16 results found
Bates KA, Higgins C, Neiman M, et al., 2023, Turning the tide on sex and the microbiota in aquatic animals, HYDROBIOLOGIA, Vol: 850, Pages: 3823-3835, ISSN: 0018-8158
Bates KA, Friesen J, Loyau A, et al., 2023, Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Shape the Skin Bacterial Communities of a Semi-Arid Amphibian Species, MICROBIAL ECOLOGY, Vol: 86, Pages: 1393-1404, ISSN: 0095-3628
Li J, Bates KA, Hoang KL, et al., 2023, Experimental temperatures shape host microbiome diversity and composition, GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Vol: 29, Pages: 41-56, ISSN: 1354-1013
Wu-Chuang A, Bates KA, Obregon D, et al., 2022, Rapid evolution of a novel protective symbiont into keystone taxon in <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> microbiota, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2045-2322
Bates KA, Sommer U, Hopkins KP, et al., 2022, Microbiome function predicts amphibian chytridiomycosis disease dynamics, Microbiome, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2049-2618
Background The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) threatens amphibian biodiversity and ecosystem stability worldwide. Amphibian skin microbial community structure has been linked to clinical outcome of Bd infections, yet its overall functional importance is poorly understood. Methods Microbiome taxonomic and functional profiles were assessed using high-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS2 gene sequencing, bacterial shotgun metagenomics and skin mucosal metabolomics. We sampled 56 wild midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) from montane populations exhibiting Bd epizootic or enzootic disease dynamics. In addition, to assess whether disease-specific microbiome profiles were linked to microbe-mediated protection or Bd-induced perturbation, we performed a laboratory Bd challenge experiment whereby 40 young adult A. obstetricans were exposed to Bd or a control sham infection. We measured temporal changes in the microbiome as well as functional profiles of Bd exposed and control animals at peak infection. Results Microbiome community structure and function differed in wild populations based on infection history and in experimental control versus Bd-exposed animals. Bd exposure in the laboratory resulted in dynamic changes in microbiome community structure and functional differences, with infection clearance in all but one infected animal. Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas and an unclassified Commamonadaceae were associated with wild epizootic dynamics and also had reduced abundance in laboratory Bd-exposed animals that cleared infection, indicating a negative association with Bd resistance. This was further supported by microbe-metabolite integration which identified functionally relevant taxa driving disease outcome, of which Sphingobacterium and Bd were most influential in wild epizootic dynamics. The strong correlation between microbial taxonomic community composition and skin metabolome in the laboratory and field are inconsistent with microbia
Bates KA, King KC, 2021, Leucobacter, TRENDS IN MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 29, Pages: 1046-1047, ISSN: 0966-842X
Bates KA, Bolton JS, King KC, 2021, A globally ubiquitous symbiont can drive experimental host evolution, MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 3882-3892, ISSN: 0962-1083
Marcogliese DJ, King KC, Bates KA, 2021, Effects of multiple stressors on northern leopard frogs in agricultural wetlands, PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 148, Pages: 827-834, ISSN: 0031-1820
Stevens EJ, Bates KA, King KC, 2021, Host microbiota can facilitate pathogen infection, PLOS PATHOGENS, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1553-7366
Bates KA, Shelton JMG, Mercier VL, et al., 2019, Captivity and infection by the fungal pathogen batrachochytrium salamandrivorans perturb the amphibian skin microbiome, Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1664-302X
The emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is responsible for the catastrophic decline of European salamanders and poses a threat to amphibians globally. The amphibian skin microbiome can influence disease outcome for several host-pathogen systems, yet little is known of its role in Bsal infection. In addition, many experimental in-vivo amphibian disease studies to date have relied on specimens that have been kept in captivity for long periods without considering the influence of environment on the microbiome and how this may impact the host response to pathogen exposure. We characterized the impact of captivity and exposure to Bsal on the skin bacterial and fungal communities of two co-occurring European newt species, the smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris and the great-crested newt, Triturus cristatus. We show that captivity led to significant losses in bacterial and fungal diversity of amphibian skin, which may be indicative of a decline in microbe-mediated protection. We further demonstrate that in both L. vulgaris and T. cristatus, Bsal infection was associated with changes in the composition of skin bacterial communities with possible negative consequences to host health. Our findings advance current understanding of the role of host-associated microbiota in Bsal infection and highlight important considerations for ex-situ amphibian conservation programmes.
