Imperial College London

ProfessorKleaKatsouyanni

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Professor of Public Health
 
 
 
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k.katsouyanni

 
 
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Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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402 results found

Zafeiratou S, Samoli E, Analitis A, Dimakopoulou K, Giannakopoulos C, Varotsos KV, Schneider A, Stafoggia M, Aunan K, Katsouyanni Ket al., 2024, Modification of heat-related effects on mortality by air pollution concentration, at small-area level, in the Attica prefecture, Greece., Environ Health, Vol: 23

BACKGROUND: The independent effects of short-term exposure to increased air temperature and air pollution on mortality are well-documented. There is some evidence indicating that elevated concentrations of air pollutants may lead to increased heat-related mortality, but this evidence is not consistent. Most of these effects have been documented through time-series studies using city-wide data, rather than at a finer spatial level. In our study, we examined the possible modification of the heat effects on total and cause-specific mortality by air pollution at municipality level in the Attica region, Greece, during the warm period of the years 2000 to 2016. METHODS: A municipality-specific over-dispersed Poisson regression model during the warm season (May-September) was used to investigate the heat effects on mortality and their modification by air pollution. We used the two-day average of the daily mean temperature and daily mean PM10, NO2 and 8 hour-max ozone (O3), derived from models, in each municipality as exposures. A bivariate tensor smoother was applied for temperature and each pollutant alternatively, by municipality. Α random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled estimates of the heat effects at different pollution levels. Heterogeneity of the between-levels differences of the heat effects was evaluated with a Q-test. RESULTS: A rise in mean temperature from the 75th to the 99th percentile of the municipality-specific temperature distribution resulted in an increase in total mortality of 12.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI):7.76-17.24) on low PM10 days, and 21.25% (95% CI: 17.83-24.76) on high PM10 days. The increase on mortality was 10.09% (95% CI: - 5.62- 28.41) on low ozone days, and 14.95% (95% CI: 10.79-19.27) on high ozone days. For cause-specific mortality an increasing trend of the heat effects with increasing PM10 and ozone levels was also observed. An inconsistent pattern was observed for the modification of the h

Journal article

Hvidtfeldt UA, Chen J, Rodopoulou S, Strak M, de Hoogh K, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Forastiere F, Brynedal B, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Leander K, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Rizzuto D, Samoli E, So R, Stafoggia M, Tjønneland A, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Zitt E, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Raaschou-Nielsen Oet al., 2023, Multiple myeloma risk in relation to long-term air pollution exposure - A pooled analysis of four European cohorts., Environ Res, Vol: 239

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a growing concern worldwide, with significant impacts on human health. Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer with increasing incidence. Studies have linked air pollution exposure to various types of cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma, however, the relationship with multiple myeloma incidence has not been extensively investigated. METHODS: We pooled four European cohorts (N = 234,803) and assessed the association between residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particles (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) and multiple myeloma. We applied Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders at the individual and area-level. RESULTS: During 4,415,817 person-years of follow-up (average 18.8 years), we observed 404 cases of multiple myeloma. The results of the fully adjusted linear analyses showed hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 0.99 (0.84, 1.16) per 10 μg/m³ NO2, 1.04 (0.82, 1.33) per 5 μg/m³ PM2.5, 0.99 (0.84, 1.18) per 0.5 10-5 m-1 BCE, and 1.11 (0.87, 1.41) per 10 μg/m³ O3. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and incidence of multiple myeloma.

Journal article

Taj T, Chen J, Rodopoulou S, Strak M, de Hoogh K, Poulsen AH, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Zitt E, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Jørgensen JT, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Lager A, Leander K, Liu S, Ljungman P, Severi G, Besson C, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Peters A, Rizzuto D, Samoli E, Sørensen M, Stafoggia M, Tjønneland A, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Raaschou-Nielsen Oet al., 2023, Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of leukemia and lymphoma in a pooled European cohort., Environ Pollut, Vol: 343

Leukemia and lymphoma are the two most common forms of hematologic malignancy, and their etiology is largely unknown. Pathophysiological mechanisms suggest a possible association with air pollution, but little empirical evidence is available. We aimed to investigate the association between long-term residential exposure to outdoor air pollution and risk of leukemia and lymphoma. We pooled data from four cohorts from three European countries as part of the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration. We used Europe-wide land use regression models to assess annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) at residences. We also estimated concentrations of PM2.5 elemental components: copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn); sulfur (S); nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), silicon (Si) and potassium (K). We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations. Among the study population of 247,436 individuals, 760 leukemia and 1122 lymphoma cases were diagnosed during 4,656,140 person-years of follow-up. The results showed a leukemia hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.01-1.26) per 10 μg/m3 NO2, which was robust in two-pollutant models and consistent across the four cohorts and according to smoking status. Sex-specific analyses suggested that this association was confined to the male population. Further, the results showed increased lymphoma HRs for PM2.5 (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02-1.34) and potassium content of PM2.5, which were consistent in two-pollutant models and according to sex. Our results suggest that air pollution at the residence may be associated with adult leukemia and lymphoma.

