Imperial College London

DrKimberleyFoley

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Research Associate
 
 
 
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k.foley

 
 
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319Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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47 results found

Skirrow H, Foley K, Bedford H, Lewis C, Whittaker E, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2024, Impact of pregnancy vaccine uptake and socio-demographic determinants on subsequent childhood Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine uptake: a UK birth cohort study, Vaccine, Vol: 42, Pages: 322-331, ISSN: 0264-410X

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between socio-demographic determinants and uptake of childhood Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) vaccines and the association between pregnant women's pertussis vaccine uptake and their children's MMR vaccine uptake. METHODS: We used nationally-representative linked mother-baby electronic records from the United Kingdom's Clinical-Practice-Research-Datalink. We created a birth cohort of children born between 01.01.2000 and 12.12.2020. We estimated the proportion vaccinated with first MMR vaccine by age 2 years and first and second MMR vaccines by age 5 years. We used survival-analysis and Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between deprivation, ethnicity and maternal age and pertussis vaccination in pregnancy and children's MMR uptake. RESULTS: Overall, 89.4 % (710,797/795,497) of children had first MMR by age 2 years and 92.6 % (736,495/795,497) by age 5 years. Among children still in the cohort when second MMR was due, 85.9 % (478,480/557,050) had two MMRs by age 5 years. Children from the most-deprived areas, children of Black ethnicity and children of mothers aged < 20 years had increased risk of being unvaccinated compared with children from the least-deprived areas, White children and children of mothers aged 31-40 years: first MMR by 5 years, adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR):0.86 (CI:0.85-0.87), HR:0.87 (CI:0.85-0.88) & HR:0.89 (CI:0.88-0.90) respectively. Deprivation was the determinant associated with the greatest risk of missed second MMR: adjusted HR:0.82 (CI:0.81-0.83). Children of mothers vaccinated in pregnancy were more likely than children of unvaccinated mothers to have MMR vaccines after adjusting for ethnicity, deprivation, and maternal age (First and Second MMRs adjusted HRs:1.43 (CI:1.41-1.45), 1.49 (CI:1.45-1.53). CONCLUSION: Children from most-deprived areas are less likely to have MMR vaccines compared with childre

Journal article

Foley KA, Hargreaves DS, Quint JK, Bottle A, Viner RM, Kenny SE, Majeed A, Saxena Set al., 2023, Impact of the covid-19 pandemic on GP contacts for respiratory infections in children under 5 years, European Journal of Public Health, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1101-1262

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>Social distancing measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during the covid-19 pandemic also impacted the transmission of many other respiratory pathogens. We describe the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on general practitioner (GP) contact rates for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) that may have been affected by social distancing in children &amp;lt;5 years in England.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>Trends analysis from 1 April 2016 to 31 March 2021 using electronic health records from a nationally representative primary care database. We included all children aged &amp;lt;5 years registered with a primary care practice during the study period. Our main outcome was GP contact rates for transmissible RTIs including otitis media, tonsillitis, and pneumonia. We also calculated the rates of urinary tract infections as an index non-transmissible condition.</jats:p> <jats:p>We calculated annual rates for each year of age (&amp;lt;1, 1-&amp;lt;2, 2-&amp;lt;3, 3-&amp;lt;4, 4-&amp;lt;5) by summing the GP contacts divided by the number of days each child was registered with the GP practice.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Results</jats:title> <jats:p>There were 415 622 RTIs among 1 955 946 children &amp;lt;5 years over the study period. From 2016-2020 GP contact rates for RTIs were falling steadily by ∼14%/ year in all age bands, with rates of otitis media, tonsillitis and pneumonia declining by 5-11% per year. However, in 2021 marked falls of around 80% occurred for all RTIs, otitis medi

Journal article

Skirrow H, Foley K, Bedford H, Lewis C, Whittaker E, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2023, Maternal predictors of timeliness & uptake of Measles, Mumps & Rubella vaccine: A birth cohort study, 16th European Public Health Conference 2023, Publisher: Oxford University Press, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Skirrow H, Foley K, Lewis C, Bedford H, Whittaker E, Haque H, Choudary-Salter L, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2023, ‘Why did nobody ask us?’, parents’ views on childhood vaccines: A co-production research study, European Public Health Conference

