18 results found
Sullivan KV, Moore RET, Capper MS, et al., 2021, Zinc stable isotope analysis reveals Zn dyshomeostasis in benign tumours, breast cancer, and adjacent histologically normal tissue, Matallomics, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1756-591X
The disruption of Zn homeostasis has been linked with breast cancer development and progression. To enhance our understanding of changes in Zn homeostasis both inside and around the tumour microenvironment, Zn concentrations and isotopic compositions (δ66Zn) were determined in benign (BT) and malignant (MT) tumours, healthy tissue from reduction mammoplasty (HT), and histologically normal tissue adjacent to benign (NAT(BT)) and malignant tumours (NAT(MT)). Mean Zn concentrations in NAT(BT) are 5.5 µg g−1 greater than in NAT(MT) (p = 0.00056) and 5.1 µg g−1 greater than in HT (p = 0.0026). Zinc concentrations in MT are 12.9 µg g−1 greater than in HT (p = 0.00012) and 13.3 µg g−1 greater than in NAT(MT) (p < 0.0001), whereas δ66Zn is 0.17‰ lower in MT than HT (p = 0.017). Benign tumour Zn concentrations are also elevated compared to HT (p = 0.00013), but are not significantly elevated compared to NAT(BT) (p = 0.32). The δ66Zn of BT is 0.15‰ lower than in NAT(BT) (p = 0.045). The similar light δ66Zn of BT and MT compared to HT and NAT may be related to the isotopic compensation of increased metallothionein (64Zn-rich) expression by activated matrix metalloproteinase (66Zn-rich) in MT, and indicates a resultant 66Zn-rich reservoir may exist in patients with breast tumours. Zinc isotopic compositions thus show promise as a potential diagnostic tool for the detection of breast tumours. The revealed differences of Zn accumulation in healthy and tumour-adjacent tissues require additional investigation.
Chen L, Little SH, Kreissig K, et al., 2021, Isotopically Light Cd in Sediments Underlying Oxygen Deficient Zones, FRONTIERS IN EARTH SCIENCE, Vol: 9
Griffiths A, Packman H, Leung YL, et al., 2020, Evaluation of optimized procedures for high-precision Pb isotope analyses of seawater by MC-ICP-MS, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 92, Pages: 11232-11241, ISSN: 0003-2700
The application of Pb isotopes to marine geochemistry is currently hindered by challenges associated with the analysis of Pb isotopes in seawater. The current study evaluates the performance of MC-ICP-MS measurements of seawater Pb isotope compositions following Pb separation by either solid-phase extraction with Nobias Chelate PA-1 resin or co-precipitation with Mg(OH)2, and using either a Pb double-spike or external normalization to Tl for mass bias correction. The four analytical combinations achieve results of similar quality when measuring 1–7 ng of seawater Pb, with reproducibilities (2SD) of 100–1200 ppm for 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 300–1700 ppm for ratios involving the minor 204Pb isotope. All four procedures enable significantly improved sample throughout compared to an established TIMS double-spike method and produce unbiased seawater Pb isotope compositions with similar or improved precision. Nobias extraction is preferable to co-precipitation due to its greater analytical throughput and suitability for analyses of large seawater samples with high Si(OH)4 contents. The most accurate Pb isotope data are produced following Nobias extraction and double-spike correction as such analyses are least susceptible to matrix effects. However, Nobias extraction with Tl-normalization constitutes an attractive alternative as, unlike the double-spike procedure, only a single mass spectrometric measurement is required, which improves analytical throughput and optimizes Pb consumption for analysis. Despite the advantages of solid-phase extraction, co-precipitation represents a useful Pb separation technique for samples with low to moderate Si contents as it is inexpensive, simple to implement and the data are only marginally less accurate, especially when combined with a Pb double-spike for mass bias correction.