Journal article

Zhang S, Breitner S, Rai M, Nikolaou N, Stafoggia M, de Donato F, Samoli E, Zafeiratou S, Katsouyanni K, Rao S, Palomares AD-L, Gasparrini A, Masselot P, Aunan K, Peters A, Schneider Aet al., 2023, Assessment of short-term heat effects on cardiovascular mortality and vulnerability factors using small area data in Europe, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 179, ISSN: 0160-4120

Journal article

de Bont J, Pickford R, Astrom C, Colomar F, Dimakopoulou K, de Hoogh K, Ibi D, Katsouyanni K, Melen E, Nobile F, Pershagen G, Persson A, Samoli E, Stafoggia M, Tonne C, Vlaanderen J, Wolf K, Vermeulen R, Peters A, Ljungman Pet al., 2023, Mixtures of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution, built environment and temperature and stroke incidence across Europe, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 179, ISSN: 0160-4120

Journal article

Venetsanopoulou AI, Kalpourtzi N, Alamanos Y, Gavana M, Vantarakis A, Hadjichristodoulou C, Mouchtouri VA, Chlouverakis G, Trypsianis G, Drosos AA, Touloumi G, Voulgari PV, EMENO study groupet al., 2023, Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Greece: results from the national health examination survey EMENO., Rheumatol Int, Vol: 43, Pages: 1349-1355

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered the most common form of autoimmune arthritis. The disease's prevalence is around 0.5-1% worldwide, but it seems to vary among different populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diagnosed RA in the general adult population in Greece. The data were derived from the Greek Health Examination Survey EMENO, a population-based survey performed between 2013 and 2016. Of the 6006 participants (response rate 72%), 5884 were eligible for this study. Prevalence estimates were calculated according to the study design. Prevalence of self-reported RA was estimated to be overall 0.5% (95% CI 0.4-0.7) being approximately three times higher in women than in men (0.7% vs 0.2%, p value = 0.004). A decrease in the prevalence of RA was observed in urban areas of the country. In contrast, higher disease rates were reported in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Multivariable regression analysis showed that gender, age, and income were related to the occurrence of the disease. Osteoporosis and thyroid disease were the two comorbidities observed at statistically significant higher rates in individuals with self-reported RA. The prevalence of self-reported RA in Greece is similar to that reported in other European countries. Gender, age, and income are the main factors related to the disease's prevalence in Greece.

Journal article

So R, Chen J, Stafoggia M, de Hoogh K, Katsouyanni K, Vienneau D, Samoli E, Rodopoulou S, Loft S, Lim Y-H, Westendorp RGJ, Amini H, Cole-Hunter T, Bergmann M, Shahri SMT, Zhang J, Maric M, Mortensen LH, Bauwelinck M, Klompmaker JO, Atkinson RW, Janssen NAH, Oftedal B, Renzi M, Forastiere F, Strak M, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Andersen ZJet al., 2023, Long-term exposure to elemental components of fine particulate matter and all-natural and cause-specific mortality in a Danish nationwide administrative cohort study, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 224, ISSN: 0013-9351

Journal article

Madaniyazi L, Tobias A, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Jaakkola JJK, Honda Y, Guo Y, Schwartz J, Zanobetti A, Bell ML, Armstrong B, Campbell MJ, Katsouyanni K, Haines A, Ebi KL, Gasparrini A, Hashizume Met al., 2023, Should We Adjust for Season in Time-Series Studies of the Short-Term Association Between Temperature and Mortality?, EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 34, Pages: 313-318, ISSN: 1044-3983

Journal article

Rai M, Stafoggia M, de'Donato F, Scortichini M, Zafeiratou S, Vazquez Fernandez L, Zhang S, Katsouyanni K, Samoli E, Rao S, Lavigne E, Guo Y, Kan H, Osorio S, Kyselý J, Urban A, Orru H, Maasikmets M, Jaakkola JJK, Ryti N, Pascal M, Hashizume M, Fook Sheng Ng C, Alahmad B, Hurtado Diaz M, De la Cruz Valencia C, Nunes B, Madureira J, Scovronick N, Garland RM, Kim H, Lee W, Tobias A, Íñiguez C, Forsberg B, Åström C, Maria Vicedo-Cabrera A, Ragettli MS, Leon Guo Y-L, Pan S-C, Li S, Gasparrini A, Sera F, Masselot P, Schwartz J, Zanobetti A, Bell ML, Schneider A, Breitner Set al., 2023, Heat-related cardiorespiratory mortality: Effect modification by air pollution across 482 cities from 24 countries., Environ Int, Vol: 174

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the potential interactive effects of heat and ambient air pollution on cause-specific mortality is inconclusive and limited to selected locations. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of heat on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and its modification by air pollution during summer months (six consecutive hottest months) in 482 locations across 24 countries. METHODS: Location-specific daily death counts and exposure data (e.g., particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) were obtained from 2000 to 2018. We used location-specific confounder-adjusted Quasi-Poisson regression with a tensor product between air temperature and the air pollutant. We extracted heat effects at low, medium, and high levels of pollutants, defined as the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile of the location-specific pollutant concentrations. Country-specific and overall estimates were derived using a random-effects multilevel meta-analytical model. RESULTS: Heat was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality. Moreover, the heat effects were modified by elevated levels of all air pollutants in most locations, with stronger effects for respiratory than cardiovascular mortality. For example, the percent increase in respiratory mortality per increase in the 2-day average summer temperature from the 75th to the 99th percentile was 7.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 7.6-7.7), 11.3% (95%CI 11.2-11.3), and 14.3% (95% CI 14.1-14.5) at low, medium, and high levels of PM2.5, respectively. Similarly, cardiovascular mortality increased by 1.6 (95%CI 1.5-1.6), 5.1 (95%CI 5.1-5.2), and 8.7 (95%CI 8.7-8.8) at low, medium, and high levels of O3, respectively. DISCUSSION: We observed considerable modification of the heat effects on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality by elevated levels of air pollutants. Therefore, mitigation measures following the new WHO Air Quality Guidelines are crucial to enhance better health and promote sustainable