Conference paper

Creese H, Hargreaves D, Foley K, Saxena Set al., 2023, Recurrence of wheeze in preschool aged children: a retrospective cohort study in primary care, European Journal of Public Health, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1101-1262

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>Approximately 1 in 7 children with wheeze will be admitted to hospital for treatment, often leading to repeat visits to emergency departments and hospital admissions. The UK lags other wealthy countries in the management of preschool wheeze and has amongst the highest rates of asthma deaths in Europe. There were reports that wheeze and asthma admissions to hospitals fell during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdowns, but the changing community incidence is unknown. We aimed to report the changing incidence of recurrent wheeze across the Covid-19 pandemic.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>Using data from the UK Clinical Practice Datalink, a nationally representative sample of the UK population, we followed a cohort of 57,603 children aged 1-5 years who consulted their general practitioner with their first wheeze attack between January 2009 and July 2020. We calculated the incidence of wheezing recurrence by calendar year. We will calculate the incidence rate ratios for recurrent wheeze by level of area-based deprivation whilst accounting for potential confounders including child age, sex, birth weight, gestation age, ethnicity, comorbidities, bronchiolitis, maternal smoking, maternal asthma, and maternal age at birth.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Results</jats:title> <jats:p>The incidence of recurrent preschool wheeze remained stable across the Covid-19 pandemic (e.g., 2019: 27% vs 2020: 23%) even though total wheeze events in general practice fell from 3,135 in 2019 to 1,280 in 2020.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec&

Journal article

, 2023, Maternal predictors of timeliness & uptake of Measles, Mumps & Rubella vaccine: A birth cohort study, European journal of public health, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1101-1262

Journal article

, 2023, Impact of the covid-19 pandemic on GP contacts for respiratory infections in children under 5 years, European journal of public health, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1101-1262

Journal article

, 2023, Recurrence of wheeze in preschool aged children: a retrospective cohort study in primary care, European journal of public health, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1101-1262

Journal article

, 2023, ‘Why did nobody ask us?’, parents’ views on childhood vaccines: A co-production research study, European journal of public health, Vol: 33, ISSN: 1101-1262

Journal article

Foley K, Hargreaves D, Quint J, Bottle A, Viner R, Kenny S, Majeed A, Saxena Set al., 2023, 563 How did the first covid-19 lockdown affect general practitioner contacts with infants for respiratory infections?, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Abstracts of the RCPCH Conference, Glasgow, 23–25 May 2023, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

Conference paper

Lim XQ, Hargreaves DS, Foley KA, Arora Set al., 2023, 150 Asthma prescribing and the risks of Emergency Department attendance among children and young people, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Abstracts of the RCPCH Conference, Glasgow, 23–25 May 2023, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

Conference paper

, 2022, 5.K. Workshop: National and European studies on health literacy in children and adolescents, European Journal of Public Health, Vol: 32, ISSN: 1101-1262

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec> <jats:title> </jats:title> <jats:p>Health literacy describes how people use health information to make informed decisions in context of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. Enhancing health literacy of populations is critical and in particular important at an early age, which is understood to be more sustainable because health literacy contributes to improved personal health and development. Low health literacy in child and adolescent populations has been linked to worse health outcomes and health disparities in Europe, making health literacy of children and adolescents an important public health topic. Developing and delivering target group specific interventions and services requires precise data generation on the state of health literacy in early age. In the past decade, several conceptual approaches have been undertaken but methodological sound, validated and reliable measurement tools are still scarce. Available systematic reviews show that most tools originated from North America and/or English speaking countries. However, in the past years European researchers have been involved with research on health literacy in childhood and adolescence, the result of which culminated into heavy progress regarding the development of health literacy measurement instruments, including generic health literacy, digital health and mental health literacy. These new developments lead to the availability of validated tools for school-aged children, including primary and secondary school children. The purpose of this workshop is to bring together five contemporary health literacy studies conducted in child and adolescent populations across Europe, including national and European-wide studies. Both methodological findings regarding the measurement tool and empirical data will be introduced. The first presentation emerges from the HLCA

