculosis (TB) pathology and TB-immune reconstitution syndrome. Here we explore how clinical isolates differentially activate the inflammasome and how inflammasome inhibition can lead to enhanced bacterial clearance. Wild-type, Nlrp3−/−/Aim2−/−, Casp1/11−/− and Asc−/− murine bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) were infected with laboratory strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv or clinical isolates from various lineages. Inflammasome activation and bacterial numbers were measured, and pharmacological inhibition of NLRP3 was achieved using MCC950. Clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis differed in their ability to activate inflammasomes. Beijing isolates had contrasting effects on IL-1β and caspase-1 activation, but all clinical isolates induced lower IL-1β release than H37Rv. Our studies suggest the involvement of NLRP3, AIM2 and an additional unknown sensor in IL-1β maturation. Pharmacological blockade of NLRP3 with MCC950 reduced bacterial survival, and combined treatment with the antimycobacterial drug rifampicin enhanced the effect. Modulating the inflammasome is an attractive adjunct to current anti-mycobacterial therapy that warrants further investigation.
Watson J, Sanchez-garrido J, Goddard P, et al., 2019, Shigella sonnei O-Antigen Inhibits Internalization, Vacuole Escape, and Inflammasome Activation, mBio, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2150-7511
Two Shigella species, flexneri and sonnei, cause approximately 90% of bacterial dysentery worldwide. While S. flexneri is the dominant species in low-income countries, S. sonnei causes the majority of infections in middle and high-income countries. S. flexneri is a prototypiccytosolic bacterium; once intracellular it rapidly escapes the phagocytic vacuole and causes pyroptosis of macrophages, which is important for pathogenesis and bacterial spread. By contrast little is known about the invasion, vacuole escape and induction of pyroptosis during S. sonnei infection of macrophages. We demonstrate that S. sonnei causes substantially less pyroptosis in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and THP1 cells. This is due to reduced bacterial uptake and lower relative vacuole escape, which results in fewer cytosolic S. sonnei and hence reduced activation of caspase-1 inflammasomes. Mechanistically, the O-antigen, which in S. sonnei is contained in both the lipopolysaccharide and the capsule, was responsible for reduced uptake and the T3SS was required for vacuole escape. Our findings suggest that S. sonnei has adapted to an extracellular lifestyle by incorporating multiple layers of O-antigen onto its surface compared to other Shigella species.
Mullineaux-Sanders C, Sanchez-Garrido J, Hopkins EGD, et al., 2019, <i>Citrobacter rodentium</i>-host-microbiota interactions: immunity, bioenergetics and metabolism, NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 17, Pages: 701-715, ISSN: 1740-1526
Goddard P, Sanchez Garrido J, Slater S, et al., 2019, Enteropathogenic E. coli stimulates effector-driven rapid caspase-4 activation in human macrophages, Cell Reports, Vol: 27, Pages: 1008-1017.e6, ISSN: 2211-1247
Microbial infections can stimulate the assembly of inflammasomes, which activate caspase-1. The gastrointestinal pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes localized actin polymerization in host cells. Actin polymerization requires the binding of the bacterial adhesin intimin to Tir, which is delivered to host cells via a type 3 secretion system (T3SS). We show that EPEC induces T3SS-dependent rapid non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human macrophages. Notably, caspase-4 activation by EPEC triggers pyroptosis and cytokine processing through the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome. Mechanistically, caspase-4 activation requires the detection of LPS and EPEC-induced actin polymerization, either via Tir tyrosine phosphorylation and the phosphotyrosine-binding adaptor NCK or Tir and the NCK-mimicking effector TccP. An engineered E. coli K12 could reconstitute Tir-intimin signaling, which is necessary and sufficient for inflammasome activation, ruling out the involvement of other virulence factors. Our studies reveal a crosstalk between caspase-4 and caspase-1 that is cooperatively stimulated by LPS and effector-driven actin polymerization.
Sanchez-Garrdio J, Sancho-Shimizu V, Shenoy A, 2018, Regulated proteolysis of p62/SQSTM1 enables differential control of autophagy and nutrient sensing, Science Signaling, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1937-9145
The multidomain scaffold protein p62 (also called sequestosome-1) is involved in autophagy, antimicrobial immunity, and oncogenesis. Mutations in SQSTM1, which encodes p62, are linked to hereditary inflammatory conditions such as Paget’s disease of the bone, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. Here, we report that p62 was proteolytically trimmed by the protease caspase-8 into a stable protein, which we called p62TRM. We found that p62TRM, but not full-length p62, was involved in nutrient sensing and homeostasis through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The kinase RIPK1 and caspase-8 controlled p62TRM production and thus promoted mTORC1 signaling. An FTD-linked p62 D329G polymorphism and a rare D329H variant could not be proteolyzed by caspase-8, and these noncleavable variants failed to activate mTORC1, thereby revealing the detrimental effect of these mutations. These findings on the role of p62TRM provide new insights into SQSTM1-linked diseases and mTORC1 signaling.