Journal article

Kasdagli M-I, Katsouyanni K, de Hoogh K, Zafeiratou S, Dimakopoulou K, Samoli Eet al., 2023, Associations between exposure to blue spaces and natural and cause-specific mortality in Greece: An ecological study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYGIENE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 249, ISSN: 1438-4639

Journal article

Hvidtfeldt UA, Chen J, Rodopoulou S, Strak M, de Hoogh K, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann BH, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Brynedal B, Leander K, Ljungman PLS, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Rizzuto D, Boutron-Ruault M-C, Samoli E, So R, Stafoggia M, Tjonneland A, Vermeulen R, Verschuren WMM, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Zhang J, Zitt E, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Raaschou-Nielsen Oet al., 2023, Breast cancer incidence in relation to long-term low-level exposure to air pollution in the ELAPSE pooled cohort, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 32, Pages: 105-113, ISSN: 1055-9965

Background:Established risk factors for breast cancer include genetic disposition, reproductive factors, hormone therapy, and lifestyle-related factors such as alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity. More recently a role of environmental exposures, including air pollution, has also been suggested. The aim of this study, was to investigate the relationship between long-term air pollution exposure and breast cancer incidence.Methods:We conducted a pooled analysis among six European cohorts (n = 199,719) on the association between long-term residential levels of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particles (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone in the warm season (O3) and breast cancer incidence in women. The selected cohorts represented the lower range of air pollutant concentrations in Europe. We applied Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders at the individual and area-level.Results:During 3,592,885 person-years of follow-up, we observed a total of 9,659 incident breast cancer cases. The results of the fully adjusted linear analyses showed a HR (95% confidence interval) of 1.03 (1.00–1.06) per 10 μg/m³ NO2, 1.06 (1.01–1.11) per 5 μg/m³ PM2.5, 1.03 (0.99–1.06) per 0.5 10−5 m−1 BC, and 0.98 (0.94–1.01) per 10 μg/m³ O3. The effect estimates were most pronounced in the group of middle-aged women (50–54 years) and among never smokers.Conclusions:The results were in support of an association between especially PM2.5 and breast cancer.Impact:The findings of this study suggest a role of exposure to NO2, PM2.5, and BC in development of breast cancer.

Journal article

Cole-Hunter T, Zhang J, So R, Samoli E, Liu S, Chen J, Strak M, Wolf K, Weinmayr G, Rodopolou S, Remfry E, de Hoogh K, Bellander T, Brandt J, Concin H, Zitt E, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Jöckel K-H, Mortensen LH, Ketzel M, Yacamán Méndez D, Leander K, Ljungman P, Faure E, Lee P-C, Elbaz A, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Peters A, Rizzuto D, Vermeulen RCH, Schramm S, Stafoggia M, Katsouyanni K, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Lim Y-H, Andersen ZJet al., 2023, Long-term air pollution exposure and Parkinson's disease mortality in a large pooled European cohort: An ELAPSE study, Environment International, Vol: 171, ISSN: 0160-4120

BACKGROUND: The link between exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases is well established, while evidence on neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's Disease (PD) remains limited. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and PD mortality in seven European cohorts. METHODS: Within the project 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE), we pooled data from seven cohorts among six European countries. Annual mean residential concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3), as well as 8 PM2.5 components (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulphur, silicon, vanadium, zinc), for 2010 were estimated using Europe-wide hybrid land use regression models. PD mortality was defined as underlying cause of death being either PD, secondary Parkinsonism, or dementia in PD. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the associations between air pollution and PD mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 271,720 cohort participants, 381 died from PD during 19.7 years of follow-up. In single-pollutant analyses, we observed positive associations between PD mortality and PM2.5 (hazard ratio per 5 µg/m3: 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.55), NO2 (1.13; 0.95-1.34 per 10 µg/m3), and BC (1.12; 0.94-1.34 per 0.5 × 10-5m-1), and a negative association with O3 (0.74; 0.58-0.94 per 10 µg/m3). Associations of PM2.5, NO2, and BC with PD mortality were linear without apparent lower thresholds. In two-pollutant models, associations with PM2.5 remained robust when adjusted for NO2 (1.24; 0.95-1.62) or BC (1.28; 0.96-1.71), whereas associations with NO2 or BC attenuated to null. O3 associations remained negative, but no longer statistically significant in models with PM2.5. We detected suggestive positive associations with the potassium c

