97 results found
Yip AYG, King OG, Omelchenko O, et al., 2023, Antibiotics promote intestinal growth of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by enriching nutrients and depleting microbial metabolites, Nature Communications, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 2041-1723
The intestine is the primary colonisation site for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and serves as a reservoir of CRE that cause invasive infections (e.g. bloodstream infections). Broad-spectrum antibiotics disrupt colonisation resistance mediated by the gut microbiota, promoting the expansion of CRE within the intestine. Here, we show that antibiotic-induced reduction of gut microbial populations leads to an enrichment of nutrients and depletion of inhibitory metabolites, which enhances CRE growth. Antibiotics decrease the abundance of gut commensals (including Bifidobacteriaceae and Bacteroidales) in ex vivo cultures of human faecal microbiota; this is accompanied by depletion of microbial metabolites and enrichment of nutrients. We measure the nutrient utilisation abilities, nutrient preferences, and metabolite inhibition susceptibilities of several CRE strains. We find that CRE can use the nutrients (enriched after antibiotic treatment) as carbon and nitrogen sources for growth. These nutrients also increase in faeces from antibiotic-treated mice and decrease following intestinal colonisation with carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli. Furthermore, certain microbial metabolites (depleted upon antibiotic treatment) inhibit CRE growth. Our results show that killing gut commensals with antibiotics facilitates CRE colonisation by enriching nutrients and depleting inhibitory microbial metabolites.
Horrocks V, King OG, Yip AYG, et al., 2023, Role of the gut microbiota in nutrient competition and protection against intestinal pathogen colonization., Microbiology, Vol: 169, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1350-0872
The human gut microbiota can restrict the growth of pathogens to prevent them from colonizing the intestine ('colonization resistance'). However, antibiotic treatment can kill members of the gut microbiota ('gut commensals') and reduce competition for nutrients, making these nutrients available to support the growth of pathogens. This disturbance can lead to the growth and expansion of pathogens within the intestine (including antibiotic-resistant pathogens), where these pathogens can exploit the absence of competitors and the nutrient-enriched gut environment. In this review, we discuss nutrient competition between the gut microbiota and pathogens. We also provide an overview of how nutrient competition can be harnessed to support the design of next-generation microbiome therapeutics to restrict the growth of pathogens and prevent the development of invasive infections.
Alexander J, Posma J, Scott A, et al., 2023, Pathobionts in the tumour microbiota predict survival following resection for colorectal cancer, Microbiome, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2049-2618
Background and aimsThe gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to map the CRC mucosal microbiota and metabolome and define the influence of the tumoral microbiota on oncological outcomes.MethodsA multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted of CRC patients undergoing primary surgical resection in the UK (n = 74) and Czech Republic (n = 61). Analysis was performed using metataxonomics, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), targeted bacterial qPCR and tumour exome sequencing. Hierarchical clustering accounting for clinical and oncological covariates was performed to identify clusters of bacteria and metabolites linked to CRC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to ascertain clusters associated with disease-free survival over median follow-up of 50 months.ResultsThirteen mucosal microbiota clusters were identified, of which five were significantly different between tumour and paired normal mucosa. Cluster 7, containing the pathobionts Fusobacterium nucleatum and Granulicatella adiacens, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR = 0.0002). Additionally, tumoral dominance of cluster 7 independently predicted favourable disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.031). Cluster 1, containing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, was negatively associated with cancer (PFDR = 0.0009), and abundance was independently predictive of worse disease-free survival (adjusted p = 0.0009). UPLC-MS analysis revealed two major metabolic (Met) clusters. Met 1, composed of medium chain (MCFA), long-chain (LCFA) and very long-chain (VLCFA) fatty acid species, ceramides and lysophospholipids, was negatively associated with CRC (PFDR = 2.61 × 10−11); Met 2, composed of phosphatidylcholine species, nucleosides and amino acids, was strongly associated with CRC (PFDR&
Cherta-Murillo A, Danckert NP, Valdivia-Garcia M, et al., 2023, Gut microbiota fermentation profiles of pre-digested mycoprotein (Quorn) using faecal batch cultures in vitro: a preliminary study., Int J Food Sci Nutr, Vol: 74, Pages: 327-337
High-fibre diets are beneficial for many health outcomes via a wide range of mechanisms including gut microbiota fermentation-derived short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) production. Mycoprotein (marketed as Quorn) is a food high in fibre (>6 g/100 g wet weight (ww)) and protein (13 g/100 g ww) which has been shown to have positive effects on glycemic control and appetite in humans. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underpinning this are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the changes in gut microbiota α- and β-diversity, pH and SCFAs production in faecal batch cultures supplemented with pre-digested mycoprotein (Quorn), soy, chicken and control (unsupplemented) using eight fresh stools from healthy donors. The results showed that pre-digested mycoprotein did not alter pH (p = .896), α- or β-diversity of the gut microbiota when compared to the control, soy, and chicken. Nevertheless, chicken led to a significant increase in total SCFAs post-24 h vs. control (+57.07 mmol/L, p = .01). In particular, propionate increased when compared to soy (+19.59 mmol/L, p = .03) and the control (+23.19 mmol/L, p < .01). No other differences in SCFAs were detected. In conclusion, pre-digested mycoprotein was not fermented in vitro by healthy gut microbiota in the settings of this experiment.