Pallett MA, Crepin VF, Serafini N, et al., 2017, Bacterial virulence factor inhibits caspase-4/11 activation in intestinal epithelial cells, Mucosal Immunology, Vol: 10, Pages: 602-612, ISSN: 1935-3456
The human pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), as well as the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, colonize the gut mucosa via attaching and effacing lesion formation and cause diarrheal diseases. EPEC and C. rodentium type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors repress innate immune responses and infiltration of immune cells. Inflammatory caspases such as caspase-1 and caspase-4/11 are crucial mediators of host defense and inflammation in the gut via their ability to process cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Here we report that the effector NleF binds the catalytic domain of caspase-4 and inhibits its proteolytic activity. Following infection of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) EPEC inhibited caspase-4 and IL-18 processing in an NleF-dependent manner. Depletion of caspase-4 in IECs prevented the secretion of mature IL-18 in response to infection with EPECΔnleF. NleF-dependent inhibition of caspase-11 in colons of mice prevented IL-18 secretion and neutrophil influx at early stages of C. rodentium infection. Neither wild-type C. rodentium nor C. rodentiumΔnleF triggered neutrophil infiltration or IL-18 secretion in Cas11 or Casp1/11-deficient mice. Thus, IECs have a key role in modulating early innate immune responses in the gut via a caspase-4/11—IL-18 axis, which is targeted by virulence factors encoded by enteric pathogens.
Eleftheriadou I, Dieringer M, Poh XY, et al., 2017, Selective transduction of astrocytic and neuronal CNS subpopulations by lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with Chikungunya virus envelope, Biomaterials, Vol: 123, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1878-5905
Lentiviral vectors are gene delivery vehicles that integrate into the host genome of dividing and non-dividing mammalian cells facilitating long-term transgene expression. Lentiviral vector versatility is greatly increased by incorporating heterologous viral envelope proteins onto the vector particles instead of the native envelope, conferring on these pseudotyped vectors a modified tropism and host range specificity. We investigated the pseudotyping efficiency of HIV-1 based lentiviral vectors with alphaviral envelope proteins from the Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV-G) and Sindbis Virus (SINV-G). Following vector production optimisation, titres for the CHIKV-G pseudotype were comparable to the VSV-G pseudotype but those for the SINV-G pseudotype were significantly lower. High titre CHIKV-G pseudotyped vector efficiently transduced various human and mouse neural cell lines and normal human astrocytes (NHA) in vitro. Although transduction was broad, tropism for NHAs was observed. In vivo stereotaxic delivery in striatum, thalamus and hippocampus respectively in the adult rat brain revealed localised transduction restricted to striatal astrocytes and hippocampal dentate granule neurons. Transduction of different subtypes of granule neurons from precursor to post-mitotic stages of differentiation was evident in the sub-granular zone and dentate granule cell layer. No significant inflammatory response was observed, but comparable to that of VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors. Robust long-term expression followed for three months post-transduction along with absence of neuroinflammation, coupled to the selective and unique neuron/glial tropism indicates that these vectors could be useful for modelling and gene therapy studies in the CNS.
Eldridge MJG, Sanchez Garrido J, Hoben GF, et al., 2017, The atypical ubiquitin E2 conjugase UBE2L3 is an indirect caspase-1 target and controls IL-1beta secretion by inflammasomes, Cell Reports, Vol: 18, Pages: 1285-1297, ISSN: 2211-1247
Caspase-1 activation by inflammasome signalling scaffoldsinitiates inflammation and antimicrobial responses. Caspase-1 proteolytically converts newly induced pro-IL-1α into its mature form and directs its secretion, triggers pyroptosis and the release of non-substrate alarmins such as IL-1α and HMGB1. While somecaspase-1 substrates involved in these events are known, the identities and roles of non-proteolytic targets remain unknown. Here we report using unbiased proteomics that the UBE2L3 ubiquitin conjugase is an indirect target of caspase-1. Caspase-1, but not caspase-4, controlled pyroptosis-and ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation of UBE2L3 upon canonical and non-canonical inflammasome activation by sterile danger signals and bacterial infection. Mechanistically, UBE2L3 acted post-translationally to promote K48-ubiquitylation and turnover of pro-IL-1β and dampen mature-IL-1β production. UBE2L3 depletion increased pro-IL-1β levels and mature-IL-1βsecretion by inflammasomes. These findings on UBE2L3 as a molecular rheostat have implications for IL-1-driven pathology in hereditary fever syndromes, and autoinflammatory conditions associated with UBE2L3 polymorphisms.
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