Journal article

Choi HM, Lee W, Roye D, Heo S, Urban A, Entezari A, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Zanobetti A, Gasparrini A, Analitis A, Tobias A, Armstrong B, Forsberg B, Íñiguez C, Åström C, Sheng Ng CF, Indermitte E, Lavigne E, Mayvaneh F, Acquaotta F, Sera F, Orru H, Kim H, Kyselý J, Madueira J, Schwartz J, Jaakkola JJK, Katsouyanni K, Diaz MH, Ragettli MS, Hashizume M, Pascal M, Ryti N, Scovronick N, Osorio S, Tong S, Seposo X, Honda Y, Kim Y, Guo Y-L, Guo Y, Bell MLet al., 2023, Corrigendum to "Effect modification of greenness on the association between heat and mortality: A multi-city multi-country study"., EBioMedicine, Vol: 87

Journal article

Andersen ZJ, Zhang J, Jorgensen JT, Samoli E, Liu S, Chen J, Strak M, Wolf K, Weinmayr G, Rodopolou S, Remfry E, de Hoogh K, Bellander T, Brandt J, Concin H, Zitt E, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Verschuren WMM, Joeckel K-H, So R, Cole-Hunter T, Mehta AJ, Mortensen LH, Ketzel M, Lager A, Leander K, Ljungman P, Severi G, Boutron-Ruault M-C, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Peters A, Rizzuto D, van der Schouw YT, Schramm S, Stafoggia M, Katsouyanni K, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Lim Y-Het al., 2022, Long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality from dementia, psychiatric disorders, and suicide in a large pooled European cohort: ELAPSE study, Environment International, Vol: 170, ISSN: 0160-4120

Ambient air pollution is an established risk factor for premature mortality from chronic cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic diseases, while evidence on neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders remains limited. We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality from dementia, psychiatric disorders, and suicide in seven European cohorts. Within the multicenter project ‘Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe’ (ELAPSE), we pooled data from seven European cohorts from six countries. Based on the residential addresses, annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and 8 PM2.5 components were estimated using Europe-wide hybrid land-use regression models. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality from dementia, psychiatric disorders, and suicide. Of 271,720 participants, 900 died from dementia, 241 from psychiatric disorders, and 164 from suicide, during a mean follow-up of 19.7 years. In fully adjusted models, we observed positive associations of NO2 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.13, 1.70 per 10 µg/m3), PM2.5 (HR = 1.29; 95 % CI: 0.98, 1.71 per 5 µg/m3), and BC (HR = 1.37; 95 % CI: 1.11, 1.69 per 0.5 × 10−5/m) with psychiatric disorders mortality, as well as with suicide (NO2: HR = 1.13 [95 % CI: 0.92, 1.38]; PM2.5: HR = 1.19 [95 % CI: 0.76, 1.87]; BC: HR = 1.08 [95 % CI: 0.87, 1.35]), and no association with dementia mortality. We did not detect any positive associations of O3 and 8 PM2.5 components with any of the three mortality outcomes. Long-term exposure to NO2, PM2.5, and BC may lead to premature mortality from psychiatric disorders and suicide.

Journal article

Hvidtfeldt UA, Taj T, Chen J, Rodopoulou S, Strak M, de Hoogh K, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Jørgensen JT, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Lager A, Leander K, Ljungman P, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Rizzuto D, Samoli E, So R, Stafoggia M, Tjønneland A, Vermeulen R, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Zhang J, Zitt E, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Raaschou-Nielsen Oet al., 2022, Long term exposure to air pollution and kidney parenchyma cancer - Effects of low-level air pollution: a Study in Europe (ELAPSE), Environmental Research, Vol: 215, ISSN: 0013-9351

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) is classified as a group 1 human carcinogen. Previous experimental studies suggest that particles in diesel exhaust induce oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in kidney cells, but the evidence from population studies linking air pollution to kidney cancer is limited. METHODS: We pooled six European cohorts (N = 302,493) to assess the association of residential exposure to fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), warm season ozone (O3) and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc) with cancer of the kidney parenchyma. The main exposure model was developed for year 2010. We defined kidney parenchyma cancer according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th Revision codes 189.0 and C64. We applied Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders at the individual and area-level. RESULTS: The participants were followed from baseline (1985-2005) to 2011-2015. A total of 847 cases occurred during 5,497,514 person-years of follow-up (average 18.2 years). Median (5-95%) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 were 24.1 μg/m3 (12.8-39.2), 15.3 μg/m3 (8.6-19.2), 1.6 10-5 m-1 (0.7-2.1), and 87.0 μg/m3 (70.3-97.4), respectively. The results of the fully adjusted linear analyses showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92, 1.15) per 10 μg/m³ NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.21) per 5 μg/m³ PM2.5, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.11) per 0.5 10-5 m-1 BCE, and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.02) per 10 μg/m³ O3. We did not find associations between any of the elemental components of PM2.5 and cancer of the kidney parenchyma. CONCLUSION: We did not observe an association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer.