Journal article

Foley KA, Maile EJ, Bottle A, Neale FK, Viner RM, Kenny SE, Majeed A, Hargreaves DS, Saxena Set al., 2022, How did the covid-19 pandemic affect lower respiratory tract infections in young children in England?, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 32, ISSN: 1101-1262

Journal article

Ma R, Foley K, Saxena S, 2022, Access to and use of contraceptive care during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the UK: a web-based survey., BJGP Open, Vol: 6

BACKGROUND: The first wave of lockdown measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK resulted in suspension of 'non-essential' services, including contraceptive care. AIM: To examine women's perceptions and experiences of contraceptive care in the UK during the first lockdown. DESIGN & SETTING: A cross-sectional survey during the lockdown period from March-June 2020. METHOD: An online questionnaire was designed asking women aged 16-54 years their experiences of contraceptive care during lockdown. Questions were based on Maxwell's evaluation framework on access, acceptability, relevance or appropriateness, and equity. It was promoted on social media from 27 May-9 June 2020. A descriptive analysis was conducted of quantitative data and thematic analysis of free-text data. RESULTS: In total, 214 responses were analysed. General practice was the source of contraception for 43.4% (n = 49) and 52.3% (n = 34) of responders before and during the lockdown, respectively. The study found 55.1% (n = 118) of responders, including regular and new users, were uncertain where or how to get contraception during the pandemic. Responders reported reduced access to contraception during lockdown, and some thought sexual health clinics and general practices were closed. Remote consultations and electronic prescriptions facilitated contraceptive access for some responders. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was unavailable in some areas owing to restrictions, and alternatives were not acceptable to those who used methods for non-contraceptive benefits to treat medical conditions; for example, menorrhagia. CONCLUSION: The study highlighted the need for better information and signposting for contraception during lockdown. Contraception, including LARC, should be reframed as an essential service with robust signposting for pandemic planning and beyond.

Journal article

Bottle A, Neale FK, Foley KA, Viner RM, Kenny S, Aylin P, Saxena S, Hargreaves DSet al., 2022, Impact of COVID-19 on outpatient appointments in children and young people in England: an observational study, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Foley K, Maile E, Bottle A, Neale F, Viner R, Kenny S, Majeed A, Hargreaves D, Saxena Set al., 2022, 840 How did the first covid-19 lockdown affect general practitioner contacts with children and young people?, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Abstracts of the RCPCH Conference, Liverpool, 28–30 June 2022, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

Conference paper

Foley KA, Saxena SK, Majeed A, Hargreaves DSet al., 2022, Author response., Br J Gen Pract, Vol: 72, Pages: 318-318

Journal article

Foley K, Maile E, Bottle R, Neale F, Viner R, Kenny S, Majeed F, Hargreaves D, Saxena Set al., 2022, Impact of covid-19 on primary care contacts with children and young people aged 0-24 years in England; longitudinal trends study 2015-2020, British Journal of General Practice, ISSN: 0960-1643

Background: The NHS response to covid-19 altered provision and access to primary care.Aim: To examine the impact of covid-19 on general practitioner (GP) contacts with children and young people in England. Design and Setting: Longitudinal trends analysis using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database.Methods: We included all children and young people younger than 25 years registered with a GP. We compared the number of total, remote and face-to-face contacts during the first UK lockdown (March to June 2020) with the mean contacts for comparable weeks from 2015 to 2019.Results: We examined 47 607 765 GP contacts with 4 307 120 million children and young people. GP contacts fell 41% during the first lockdown compared with previous years. Children aged 1-14 had greater falls in total contacts (>50%) compared with infants and 15-24s. Face-to-face contacts fell by 88% with the greatest falls occurring among children aged 1-14 (> 90%). Remote contacts more than doubled, increasing most in infants (over 2.5 fold). Total contacts for respiratory illnesses fell by 74% whereas contacts for common non-transmissible conditions shifted largely to remote, mitigating the total fall (31%). Conclusion: During the covid-19 pandemic, children and young people’s contact with GPs fell, particularly for face-to-face assessment. This may be explained by a lower incidence of respiratory illnesses due to fewer social contacts and changing health seeking behaviour. The large shift to remote contacts mitigated total falls in contacts for some age groups and for common non-transmissible conditions.