Martinez Gili L, Pechlivanis A, McDonald J, et al., 2023, Bacterial and metabolic phenotypes associated with inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in primary biliary cholangitis, Gut Microbes, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1949-0976
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as first-line treatment. Poor response to UDCA is associated with a higher risk of progressing to cirrhosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. UDCA modulates the composition of primary and bacterial-derived bile acids (BAs). We characterized the phenotypic response to UDCA based on BA and bacterial profiles of PBC patients treated with UDCA. Patients from the UK-PBC cohort (n = 419) treated with UDCA for a minimum of 12-months were assessed using the Barcelona dynamic response criteria. BAs from serum, urine, and feces were analyzed using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and fecal bacterial composition measured using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We identified 191 non-responders, 212 responders, and a subgroup of responders with persistently elevated liver biomarkers (n = 16). Responders had higher fecal secondary and tertiary BAs than non-responders and lower urinary bile acid abundances, with the exception of 12-dehydrocholic acid, which was higher in responders. The sub-group of responders with poor liver function showed lower alpha-diversity evenness, lower abundance of fecal secondary and tertiary BAs than the other groups and lower levels of phyla with BA-deconjugation capacity (Actinobacteriota/Actinomycetota, Desulfobacterota, Verrucomicrobiota) compared to responders. UDCA dynamic response was associated with an increased capacity to generate oxo-/epimerized secondary BAs. 12-dehydrocholic acid is a potential biomarker of treatment response. Lower alpha-diversity and lower abundance of bacteria with BA deconjugation capacity might be associated with an incomplete response to treatment in some patients.
Misra R, Sarafian M, Pechlivanis A, et al., 2022, Ethnicity associated microbial and metabonomic profiling in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis, Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, Vol: 15, Pages: 199-212, ISSN: 1178-7023
Introduction:Ulcerative colitis (UC) differs across geography and ethnic groups. Gut microbial diversity plays a pivotal role in disease pathogenesis and differs across ethnic groups. The functional diversity in microbial-driven metabolites may have a pathophysiologic role and offer new therapeutic avenues.Methods:Demographics and clinical data were recorded from newly diagnosed UC patients. Blood, urine and faecal samples were collected at three time points over one year. Bacterial content was analysed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bile acid profiles and polar molecules in three biofluids were measured using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results:We studied 42 patients with a new diagnosis of UC (27 South Asians; 15 Caucasians) with 261 biosamples. There were significant differences in relative abundance of bacteria at the phylum, genus and species level. Relative concentrations of urinary metabolites in South Asians were significantly lower for hippurate (positive correlation for Ruminococcus) and 4-cresol sulfate (Clostridia) (p<0.001) with higher concentrations of lactate (negative correlation for Bifidobacteriaceae). Faecal conjugated and primary conjugated bile acids concentrations were significantly higher in South Asians (p=0.02 and p=0.03 respectively). Results were unaffected by diet, phenotype, disease severity and ongoing therapy. Comparison of time points at diagnosis and at 1 year did not reveal changes in microbial and metabolic profile.Conclusion:Ethnic-related microbial metabolite associations were observed in South Asians with UC. This suggests a predisposition to UC may be influenced by environmental factors reflected in a distinct gene-environment interaction. The variations may serve as markers to identify risk factors for UC and modified to enhance therapeutic response.