Journal article

Wood D, Evangelopoulos D, Beevers S, Kitwiroon N, Katsouyanni Ket al., 2022, Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and the Incidence of Dementia in the Elderly of England: The ELSA Cohort, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 19

Journal article

Liu C, Cai J, Chen R, Sera F, Guo Y, Tong S, Li S, Lavigne E, Correa PM, Ortega NV, Orru H, Maasikmets M, Jaakkola JJK, Ryti N, Breitner S, Schneider A, Katsouyanni K, Samoli E, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Ng CFS, Diaz MH, la Cruz Valencia CD, Rao S, Palomares AD-L, Pereira da Silva S, Madureira J, Holobâc IH, Fratianni S, Scovronick N, Garland RM, Tobias A, Íñiguez C, Forsberg B, Åström C, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Ragettli MS, Guo Y-LL, Pan S-C, Milojevic A, Bell ML, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J, Gasparrini A, Kan Het al., 2022, Coarse Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality: A Global Study in 205 Cities., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, Vol: 206, Pages: 999-1007

Rationale: The associations between ambient coarse particulate matter (PM2.5-10) and daily mortality are not fully understood on a global scale. Objectives: To evaluate the short-term associations between PM2.5-10 and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries/regions worldwide. Methods: We collected daily mortality (total, cardiovascular, and respiratory) and air pollution data from 205 cities in 20 countries/regions. Concentrations of PM2.5-10 were computed as the difference between inhalable and fine PM. A two-stage time-series analytic approach was applied, with overdispersed generalized linear models and multilevel meta-analysis. We fitted two-pollutant models to test the independent effect of PM2.5-10 from copollutants (fine PM, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide). Exposure-response relationship curves were pooled, and regional analyses were conducted. Measurements and Main Results: A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5-10 concentration on lag 0-1 day was associated with increments of 0.51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18%-0.84%), 0.43% (95% CI, 0.15%-0.71%), and 0.41% (95% CI, 0.06%-0.77%) in total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. The associations varied by country and region. These associations were robust to adjustment by all copollutants in two-pollutant models, especially for PM2.5. The exposure-response curves for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were positive, with steeper slopes at lower exposure ranges and without discernible thresholds. Conclusions: This study provides novel global evidence on the robust and independent associations between short-term exposure to ambient PM2.5-10 and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, suggesting the need to establish a unique guideline or regulatory limit for daily concentrations of PM2.5-10.

Journal article

Choi HM, Lee W, Roye D, Heo S, Urban A, Entezari A, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Zanobetti A, Gasparrini A, Analitis A, Tobias A, Armstrong B, Forsberg B, Íñiguez C, Åström C, Indermitte E, Lavigne E, Mayvaneh F, Acquaotta F, Sera F, Orru H, Kim H, Kyselý J, Madueira J, Schwartz J, Jaakkola JJK, Katsouyanni K, Diaz MH, Ragettli MS, Pascal M, Ryti N, Scovronick N, Osorio S, Tong S, Seposo X, Guo YL, Guo Y, Bell MLet al., 2022, Effect modification of greenness on the association between heat and mortality: A multi-city multi-country study., EBioMedicine, Vol: 84

BACKGROUND: Identifying how greenspace impacts the temperature-mortality relationship in urban environments is crucial, especially given climate change and rapid urbanization. However, the effect modification of greenspace on heat-related mortality has been typically focused on a localized area or single country. This study examined the heat-mortality relationship among different greenspace levels in a global setting. METHODS: We collected daily ambient temperature and mortality data for 452 locations in 24 countries and used Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) as the greenspace measurement. We used distributed lag non-linear model to estimate the heat-mortality relationship in each city and the estimates were pooled adjusting for city-specific average temperature, city-specific temperature range, city-specific population density, and gross domestic product (GDP). The effect modification of greenspace was evaluated by comparing the heat-related mortality risk for different greenspace groups (low, medium, and high), which were divided into terciles among 452 locations. FINDINGS: Cities with high greenspace value had the lowest heat-mortality relative risk of 1·19 (95% CI: 1·13, 1·25), while the heat-related relative risk was 1·46 (95% CI: 1·31, 1·62) for cities with low greenspace when comparing the 99th temperature and the minimum mortality temperature. A 20% increase of greenspace is associated with a 9·02% (95% CI: 8·88, 9·16) decrease in the heat-related attributable fraction, and if this association is causal (which is not within the scope of this study to assess), such a reduction could save approximately 933 excess deaths per year in 24 countries. INTERPRETATION: Our findings can inform communities on the potential health benefits of greenspaces in the urban environment and mitigation measures regarding the impacts of climate change. FUNDING: This publication was developed under Assistance Agreement No

Journal article

Bereziartua A, Chen J, de Hoogh K, Rodopoulou S, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Verschuren WMM, Joeckel K-H, Jorgensen JT, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Krog NH, Brynedal B, Leander K, Liu S, Ljungman P, Faure E, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Peters A, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Renzi M, Rizzuto D, Samoli E, van der Schouw YT, Schramm S, Severi G, Stafoggia M, Strak M, Sorensen M, Tjonneland A, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Zitt E, Brunekreef B, Hoek Get al., 2022, Exposure to surrounding greenness and natural-cause and cause-specific mortality in the ELAPSE pooled cohort, Environment International, Vol: 166, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0160-4120