Barraza F, Moore R, Rehkamper M, et al., 2019, Cadmium isotope fractionation in soil-cacao systems of Ecuador: a pilot field study, RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences, Vol: 9, Pages: 34011-34022, ISSN: 2046-2069
The often high Cd concentrations of cacao beans are a serious concern for producers in Latin America due to the implementation of stricter Cd limits for cocoa products by the European Union in 2019. This is the first investigation to employ coupled Cd isotope and concentration measurements to study soil – cacao systems. Analyses were carried out for 29 samples of soils, soil amendments and cacao tree organs from organic farms in Ecuador that harvest three distinct cacao cultivars. The majority of soils from 0–80 cm depth have very similar δ114/110Cd of about −0.1‰ to 0‰. Two 0–5 cm topsoils, however, have high Cd concentrations coupled with heavy Cd isotope compositions of δ114/110Cd ≈ 0.2%, possibly indicating Cd additions from the tree litter used as organic fertilizer. Whilst cacao leaves, pods and beans are ubiquitously enriched in Cd relative to soils there are distinct Cd isotope signatures. The leaves and pods are isotopically heavier than the soils, with similar Δ114/110Cdleaf–soil values of 0.22 ± 0.07‰ to 0.41 ± 0.09‰. In contrast, the data reveal differences in Δ114/110Cdbean–leaf that may be linked to distinct cacao cultivars. In detail, Δ114/110Cdbean–leaf values of −0.34‰ to −0.40‰ were obtained for Nacional cacao from two farms, whilst CCN-51 hybrid cacao from a third farm showed no fractionation within error (−0.08 ± 0.13‰). As such, further work to investigate whether Cd isotopes are indeed useful for tracing sources of Cd enrichments in soils and to inform genetic efforts to reduce the Cd burden of cocoa is indicated.
Imseng M, Wiggenhauser M, Keller A, et al., 2019, Towards an understanding of the Cd isotope fractionation during transfer from the soil to the cereal grain, Environmental Pollution, Vol: 244, Pages: 834-844, ISSN: 0269-7491
Cd in soils might be taken up by plants, enter the food chain and endanger human health. This study investigates the isotopic fractionation of major processes during the Cd transfer from soils to cereal grains. Thereto, soil, soil solution, wheat and barley plants (roots, straw and grains) were sampled in the field at three study sites during two vegetation periods. Cd concentrations and δ114/110Cd values were determined in all samples. The composition of the soil solution was analyzed and the speciation of the dissolved Cd was modelled. Isotopic fractionation between soils and soil solutions (Δ114/110Cd20-50cm-soil solution = −0.61 to −0.68‰) was nearly constant among the three soils. Cd isotope compositions in plants were heavier than in soils (Δ114/110Cd0-20cm-plants = −0.55 to −0.31‰) but lighter than in soil solutions (Δ114/110Cdsoil solution-plants = 0.06–0.36‰) and these differences correlated with Cd plant-uptake rates. In a conceptual model, desorption from soil, soil solution speciation, adsorption on root surfaces, diffusion, and plant uptake were identified as the responsible processes for the Cd isotope fractionation between soil, soil solution and plants whereas the first two processes dominated over the last three processes. Within plants, compartments with lower Cd concentrations were enriched in light isotopes which might be a consequence of Cd retention mechanisms, following a Rayleigh fractionation, in which barley cultivars were more efficient than wheat cultivars.
Moore R, Rehkamper M, Kreissig K, et al., 2018, Determination of major and trace element variability in healthy human urine by ICP-QMS and specific gravity normalisation, RSC Advances, Vol: 8, Pages: 38022-38035, ISSN: 2046-2069
Sixty five urine samples obtained during one or two non-consecutive days from 10 healthy individuals were analysed for major (Na, Mg, K, Ca) and trace (Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo and Pb) element concentrations. Following microwave digestion, the analyses were carried out using ICP-QMS (inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry) incorporating a collision/reaction cell. Repeat analyses of quality control samples show that the procedure produces unbiased results and is well suited for routine urinalysis of the investigated elements. Concentrations were normalised using specific gravity (SG) and the resultant decrease in variability supports previous conclusions that SG-normalisation appropriately corrects for differences in urine dilution. The elemental concentrations of the individual urine samples show large differences in dispersion. Most variable are As, Co and Zn, with CVs (coefficients of variation) of >75%. The major elements as well as Rb, Sr and Mo display intermediate variability, whilst Cu and Pb have the least elemental dispersion with CV values of about 30%. A detailed assessment shows that the overall elemental variability is governed both by differences between individuals and variations for a single individual over time. Spot urine samples exhibit elemental concentrations that, on average, resemble the daily mean values to within about 30% for all elements except K and Rb. Diet-related changes in urinary element concentration are most prominent for Mg, K, Co, Rb and Pb. The concentrations of Co, As and Rb appear to vary systematically with gender but this may primarily reflect co-variance with specific diets.