Mullish BH, Martinez Gili L, Chekmeneva E, et al., 2022, Assessing the clinical value of faecal bile acid profiling to predict recurrence in primary Clostridioides difficile infection, Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol: 56, Pages: 1556-1569, ISSN: 0269-2813
Background:Factors influencing recurrence risk in primary Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) are poorly understood, and tools predicting recurrence are lacking. Perturbations in bile acids (BAs) contribute to CDI pathogenesis and may be relevant to primary disease prognosis.Aims:To define stool BA dynamics in patients with primary CDI and explore signatures predicting recurrenceMethodsWeekly stool samples were collected from patients with primary CDI from the last day of anti-CDI therapy until recurrence or, otherwise, through 8 weeks post-completion. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile BAs; stool bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity was measured to determine primary BA bacterial deconjugation capacity. Multivariate and univariate models were used to define differential BA trajectories in patients with recurrence versus those without, and to assess faecal BAs as predictive markers for recurrence.Results:Twenty (36%) of 56 patients (median age: 57, 64% male) had recurrence; 80% of recurrences occurred within the first 9 days post-antibiotic treatment. Principal component analysis of stool BA profiles demonstrated clustering by recurrence status and post-treatment timepoint. Longitudinal faecal BA trajectories showed recovery of secondary BAs and their derivatives only in patients without recurrence. BSH activity increased over time only among non-relapsing patients (β = 0.056; likelihood ratio test p = 0.018). A joint longitudinal-survival model identified five stool BAs with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >0.73 for predicting recurrence within 9 days post-CDI treatment.Conclusions:Gut BA metabolism dynamics differ in primary CDI patients between those developing recurrence and those who do not. Individual BAs show promise as potential novel biomarkers to predict CDI recurrence.
Shenker NS, Perdones-Montero A, Burke A, et al., 2022, Human milk from tandem feeding dyads does not differ in metabolite and metataxonomic features when compared to single nursling dyads under six months of age, Metabolites, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2218-1989
Given the long-term advantages of exclusive breastfeeding to infants and their mothers, there is both an individual and public health benefit to its promotion and support. Data on the composition of human milk over the course of a full period of lactation for a single nursling is sparse, but data on human milk composition during tandem feeding (feeding children of different ages from different pregnancies) is almost entirely absent. This leaves an important knowledge gap that potentially endangers the ability of parents to make a fully informed choice on infant feeding. We compared the metataxonomic and metabolite fingerprints of human milk samples from 15 tandem feeding dyads to that collected from ten exclusively breastfeeding single nursling dyads where the nursling is under six months of age. Uniquely, our cohort also included three tandem feeding nursling dyads where each child showed a preferential side for feeding—allowing a direct comparison between human milk compositions for different aged nurslings. Across our analysis of volume, total fat, estimation of total microbial load, metabolite fingerprinting, and metataxonomics, we showed no statistically significant differences between tandem feeding and single nursling dyads. This included comparisons of preferential side nurslings of different ages. Together, our findings support the practice of tandem feeding of nurslings, even when feeding an infant under six months.