BackgroundThe majority of studies have shown higher greenness exposure associated with reduced mortality risks, but few controlled for spatially correlated air pollution and traffic noise exposures. We aim to address this research gap in the ELAPSE pooled cohort.MethodsMean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in a 300-m grid cell and 1-km radius were assigned to participants’ baseline home addresses as a measure of surrounding greenness exposure. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association of NDVI exposure with natural-cause and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for a number of potential confounders including socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors at individual and area-levels. We further assessed the associations between greenness exposure and mortality after adjusting for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and road traffic noise.ResultsThe pooled study population comprised 327,388 individuals who experienced 47,179 natural-cause deaths during 6,374,370 person-years of follow-up. The mean NDVI in the pooled cohort was 0.33 (SD 0.1) and 0.34 (SD 0.1) in the 300-m grid and 1-km buffer. In the main fully adjusted model, 0.1 unit increment of NDVI inside 300-m grid was associated with 5% lower risk of natural-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.96)). The associations attenuated after adjustment for air pollution [HR (95% CI): 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) adjusted for PM2.5; 0.98 (0.96, 0.99) adjusted for NO2]. Additional adjustment for traffic noise hardly affected the associations. Consistent results were observed for NDVI within 1-km buffer. After adjustment for air pollution, NDVI was inversely associated with diabetes, respiratory and lung cancer mortality, yet with wider 95% confidence intervals. No association with cardiovascular mortality was found.ConclusionsWe found a significant inverse association between surrounding greenness and natural-cause mortality, which remained after adjust

Journal article

Katsouyanni K, Evangelopoulos D, 2022, Invited Perspective: Impact of Exposure Measurement Error on Effect Estimates-An Important and Neglected Problem in Air Pollution Epidemiology, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, Vol: 130, ISSN: 0091-6765

Journal article

Chen J, Hoek G, de Hoogh K, Rodopoulou S, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Verschuren WMM, Jöckel K-H, Jørgensen JT, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Méndez DY, Leander K, Liu S, Ljungman P, Faure E, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Peters A, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Rizzuto D, Samoli E, van der Schouw YT, Schramm S, Severi G, Stafoggia M, Strak M, Sørensen M, Tjønneland A, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Zitt E, Brunekreef B, Thurston GDet al., 2022, Long-term exposure to source-specific fine particles and mortality─a pooled analysis of 14 European cohorts within the ELAPSE Project., Environmental Science and Technology (Washington), Vol: 56, ISSN: 0013-936X

We assessed mortality risks associated with source-specific fine particles (PM2.5) in a pooled European cohort of 323,782 participants. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for source-specific PM2.5 identified through a source apportionment analysis. Exposure to 2010 annual average concentrations of source-specific PM2.5 components was assessed at baseline residential addresses. The source apportionment resulted in the identification of five sources: traffic, residual oil combustion, soil, biomass and agriculture, and industry. In single-source analysis, all identified sources were significantly positively associated with increased natural mortality risks. In multisource analysis, associations with all sources attenuated but remained statistically significant with traffic, oil, and biomass and agriculture. The highest association per interquartile increase was observed for the traffic component (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04 and 1.08 per 2.86 μg/m3 increase) across five identified sources. On a 1 μg/m3 basis, the residual oil-related PM2.5 had the strongest association (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05 and 1.22), which was substantially higher than that for generic PM2.5 mass, suggesting that past estimates using the generic PM2.5 exposure response function have underestimated the potential clean air health benefits of reducing fossil-fuel combustion. Source-specific associations with cause-specific mortality were in general consistent with findings of natural mortality.

Journal article

Liu S, Lim Y-H, Chen J, Strak M, Wolf K, Weinmayr G, Rodopolou S, de Hoogh K, Bellander T, Brandt J, Concin H, Zitt E, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Verschuren WMM, Jöckel K-H, Jørgensen JT, So R, Amini H, Cole-Hunter T, Mehta AJ, Mortensen LH, Ketzel M, Lager A, Leander K, Ljungman P, Severi G, Boutron-Ruault M-C, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Peters A, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Rizzuto D, van der Schouw YT, Schramm S, Sørensen M, Stafoggia M, Tjønneland A, Katsouyanni K, Huang W, Samoli E, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Andersen ZJet al., 2022, Long-term air pollution exposure and pneumonia related mortality in a large pooled European cohort, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 205, Pages: 1429-1439, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: Ambient air pollution exposure has been linked to mortality from chronic cardiorespiratory diseases, while evidence on respiratory infections remains more limited. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and pneumonia related mortality in adults in a pool of eight European cohorts. METHODS: Within the multicenter project 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE), we pooled data from eight cohorts among six European countries. Annual mean residential concentrations in 2010 for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) were estimated using Europe-wide hybrid land use regression models. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the associations between air pollution and pneumonia, influenza, and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) mortality. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 325,367 participants, 712 died from pneumonia and influenza combined, 682 from pneumonia, and 695 from ALRI during a mean follow-up of 19.5 years. NO2 and BC were associated with 10-12% increases in pneumonia and influenza combined mortality, but 95% confidence intervals included unity [hazard ratios: 1.12 (0.99-1.26) per 10 µg/m3 for NO2; 1.10 (0.97-1.24) per 0.5 10-5m-1 for BC]. Associations with pneumonia and ALRI mortality were almost identical. We detected effect modification suggesting stronger associations with NO2 or BC in overweight, employed, or currently smoking participants compared to normal weight, unemployed, or non-smoking participants. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to combustion-related air pollutants NO2 and BC may be associated with mortality from lower respiratory infections, but larger studies are needed to estimate these associations more precisely.