Journal article

Ram B, Foley K, van Sluijs E, Hargreaves D, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2021, A core outcome set for school-based physical activity interventions: an international consensus, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Ram B, Venkatraman T, Foley K, Honeyford K, Ells L, van Sluijs E, Hargreaves D, Greaves F, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2020, Impact of school-based physical activity interventions in primary schools: measuring what matters, European Public Health Conference, Publisher: Oxford University Press, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 1101-1262

BackgroundA growing number of small studies suggest that school-based physical activity initiatives can help children achieve the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity per day. However, the heterogeneity of outcomes and measures used in small studies prevents pooling of results to demonstrate whether short-term health benefits are sustained. Qualitative studies suggest many benefits that are not represented by outcomes in trials to date. The aim of this study was to generate a list of outcomes that have been studied to develop a core outcome set (COS) acceptable to key stakeholders for future studies evaluating school-based physical activity initiatives.MethodsWe searched six databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) systematically for reviews of school-based physical activity interventions, and extracted relevant studies to identify the outcomes and measures used in each paper. A long list was generated from the literature and a previous workshop with stakeholders. This study is registered with COMET (#1322), and with PROSPERO (CRD42019146621).Results75/121 cited studies drawn from 53/2409 reviews met our inclusion criteria. We grouped 65 outcomes into 3 domains: (i) physical activity and health (ii) social and emotional health, and (iii) educational attainment. We will conduct two Delphi survey rounds with four stakeholder groups (health professionals, researchers, educators and parents) to rate the importance of each outcome. A core outcome set will be generated from a consensus process.ConclusionsThere is currently a large variation of outcomes and measures studied that precludes evidence synthesis of the impact of school-based physical activity interventions. Consensus methods are needed to focus research on the outcomes that matter the most to key stakeholders and to provide tools for future studies to assess long-term impact.Key messagesVariations in outcomes studied precludes evidence synt

Conference paper

Alturkistani A, Lam C, Foley K, Stenfors T, Van Velthoven M, Meinert Eet al., 2020, Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) evaluation methods: A systematic review, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have the potential for broad education impact due to many learners undertaking these courses. Despite their reach, there is a lack of knowledge about which methods are used for evaluating these courses.Objective: This review aims to identify current MOOC evaluation methods in order to inform future study designs.Methods: We systematically searched the following databases: (1) SCOPUS; (2) Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); (3) IEEE Xplore; (4) Medline/PubMed; (5) Web of Science; (6) British Education Index and (7) Google Scholar search engine for studies from January 2008 until October 2018. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and titles of the studies. Published studies in English that evaluated MOOCs were included. The study design of the evaluations, the underlying motivation for the evaluation studies, data collection and data analysis methods were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The quality of the included studies was appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool for RCTs, the NIH - National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute quality assessment tool for cohort observational studies, and for “Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies With No Control Group”.Results: The initial search resulted in 3275 studies, and 33 eligible studies were included in this review. Studies mostly had a cross-sectional design evaluating one version of a MOOC. We found that studies mostly had a learner-focused, teaching-focused or platform-focused motivation to evaluate the MOOC. The most used data collection methods were surveys, learning management system data and quiz grades and the most used data analysis methods were descriptive and inferential statistics. The methods for evaluating the outcomes of these courses were diverse and unstructured. Most studies with cross-sectional design had a low-quality assessment, whereas randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies receiv

Journal article

Alturkistani A, Lam C, Foley K, Stenfors T, Blum ER, Van Velthoven MH, Meinert Eet al., 2020, Massive open online course evaluation methods: systematic review (Preprint), Publisher: JMIR Publications