Mullish BH, Paizs P, Alexander J, et al., 2022, Intestinal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection restores microbial arylsulfatases and sulfatide degradation: a novel mechanism of efficacy?, UEG Week 2022, Pages: 823-823
Mullish BH, McDonald JAK, Marchesi JR, 2022, Mechanisms of efficacy of intestinal microbiota transplant: do not forget the metabolites, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 594-594, ISSN: 2468-1253
Webberley TS, Masetti G, Bevan RJ, et al., 2022, The Impact of Probiotic Supplementation on Cognitive, Pathological and Metabolic Markers in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease, FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 16
Zhang D, Mullish BH, Wang J, et al., 2022, Identifying transient and stable bacteria- metabolite interactions from longitudinal multi-omics data, Publisher: Research Square
BackgroundUnderstanding the complex relationships between bacteria and metabolites in ecological systems are extremely important in studies of different microbiomes. Longitudinal multi-omics study is adopted to investigate interactions between bacteria and metabolites, by directly associating their longitudinal profiles. Since a bacteria/metabolite may involve in many different biological processes, the longitudinal profile is an average of different interactions. Therefore, direct association could only uncover the strongest interactions.ResultsHere we present a computational approach that can rebuild short- and long-term bacteria-metabolite interactions from longitudinal multi-omics datasets. For this task, we re-analyse data (both microbial sequencing and metabolomic analysis) from an in vitro model of Clostridioides difficile infection and faecal microbiota transplant, a disease state and mode of therapy in which perturbed microbiome-metabolome interactions (and their reversal) are well-established to be pertinent. By analysing such a dataset, we generated both a short-term and a long-term interaction network, which predicted many new interactions. Four new interactions were randomly selected to be validated. In batch culture experiments, we validated two of them: (1) Ruminococcus gnavus and Ruminococcus luti could generate 3-ketocholanic acid (2) Blautia obeum could consume succinate.ConclusionsThe deconvolution of the raw longitudinal signal into short- and long-term trends can help users to gain a deeper understanding of their data. This tool will be useful for high-throughput screening of microbe/metabolite/host interactions from a longitudinal multi-omics setting.
Powles STR, Gallagher KI, Chong LWL, et al., 2022, Effects of bowel preparation on intestinal bacterial associated urine and faecal metabolites and the associated faecal microbiome, BMC Gastroenterology, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1471-230X
BackgroundUrinary and faecal metabolic profiling have been extensively studied in gastrointestinal diseases as potential diagnostic markers, and to enhance our understanding of the intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis these conditions. The impact of bowel cleansing on the microbiome has been investigated in several studies, but limited to just one study on the faecal metabolome.AimTo compare the effects of bowel cleansing on the composition of the faecal microbiome, and the urine and faecal metabolome.MethodsUrine and faecal samples were obtained from eleven patients undergoing colonoscopy at baseline, and then at day 3 and week 6 after colonoscopy. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyse changes in the microbiome, and metabonomic analysis was performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy.ResultsMicrobiomic analysis demonstrated a reduction in alpha diversity (Shannon index) between samples taken at baseline and three days following bowel cleansing (p = 0.002), and there was no significant difference between samples at baseline and six weeks post colonoscopy. Targeted and non-targeted analysis of urinary and faecal bacterial associated metabolites showed no significant impact following bowel cleansing.ConclusionsBowel cleansing causes a temporary disturbance in bacterial alpha diversity measured in faeces, but no significant changes in the faecal and urine metabolic profiles, suggesting that overall the faecal microbiome and its associated metabolome is resistant to the effects of an induced osmotic diarrhoea.