Journal article

So R, Andersen ZJ, Chen J, Stafoggia M, de Hoogh K, Katsouyanni K, Vienneau D, Rodopoulou S, Samoli E, Lim Y-H, Amini H, Cole-Hunter T, Shahri SMT, Maric M, Bergmann M, Liu S, Azam S, Loft S, Westendorp RGJ, Mortensen LH, Bauwelinck M, Klompmaker JO, Atkinson R, Janssen NAH, Oftedal B, Renzi M, Forastiere F, Strak M, Thygesen LC, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Mehta AJet al., 2022, Long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality in a Danish nationwide administrative cohort study: Beyond mortality from cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 164, ISSN: 0160-4120

Journal article

Dimakopoulou K, Samoli E, Analitis A, Schwartz J, Beevers S, Kitwiroon N, Beddows A, Barratt B, Rodopoulou S, Zafeiratou S, Gulliver J, Katsouyanni Ket al., 2022, Development and Evaluation of Spatio-Temporal Air Pollution Exposure Models and Their Combinations in the Greater London Area, UK, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 19

Journal article

Wu Y, Li S, Zhao Q, Wen B, Gasparrini A, Tong S, Overcenco A, Urban A, Schneider A, Entezari A, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Zanobetti A, Analitis A, Zeka A, Tobias A, Nunes B, Alahmad B, Armstrong B, Forsberg B, Pan S-C, Íñiguez C, Ameling C, De la Cruz Valencia C, Åström C, Houthuijs D, Van Dung D, Royé D, Indermitte E, Lavigne E, Mayvaneh F, Acquaotta F, de'Donato F, Rao S, Sera F, Carrasco-Escobar G, Kan H, Orru H, Kim H, Holobaca I-H, Kyselý J, Madureira J, Schwartz J, Jaakkola JJK, Katsouyanni K, Hurtado Diaz M, Ragettli MS, Hashizume M, Pascal M, de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coélho M, Ortega NV, Ryti N, Scovronick N, Michelozzi P, Correa PM, Goodman P, Nascimento Saldiva PH, Abrutzky R, Osorio S, Dang TN, Colistro V, Huber V, Lee W, Seposo X, Honda Y, Guo YL, Bell ML, Guo Yet al., 2022, Global, regional, and national burden of mortality associated with short-term temperature variability from 2000-19: a three-stage modelling study., Lancet Planet Health, Vol: 6, Pages: e410-e421

BACKGROUND: Increased mortality risk is associated with short-term temperature variability. However, to our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the temperature variability-related mortality burden worldwide. In this study, using data from the MCC Collaborative Research Network, we first explored the association between temperature variability and mortality across 43 countries or regions. Then, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the global burden of mortality associated with temperature variability, global gridded temperature data with a resolution of 0·5° × 0·5° were used to assess the temperature variability-related mortality burden at the global, regional, and national levels. Furthermore, temporal trends in temperature variability-related mortality burden were also explored from 2000-19. METHODS: In this modelling study, we applied a three-stage meta-analytical approach to assess the global temperature variability-related mortality burden at a spatial resolution of 0·5° × 0·5° from 2000-19. Temperature variability was calculated as the SD of the average of the same and previous days' minimum and maximum temperatures. We first obtained location-specific temperature variability related-mortality associations based on a daily time series of 750 locations from the Multi-country Multi-city Collaborative Research Network. We subsequently constructed a multivariable meta-regression model with five predictors to estimate grid-specific temperature variability related-mortality associations across the globe. Finally, percentage excess in mortality and excess mortality rate were calculated to quantify the temperature variability-related mortality burden and to further explore its temporal trend over two decades. FINDINGS: An increasing trend in temperature variability was identified at the global level from 2000 to 2019. Globally, 1 753 392 deaths (95% CI 1 159 901-2 357 718) were associate

Journal article

Wu Y, Wen B, Li S, Gasparrini A, Tong S, Overcenco A, Urban A, Schneider A, Entezari A, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Zanobetti A, Analitis A, Zeka A, Tobias A, Alahmad B, Armstrong B, Forsberg B, Íñiguez C, Ameling C, De la Cruz Valencia C, Åström C, Houthuijs D, Van Dung D, Royé D, Indermitte E, Lavigne E, Mayvaneh F, Acquaotta F, de'Donato F, Sera F, Carrasco-Escobar G, Kan H, Orru H, Kim H, Holobaca I-H, Kyselý J, Madureira J, Schwartz J, Katsouyanni K, Hurtado-Diaz M, Ragettli MS, Hashizume M, Pascal M, de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coélho M, Scovronick N, Michelozzi P, Goodman P, Nascimento Saldiva PH, Abrutzky R, Osorio S, Dang TN, Colistro V, Huber V, Lee W, Seposo X, Honda Y, Bell ML, Guo Yet al., 2022, Fluctuating temperature modifies heat-mortality association around the globe., Innovation (Camb), Vol: 3

Studies have investigated the effects of heat and temperature variability (TV) on mortality. However, few assessed whether TV modifies the heat-mortality association. Data on daily temperature and mortality in the warm season were collected from 717 locations across 36 countries. TV was calculated as the standard deviation of the average of the same and previous days' minimum and maximum temperatures. We used location-specific quasi-Poisson regression models with an interaction term between the cross-basis term for mean temperature and quartiles of TV to obtain heat-mortality associations under each quartile of TV, and then pooled estimates at the country, regional, and global levels. Results show the increased risk in heat-related mortality with increments in TV, accounting for 0.70% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.33 to 1.69), 1.34% (95% CI: -0.14 to 2.73), 1.99% (95% CI: 0.29-3.57), and 2.73% (95% CI: 0.76-4.50) of total deaths for Q1-Q4 (first quartile-fourth quartile) of TV. The modification effects of TV varied geographically. Central Europe had the highest attributable fractions (AFs), corresponding to 7.68% (95% CI: 5.25-9.89) of total deaths for Q4 of TV, while the lowest AFs were observed in North America, with the values for Q4 of 1.74% (95% CI: -0.09 to 3.39). TV had a significant modification effect on the heat-mortality association, causing a higher heat-related mortality burden with increments of TV. Implementing targeted strategies against heat exposure and fluctuant temperatures simultaneously would benefit public health.