Background:Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have the potential to make a broader educational impact because many learners undertake these courses. Despite their reach, there is a lack of knowledge about which methods are used for evaluating these courses.Objective:The aim of this review was to identify current MOOC evaluation methods to inform future study designs.Methods:We systematically searched the following databases for studies published from January 2008 to October 2018: (1) Scopus, (2) Education Resources Information Center, (3) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) Xplore, (4) PubMed, (5) Web of Science, (6) British Education Index, and (7) Google Scholar search engine. Two reviewers independently screened the abstracts and titles of the studies. Published studies in the English language that evaluated MOOCs were included. The study design of the evaluations, the underlying motivation for the evaluation studies, data collection, and data analysis methods were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The quality of the included studies was appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the National Institutes of Health—National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute quality assessment tool for cohort observational studies and for before-after (pre-post) studies with no control group.Results:The initial search resulted in 3275 studies, and 33 eligible studies were included in this review. In total, 16 studies used a quantitative study design, 11 used a qualitative design, and 6 used a mixed methods study design. In all, 16 studies evaluated learner characteristics and behavior, and 20 studies evaluated learning outcomes and experiences. A total of 12 studies used 1 data source, 11 used 2 data sources, 7 used 3 data sources, 4 used 2 data sources, and 1 used 5 data sources. Overall, 3 studies used more than 3 data sources in their evaluation. In terms of the data analysis methods

Working paper

Foley K, Venkatraman T, Ram B, Ells LJ, van Sluijs EMF, Hargreaves DS, Greaves F, Taghavi Azar Sharabiani M, Viner RM, Bottle A, Saxena Set al., 2019, A protocol for developing a core outcomes set for evaluation of school-based physical activity interventions in primary schools, BMJ Open, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction: Primary school-based physical activity interventions, such as The Daily Mile initiative, have the potential to increase children’s physical activity levels over time, which is associated with a variety of health benefits. Comparing interventions or combining results of several studies of a single intervention is challenging because previous studies have examined different outcomes or used different measures that are not feasible or relevant for researchers in school settings. The development and implementation of a core outcome set (COS) for primary school-based physical activity interventions would ensure outcomes important to those involved in implementing and evaluating interventions are standardized.Methods and Analysis: Our aim is to identify a Core Outcomes Set for studies of school based physical activity interventions. We will achieve this by undertaking a four-stage process: (1) identify a list of outcomes assessed in studies through a systematic review of international literature; (2) establish domains from these outcomes to produce questionnaire items; (3) prioritize outcomes through a 2-stage Delphi survey with four key stakeholder groups (researchers, public health professionals, educators and parents) where stakeholders rate the importance of each outcome on a 9-point Likert scale ( consensus that the outcomes should be included in the COS will be determined as 70% or more of all stakeholders scoring the outcome 7 to 9 and 15% or less scoring 1 to 3); (4) achieve consensus on a final Core Outcomes Set in face-to-face meetings with a sample of stakeholders and primary school children. Ethics and Dissemination: We have received ethical approval from Imperial College London (ref: 19IC5428). The results of this study will be disseminated via conference presentations/public health meetings, peer-reviewed publications and through appropriate media channels. Registration details: This study has been prospectively registered with Core Out

Journal article

Hayhoe B, Acuyo Cespedes J, Foley K, Majeed F, Ruzangi J, Greenfield Get al., 2019, Impact of integrating pharmacists into primary care teams on health systems indicators: a systematic review, British Journal of General Practice, Vol: 69, Pages: e665-e674, ISSN: 0960-1643

Background: Evidence suggests that pharmacists integrated in primary care can improve patient outcomes and satisfaction, but their impact on healthcare systems is unclear. Aim: To identify key impacts of integration of pharmacists in primary care on health system indicators such as healthcare utilisation and costs.Design and setting: A systematic review of literature.Method: We examined EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, HMIC, CINAHL and CENTRAL, and reference lists of relevant studies. RCTs and observational studies were included, published up to June 2018, which considered health system outcomes of integration of pharmacists in primary care. Risk of bias assessment used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Quality Assessment tool for RCTs, and the NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute quality assessment tool for observational studies. Data were extracted from published reports and findings synthesized.Results: Searches identified 3,058 studies; 28 met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were of fair quality. Pharmacists in primary care resulted in reduced use of GP appointments and reduced emergency department attendance, but increased overall primary care use. There was no impact on hospitalisations, but some evidence of savings in overall health system costs and medication costs.Conclusion: Integration of pharmacists in primary care may reduce GP workload, as well emergency department use. Further higher quality studies are needed, including research to clarify cost-effectiveness and long-term impact on health system outcomes.