Paizs P, Mullish BH, Alexander JL, et al., 2022, INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANT FOR RECURRENT CLOSTRIODIOIDES DIFFICILE INFECTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH RESTORATION OF MICROBIAL ARYLSULFATASES AND SULFATIDE DEGRADATION, GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 162, Pages: S649-S649, ISSN: 0016-5085
Blanco JM, Danckert NP, Liu Z, et al., 2022, New links between psoriatic arthritis and the gut microbiome suggest a stronger role of the gut-joint axis, Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2022, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: S456-S457, ISSN: 0016-5085
MacIntyre DA, Pruski P, Correia G, et al., 2022, Rapid Assessment of Vaginal Microbiota Host Interactions During Pregnancy and Preterm Birth by Direct On-Swab Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Publisher: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, Pages: 53-53, ISSN: 1933-7191
Martinez-Gili L, Gordon H, Blad W, et al., 2022, Gut bacteria composition and familiality echo Inflammatory Bowel Disease type and pathological spectrum, 17th Congress of ECCO, Publisher: Oxford University Press, Pages: I601-I602, ISSN: 1873-9946
BackgroundInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) aetiology encompasses genetic and environmental factors. Twin studies provide valuable insights to the familial degree (shared genetics and environment) of observed phenotypes. We characterised the gut bacterial composition of twins with IBD to find taxa associated with disease and estimate their familiality.MethodsFaecal samples were collected from 88 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs concordant or discordant for Crohn’s disease (CD; 26 MZ; 19 DZ) or ulcerative colitis (UC; 16 MZ; 27 DZ). The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and amplicon sequence variants (ASV) generated. ANCOM software was used to assess differences in IBD vs. non-IBD, stratifying by disease type (CD/UC) and adjusting for age, gender and smoking. Twin pair and zygosity were added as random effects to estimate familiality, defined as percentage of variation due to common environment and genetics. IBD-affected twins were used for differences in disease location or treatment. Participants reporting antibiotic/probiotic treatment within the last 3 months or with a stoma/pouch were not included. In UC, surgery-naive patients were compared to an excluded subset who underwent ileostomy or pouch surgery without any recent antibiotic courses.ResultsDisease concordance in MZ twins was higher in CD (54%) than UC (19%). Alpha diversity was lower in CD, but not UC, and in ileostomy and pouch vs. surgery-naive UC. Principal component analysis showed that CD-affected twins clustered apart from non-IBD ones (Figure 1A). Familiality was lower in CD, with 5% of ASVs having familiality > 50%, compared to 17% in UC (Figure 1B). Two Lachnospirales order ASVs were less abundant in UC, while 15 ASVs from Clostridia, Bacteroidia, Bacilli and Coriobacteriia classes differentiated CD from non-IBD. Firmicutes were higher in CD (β= 0.95; 95%CI [0.34,1.56]), while no phyla changed in UC. Veillonella, Barnesiella, Faecalimonas and Holdemania genera had opposite t
Monaghan TM, Duggal NA, Rosati E, et al., 2021, A multi-factorial observational study on sequential fecal microbiota transplant in patients with medically refractory Clostridioides difficile infection, Cells, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2073-4409
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is highly effective in recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI); increasing evidence supports FMT in severe or fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection (SFCDI). However, the multifactorial mechanisms that underpin the efficacy of FMT are not fully understood. Systems biology approaches using high-throughput technologies may help with mechanistic dissection of host-microbial interactions. Here, we have undertaken a deep phenomics study on four adults receiving sequential FMT for SFCDI, in which we performed a longitudinal, integrative analysis of multiple host factors and intestinal microbiome changes. Stool samples were profiled for changes in gut microbiota and metabolites and blood samples for alterations in targeted epigenomic, metabonomic, glycomic, immune proteomic, immunophenotyping, immune functional assays, and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires, respectively. We characterised temporal trajectories in gut microbial and host immunometabolic data sets in three responders and one non-responder to sequential FMT. A total of 562 features were used for analysis, of which 78 features were identified, which differed between the responders and the non-responder. The observed dynamic phenotypic changes may potentially suggest immunosenescent signals in the non-responder and may help to underpin the mechanisms accompanying successful FMT, although our study is limited by a small sample size and significant heterogeneity in patient baseline characteristics. Our multi-omics integrative longitudinal analytical approach extends the knowledge regarding mechanisms of efficacy of FMT and highlights preliminary novel signatures, which should be validated in larger studies.
Pruski P, Dos Santos Correia G, Lewis H, et al., 2021, Direct on-swab metabolic profiling of vaginal microbiome host interactions during pregnancy and preterm birth, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2041-1723
The pregnancy vaginal microbiome contributes to risk of preterm birth, the primary cause of death in children under 5 years of age. Here we describe direct on-swab metabolic profiling by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) for sample preparation-free characterisation of the cervicovaginal metabolome in two independent pregnancy cohorts (VMET, n = 160; 455 swabs; VMET II, n = 205; 573 swabs). By integrating metataxonomics and immune profiling data from matched samples, we show that specific metabolome signatures can be used to robustly predict simultaneously both the composition of the vaginal microbiome and host inflammatory status. In these patients, vaginal microbiota instability and innate immune activation, as predicted using DESI-MS, associated with preterm birth, including in women receiving cervical cerclage for preterm birth prevention. These findings highlight direct on-swab metabolic profiling by DESI-MS as an innovative approach for preterm birth risk stratification through rapid assessment of vaginal microbiota-host dynamics.