Journal article

Masselot P, Sera F, Schneider R, Kan H, Lavigne É, Stafoggia M, Tobias A, Chen H, Burnett RT, Schwartz J, Zanobetti A, Bell ML, Chen B-Y, Guo Y-LL, Ragettli MS, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Åström C, Forsberg B, Íñiguez C, Garland RM, Scovronick N, Madureira J, Nunes B, De la Cruz Valencia C, Hurtado Diaz M, Honda Y, Hashizume M, Ng CFC, Samoli E, Katsouyanni K, Schneider A, Breitner S, Ryti NRI, Jaakkola JJK, Maasikmets M, Orru H, Guo Y, Valdés Ortega N, Matus Correa P, Tong S, Gasparrini Aet al., 2022, Differential Mortality Risks Associated With PM2.5 Components: A Multi-Country, Multi-City Study., Epidemiology, Vol: 33, Pages: 167-175

BACKGROUND: The association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality widely differs between as well as within countries. Differences in PM2.5 composition can play a role in modifying the effect estimates, but there is little evidence about which components have higher impacts on mortality. METHODS: We applied a 2-stage analysis on data collected from 210 locations in 16 countries. In the first stage, we estimated location-specific relative risks (RR) for mortality associated with daily total PM2.5 through time series regression analysis. We then pooled these estimates in a meta-regression model that included city-specific logratio-transformed proportions of seven PM2.5 components as well as meta-predictors derived from city-specific socio-economic and environmental indicators. RESULTS: We found associations between RR and several PM2.5 components. Increasing the ammonium (NH4+) proportion from 1% to 22%, while keeping a relative average proportion of other components, increased the RR from 1.0063 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.0030, 1.0097) to 1.0102 (95% CI = 1.0070, 1.0135). Conversely, an increase in nitrate (NO3-) from 1% to 71% resulted in a reduced RR, from 1.0100 (95% CI = 1.0067, 1.0133) to 1.0037 (95% CI = 0.9998, 1.0077). Differences in composition explained a substantial part of the heterogeneity in PM2.5 risk. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to the identification of more hazardous emission sources. Further work is needed to understand the health impacts of PM2.5 components and sources given the overlapping sources and correlations among many components.

Journal article

Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Tobias A, Jaakkola JJK, Honda Y, Hashizume M, Guo Y, Schwartz J, Zanobetti A, Bell ML, Armstrong B, Katsouyanni K, Haines A, Ebi KL, Gasparrini Aet al., 2022, Global mortality burden attributable to non-optimal temperatures, LANCET, Vol: 399, Pages: 1113-1113, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Rodopoulou S, Stafoggia M, Chen J, de Hoogh K, Bauwelinck M, Mehta AJ, Klompmaker JO, Oftedal B, Vienneau D, Janssen NAH, Strak M, Andersen ZJ, Renzi M, Cesaroni G, Nordheim CF, Bekkevold T, Atkinson R, Forastiere F, Katsouyanni K, Brunekreef B, Samoli E, Hoek Get al., 2022, Long-term exposure to fine particle elemental components and mortality in Europe: Results from six European administrative cohorts within the ELAPSE project, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 809, ISSN: 0048-9697

Journal article

Chen J, Rodopoulou S, Strak M, de Hoogh K, Taj T, Poulsen AH, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Zitt E, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Verschuren WMM, Jørgensen JT, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Lager A, Leander K, Liu S, Ljungman P, Severi G, Boutron-Ruault M-C, Magnusson PKE, Nagel G, Pershagen G, Peters A, Rizzuto D, van der Schouw YT, Samoli E, Sørensen M, Stafoggia M, Tjønneland A, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Brunekreef B, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Hoek Get al., 2022, Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and bladder cancer incidence in a pooled European cohort: the ELAPSE project, British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0007-0920

BACKGROUND: The evidence linking ambient air pollution to bladder cancer is limited and mixed. METHODS: We assessed the associations of bladder cancer incidence with residential exposure to fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), warm season ozone (O3) and eight PM2.5 elemental components (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc) in a pooled cohort (N = 302,493). Exposures were primarily assessed based on 2010 measurements and back-extrapolated to the baseline years. We applied Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for individual- and area-level potential confounders. RESULTS: During an average of 18.2 years follow-up, 967 bladder cancer cases occurred. We observed a positive though statistically non-significant association between PM2.5 and bladder cancer incidence. Hazard Ratios (HR) were 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.27) per 5 µg/m3 for 2010 exposure and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.99-1.14) for baseline exposure. Effect estimates for NO2, BC and O3 were close to unity. A positive association was observed with PM2.5 zinc (HR 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00-1.16 per 10 ng/m3). CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term PM2.5 mass exposure and bladder cancer, strengthening the evidence from the few previous studies. The association with zinc in PM2.5 suggests the importance of industrial emissions.

Journal article

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