Ghosh PN, Fisher MC, Bates KA, 2018, Diagnosing Emerging Fungal Threats: A One Health Perspective, FRONTIERS IN GENETICS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1664-8021
Emerging fungal pathogens are a growing threat to global health, ecosystems, food security, and the world economy. Over the last century, environmental change and globalized transport, twinned with the increasing application of antifungal chemical drugs have led to increases in outbreaks of fungal diseases with sometimes catastrophic effects. In order to tackle contemporary epidemics and predemic threats, there is a pressing need for a unified approach in identification and monitoring of fungal pathogens. In this paper, we discuss current high throughput technologies, as well as new platforms capable of combining diverse data types to inform practical epidemiological strategies with a focus on emerging fungal pathogens of wildlife.
Fisher MC, Ghosh P, Shelton JMG, et al., 2018, Development and worldwide use of non-lethal, and minimal population-level impact, protocols for the isolation of amphibian chytrid fungi, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322
Parasitic chytrid fungi have emerged as a significant threat to amphibian species worldwide, necessitating the development of techniques to isolate these pathogens into culture for research purposes. However, early methods of isolating chytrids from their hosts relied on killing amphibians. We modified a pre-existing protocol for isolating chytrids from infected animals to use toe clips and biopsies from toe webbing rather than euthanizing hosts, and distributed the protocol to researchers as part of the BiodivERsA project RACE; here called the RML protocol. In tandem, we developed a lethal procedure for isolating chytrids from tadpole mouthparts. Reviewing a database of use a decade after their inception, we find that these methods have been applied across 5 continents, 23 countries and in 62 amphibian species. Isolation of chytrids by the non-lethal RML protocol occured in 18% of attempts with 207 fungal isolates and three species of chytrid being recovered. Isolation of chytrids from tadpoles occured in 43% of attempts with 334 fungal isolates of one species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) being recovered. Together, these methods have resulted in Non-lethal isolation of chytrids from amphibiansa si gnificant reduction and refinement of our use of threatened amphibian species and have improved our ability to work with this group of emerging pathogens.
Fisher M, Murray K, 2018, Recent Asian origin of chytrid fungi causing global amphibian declines, Science, Vol: 360, Pages: 621-627, ISSN: 0036-8075
Globalized infectious diseases are causing species declines worldwide, but their source often remains elusive. We used whole-genome sequencing to solve the spatiotemporal origins of the most devastating panzootic to date, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a proximate driver of global amphibian declines. We traced the source of B. dendrobatidis to the Korean peninsula, where one lineage, BdASIA-1, exhibits the genetic hallmarks of an ancestral population that seeded the panzootic. We date the emergence of this pathogen to the early 20th century, coinciding with the global expansion of commercial trade in amphibians, and we show that intercontinental transmission is ongoing. Our findings point to East Asia as a geographic hotspot for B. dendrobatidis biodiversity and the original source of these lineages that now parasitize amphibians worldwide.
Bates K, Clare F, O'Hanlon S, et al., 2018, Amphibian chytridiomycosis outbreak dynamics are linked with host skin bacterial community structure, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis. We detected a significant effect of infection history on metamorph skin microbiota, with reduced bacterial diversity in epizootic populations and differences in community structure and predicted function. Genome sequencing of Bd isolates supports a single introduction to the Pyrenees and reveals no association between pathogen genetics and epidemiological trends. Our findings provide an ecologically relevant insight into the microbial ecology of amphibian skin and highlight the relative importance of host microbiota and pathogen genetics in predicting disease outcome.
Dillon MJ, Bowkett AE, Bungard MJ, et al., 2016, Tracking the amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans using a highly specific monoclonal antibody and lateral- flow technology, Microbial Biotechnology, Vol: 10, Pages: 381-394, ISSN: 1751-7915
The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) causes chytridiomycosis, a lethal epizootic disease of amphibians. Rapid identification of the pathogen and biosecurity is essential to prevent its spread, but current laboratory-based tests are time-consuming and require specialist equipment. Here, we describe the generation of an IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb), 5C4, specific to Bd as well as the related salamander and newt pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). The mAb, which binds to a glycoprotein antigen present on the surface of zoospores, sporangia and zoosporangia, was used to develop a lateral-flow assay (LFA) for rapid (15 min) detection of the pathogens. The LFA detects known lineages of Bd and also Bsal, as well as the closely related fungus Homolaphlyctis polyrhiza, but does not detect a wide range of related and unrelated fungi and oomycetes likely to be present in amphibian habitats. When combined with a simple swabbing procedure, the LFA was 100% accurate in detecting the water-soluble 5C4 antigen present in skin, foot and pelvic samples from frogs, newts and salamanders naturally infected with Bd or Bsal. Our results demonstrate the potential of the portable LFA as a rapid qualitative assay for tracking these amphibian pathogens and as an adjunct test to nucleic acid-based detection methods.
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