Allegretti JR, Kelly CR, Grinspan A, et al., 2021, Inflammatory bowel disease outcomes following fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent C. difficile infection, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol: 27, Pages: 1371-1378, ISSN: 1078-0998
BackgroundRecurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinical challenge. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a recurrent CDI therapy. Anecdotal concerns exist regarding worsening of IBD activity; however, prospective data among IBD patients are limited.MethodsSecondary analysis from an open-label, prospective, multicenter cohort study among IBD patients with 2 or more CDI episodes was performed. Participants underwent a single FMT by colonoscopy (250 mL, healthy universal donor). Secondary IBD-related outcomes included rate of de novo IBD flares, worsening IBD, and IBD improvement—all based on Mayo or Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) scores. Stool samples were collected for microbiome and targeted metabolomic profiling.ResultsFifty patients enrolled in the study, among which 15 had Crohn’s disease (mean HBI, 5.8 ± 3.4) and 35 had ulcerative colitis (mean partial Mayo score, 4.2 ± 2.1). Overall, 49 patients received treatment. Among the Crohn’s disease cohort, 73.3% (11 of 15) had IBD improvement, and 4 (26.6%) had no disease activity change. Among the ulcerative colitis cohort, 62% (22 of 34) had IBD improvement, 29.4% (11 of 34) had no change, and 4% (1 of 34) experienced a de novo flare. Alpha diversity significantly increased post-FMT, and ulcerative colitis patients became more similar to the donor than Crohn’s disease patients (P = 0.04).ConclusionThis prospective trial assessing FMT in IBD-CDI patients suggests IBD outcomes are better than reported in retrospective studies.
Innes AJ, Mullish BH, Ghani R, et al., 2021, Fecal microbiota transplant mitigates adverse outcomes in patients colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2235-2988
The gut microbiome can be adversely affected by chemotherapy and antibiotics prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).This affects graft success and increases susceptibility to multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization and infection. Weperformed an initial retrospective analysis of our use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donors as therapy forMDRO-colonized patients with hematological malignancy. FMT was performed on eight MDRO-colonized patients pre-HCT (FMT-MDROgroup), and outcomes compared with 11 MDRO colonized HCT patients from the same period. At 12 months, survival wassignificantly higher in the FMT-MDRO group (70% versus 36% p = 0.044). Post-HCT, fewer FMT-MDRO patients required intensivecare (0% versus 46%, P = 0.045) or experienced fever (0.29 versus 0.11 days, P = 0.027). Intestinal MDRO decolonization occurred in25% of FMT-MDRO patients versus 11% non-FMT MDRO patients. Despite the significant difference and statistically comparablepatient/transplant characteristics, as the sample size was small, a matched-pair analysis to non-MDRO colonized control cohorts(2:1 matching) was performed. At 12 months, the MDRO group who did not have an FMT had significantly lower survival (36.4%versus 61.9% respectively, p=0.012), and higher non relapse mortality (NRM; 60.2% versus 16.7% respectively, p=0.009) than theirpaired non-colonized cohort. There was no difference in survival (70% versus 43.4%, p=0.14) or NRM (12.5% versus 31.2%respectively, p=0.24) between the FMT-MDRO group and their paired cohort. Negative outcomes, including mortality associatedwith MDRO colonization, may be ameliorated by pre-HCT FMT, despite lack of intestinal decolonization. Further work is needed toexplore the observed benefit.