Journal article

Meinert E, Alturkistani A, Foley K, Brindley D, Car Jet al., 2019, Examining cost measurements in production and delivery of three case studies using eLearning for Applied Health Sciences: a cross-case synthesis, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1438-8871

The World Health Organization World Health Report conveys that a significant increase is needed in global healthcare resourcing to meet current and future demand for health professionals. eLearning presents a possible opportunity to change and optimize training by providing a scalable means for instruction, thus reducing the costs for training health professionals and providing patient education. Research literature often suggests that a benefit of eLearning is its cost-effectiveness compared with face-to-face instruction, yet there is limited evidence comparing design and production costs with other forms of instruction, or the establishment of standards for budgeting for these costs.

Journal article

Zeeshaan A, Alturkistani A, Brindley D, Lam C, Foley K, Meinert Eet al., 2019, Tools for the diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus 1/2: A systematic review of studies published between 2012-2018, JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2369-2960

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) 1 and 2 are common infections affecting the global population. HSV 1 is the most common type estimated to affect 67% of the global population. HSV can have rare, but severe manifestations such as encephalitis and neonatal herpes necessitating the use of reliable and accurate diagnostic tools for the detection of the viruses. Currently used HSV diagnostic tools require highly specialized skills, availability of a laboratory setting and may lack sensitivity. More recent HSV diagnostic tools are numerous and need to be identified and compared in a systematic way to be able to make the best decision about which diagnostic tool to use. Diagnosis of HSV is essential for prompt treatment with antivirals. To select the best test for a patient, knowledge of the performance and limitations of each test are critical. This systematic review summarizes recent study articles evaluating HSV-1 and HSV-2 diagnostic tools.

Journal article

Arshad Z, Alturkistani A, Brindley D, Lam C, Foley K, Meinert Eet al., 2019, Tools for the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus 1/2: systematic review of studies published between 2012 and 2018 (Preprint), Publisher: JMIR Publications

Background:Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 are common infections affecting the global population, with HSV-1 estimated to affect 67% of the global population. HSV can have rare but severe manifestations, such as encephalitis and neonatal herpes, necessitating the use of reliable and accurate diagnostic tools for the detection of the viruses. Currently used HSV diagnostic tools require highly specialized skills and availability of a laboratory setting but may lack sensitivity. The numerous recently developed HSV diagnostic tools need to be identified and compared in a systematic way to make the best decision about which diagnostic tool to use. The diagnosis of HSV is essential for prompt treatment with antivirals. To select the best test for a patient, knowledge of the performance and limitations of each test is critical.Objective:This systematic review has summarized recent studies evaluating HSV-1 and HSV-2 diagnostic tools.Methods:Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, selection criteria, data extraction, and data analysis were determined before the commencement of the study. Studies assessing the specificity/sensitivity of HSV-1 or HSV-2 diagnostic tools published between 2012 and 2018 were included. Quality assessment of included studies was performed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool.Results:Searches of the PubMed database yielded 264 studies; 11 studies included 11 molecular assays, and 8 studies included 19 different serological assays for the detection of HSV-1, HSV-2, or both. A greater proportion of molecular assay–based tools are being developed by commercial entities. Studies that tested molecular assays mostly focused on cutaneous and mucosal HSV infections (n=13); 2 studies focused on ocular disease, whereas only 1 study focused on the central nervous system manifestations. The Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 Direct is currently the only Food and Drug Ad

Working paper

Foley K, Alturkistani A, Carter A, Stenfors T, Blum E, Car J, Majeed A, Brindley D, Meinert Eet al., 2019, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) evaluation methods: protocol for a systematic review, JMIR Research Protocols, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1929-0748

BACKGROUND: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have increased in popularity in recent years. They target a wide variety of learners and use novel teaching approaches, yet often exhibit low completion rates (10%). It is important to evaluate MOOCs to determine their impact and effectiveness, but little is known at this point about the methodologies that should be used for evaluation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol for a systematic review on MOOC evaluation methods. METHODS: We will use the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines for reporting this protocol. We developed a population, intervention, comparator, and outcome (PICO) framework to guide the search strategy, based on the overarching question, "What methods have been used to evaluate MOOCs?" The review will follow six stages: 1) literature search, 2) article selection, 3) data extraction, 4) quality appraisal, 5) data analysis, and 6) data synthesis. RESULTS: The systematic review is ongoing. We completed the data searches and data abstraction in October and November 2018. We are now analyzing the data and expect to complete the systematic review by March 2019. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will provide a useful summary of the methods used for evaluation of MOOCs and the strengths and limitations of each approach. It will also identify gaps in the literature and areas for future work. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/12087.

Journal article

Meinert E, Alturkistani A, Foley K, Osama T, Car J, Majeed F, van Velthoven H, Wells G, Brindley Det al., 2019, Implementation of blockchains in healthcare: protocol for a systematic review, JMIR Research Protocols, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1929-0748

BackgroundA blockchain is a digitised, decentralised, distributed public ledger; a shared and synchronised database that records cryptocurrency transactions. Despite the shift towards digital platforms enabled by Electronic Medical Records (EMRs), demonstrating a will to reform the healthcare sector, health systems face issues including security, interoperability, data fragmentation, timely access to patient data and silos. Application of healthcare blockchains could enable data interoperability, enhancement of precision medicine and reduction in prescription frauds through implementing novel methods in access and patient consent. Objectives To summarise the evidence on the strategies and frameworks utilised to implement blockchains for patient data in healthcare to ensure privacy and improve interoperability and scalability. It is anticipated this review will assist in development of recommendations that will assist key stakeholders in healthcare blockchain implementation and we predict that the evidence generated will challenge the healthcare status quo, moving away from more traditional approaches and facilitating decision-making of patients, healthcare providers and researchers. ResultsDatabase searches will be initiated in September 2018. We expect to complete the review in December 2018. ConclusionsThis review will summarize the strategies and frameworks used to implement blockchains in healthcare to increase data privacy, interoperability and scalability. This review will also help clarify if the strategies and frameworks required for the operationalisation of blockchains in healthcare ensure the privacy of patient data whilst enabling efficiency, interoperability and scalability.

Journal article

Meinert E, Alturkistani A, Foley KA, Osama T, Car J, Majeed A, Van Velthoven M, Wells G, Brindley Det al., 2019, Blockchain implementation in health care: Protocol for a systematic review, JMIR Research Protocols, Vol: 8, Pages: 153-159, ISSN: 1929-0748

Background: A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, distributed public ledger that acts as a shared and synchronized database that records cryptocurrency transactions. Despite the shift toward digital platforms enabled by electronic medical records, demonstrating a will to reform the health care sector, health systems face issues including security, interoperability, data fragmentation, timely access to patient data, and silos. The application of health care blockchains could enable data interoperability, enhancement of precision medicine, and reduction in prescription frauds through implementing novel methods in access and patient consent.Objective: To summarize the evidence on the strategies and frameworks utilized to implement blockchains for patient data in health care to ensure privacy and improve interoperability and scalability. It is anticipated this review will assist in the development of recommendations that will assist key stakeholders in health care blockchain implementation, and we predict that the evidence generated will challenge the health care status quo, moving away from more traditional approaches and facilitating decision making of patients, health care providers, and researchers.Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ProQuest Technology Collection and Engineering Index will be conducted. Two experienced independent reviewers will conduct titles and abstract screening followed by full-text reading to determine study eligibility. Data will then be extracted onto data extraction forms before using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool to appraise the quality of included randomized studies and the Risk of Bias in nonrandomized studies of Interventions to assess the quality of nonrandomized studies. Data will then be analyzed and synthesized.Results: Database searches will be initiated in September 2018. We expect to complete the review in January 2019.Conclusions: This review will summarize the strategies and fra

Journal article

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