Monaghan TM, Biswas RN, Nashine RR, et al., 2021, Multiomics profiling reveals signatures of dysmetabolism in urban populations in central India, Microorganisms, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2076-2607
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Perturbation of host–microbiome interactions may be a key mechanism by which lifestyle-related risk factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity may influence metabolic health. There is an urgent need to identify relevant dysmetabolic traits for predicting risk of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, among susceptible Asian Indians where NCDs are a growing epidemic. Methods: Here, we report the first in-depth phenotypic study in which we prospectively enrolled 218 adults from urban and rural areas of Central India and used multiomic profiling to identify relationships between microbial taxa and circulating biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. Assays included fecal microbiota analysis by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing, quantification of serum short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and multiplex assaying of serum diabetic proteins, cytokines, chemokines, and multi-isotype antibodies. Sera was also analysed for N-glycans and immunoglobulin G Fc N-glycopeptides. Results: Multiple hallmarks of dysmetabolism were identified in urbanites and young overweight adults, the majority of whom did not have a known diagnosis of diabetes. Association analyses revealed several host–microbe and metabolic associations. Conclusions: Host–microbe and metabolic interactions are differentially shaped by body weight and geographic status in Central Indians. Further exploration of these links may help create a molecular-level map for estimating risk of developing metabolic disorders and designing early interventions.
Miguens Blanco J, Liu Z, Mullish BH, et al., 2021, A Phenomic Characterization of the Gut Microbiota - Associations with Psoriatic Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis, World Microbe Forum
Ghani R, Mullish BH, McDonald JAK, et al., 2021, Disease prevention not decolonization – a model for fecal microbiota transplantation in patients colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol: 72, Pages: 1444-1447, ISSN: 1058-4838
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) yields variable intestinal decolonization results for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). This study showed significant reductions in antibiotic duration, bacteremia and length of stay in 20 patients colonized/ infected with MDRO receiving FMT (compared to pre-FMT history, and a matched group not receiving FMT), despite modest decolonization rates.
Mullish BH, Marchesi JR, McDonald JAK, et al., 2021, Probiotics reduce self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in overweight and obese adults: should we be considering probiotics during viral pandemics?, Gut Microbes, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1949-0976
Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.
Ghani R, Mullish B, Innes A, et al., 2021, Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) prior to allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients colonised with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) results in improved survival, ECCMID
Mullish BH, Michael DR, McDonald JAK, et al., 2020, Identifying the factors influencing outcome in probiotic studies in overweight and obese patients – host or microbiome?, Gut, Vol: 70, Pages: 225-226, ISSN: 0017-5749
Liu Z, Coales I, Penney N, et al., 2020, A subset of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass bacterial consortium colonizes the gut of non-surgical rats without inducing host-microbial metabolic changes, mSystems, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2379-5077
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective weight loss surgery, resulting in a characteristic increase of fecal Gammaproteobacteria. The contribution of this compositional change to metabolic benefits of RYGB is currently debatable. Therefore, this study employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic profiling to monitor the dynamic colonization of the RYGB microbial consortium and their metabolic impact on the host. Eleven Wistar rats received vancomycin and enrofloxacin, followed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) of cecal slurry obtained from either RYGB- or sham-operated rats. Urine and feces from the microbiota recipients (RYGB microbiota recipients [RYGBr], n = 6; sham microbiota recipients [SHAMr], n = 5) were collected pre- and post-antibiotics and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 16 days post-FMT. No significant differences in body weight and food intake were observed between RYGBr and SHAMr. While neither group reached the community richness of that of their donors, by day 6, both groups reached the richness and diversity of that prior to antibiotic treatment. However, the typical signature of RYGB microbiome—increased Enterobacteriaceae—was not replicated in these recipients after two consecutive FMT, suggesting that the environmental changes induced by the anatomical rearrangements of RYGB could be key for sustaining such a consortium. The transplanted bacteria did not induce the same metabolic signature of urine and feces as those previously reported in RYGB-operated rats. Future work is required to explore environmental factors that shape the RYGB microbiota in order to further investigate the metabolic functions of the RYGB microbiota, thereby teasing out the mechanisms of the RYGB surgery.IMPORTANCE Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in a long-term gut bacterial shift toward Gammaproteobacteria in both patients and rodents. The contribution of this compositional shift, or the RYGB bacterial cons
Miguens Blanco J, Selvarajah U, Liu Z, et al., 2020, Identification of New Associations Between Psoriatic Arthritis and the Gut Microbiota. the Mi-PART, a Phenomic Study, ACR Convergence 2020, Publisher: Wiley, ISSN: 2326-5205
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