Khondoker R, Weiss DJ, van de Flierdt T, et al., 2018, New constraints on elemental and Pb and Nd isotope compositions of South American and Southern African aerosol sources to the South Atlantic Ocean, Chemie der Erde / Geochemistry, Vol: 78, Pages: 372-384, ISSN: 0009-2819
Improving the geochemical database available for characterising potential natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources from South America and Southern Africa is a critical precondition for studies aimed at understanding trace metal controls on the marine biogeochemical cycles of the South Atlantic Ocean. We here present new elemental and isotopic data for a wide range of sample types from South America and Southern Africa that are potentially important aerosol sources. This includes road dust from Buenos Aires and lichen samples from Johannesburg, soil dust from Patagonia, volcanic ash from the Andean volcanic belt, and aerosol samples from São Paulo. All samples were investigated for major (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Mn) and trace element (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, REE, Sc, Th, Y, V, Zn) concentrations and Nd and Pb isotopic compositions. We show that diagrams of 208Pb/207Pb vs. εNd, 208Pb/207Pb vs. Pb/Al, 1/[Pb], Zn/Al, Cd/Al, Cu/Al, and εNd vs. Pb/Al, and 1/[Nd] are best suited to separate South American and South African source regions as well as natural and anthropogenic sources. A subset of samples from Patagonia and the Andes was additionally subjected to separation of a fine (<5 μm) fraction and compared to the composition of the bulk sample. We show that differences in the geochemical signature of bulk samples between individual regions and source types are significantly larger than between grain sizes. Jointly, these findings present an important step forward towards a quantitative assessment of aeolian trace metal inputs to the South Atlantic Ocean.
Imseng M, Wiggenhauser M, Keller A, et al., 2018, Fate of Cd in agricultural soils: a stable isotope approach to anthropogenic impact, soil formation and soil-plant cycling, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol: 52, Pages: 1919-1928, ISSN: 0013-936X
The application of mineral phosphate (P) fertilizers leads to an unintended Cd input into agricultural systems, which might affect soil fertility and quality of crops. The Cd fluxes at three arable sites in Switzerland were determined by a detailed analysis of all inputs (atmospheric deposition, mineral P fertilizers, manure, and weathering) and outputs (seepage water, wheat and barley harvest) during one hydrological year. The most important inputs were mineral P fertilizers (0.49 to 0.57 g Cd ha–1 yr–1) and manure (0.20 to 0.91 g Cd ha–1 yr–1). Mass balances revealed net Cd losses for cultivation of wheat (−0.01 to −0.49 g Cd ha–1 yr–1) but net accumulations for that of barley (+0.18 to +0.71 g Cd ha–1 yr–1). To trace Cd sources and redistribution processes in the soils, we used natural variations in the Cd stable isotope compositions. Cadmium in seepage water (δ114/110Cd = 0.39 to 0.79‰) and plant harvest (0.27 to 0.94‰) was isotopically heavier than in soil (−0.21 to 0.14‰). Consequently, parent material weathering shifted bulk soil isotope compositions to lighter signals following a Rayleigh fractionation process (ε ≈ 0.16). Furthermore, soil-plant cycling extracted isotopically heavy Cd from the subsoil and moved it to the topsoil. These long-term processes and not anthropogenic inputs determined the Cd distribution in our soils.
Palk C, Andreasen R, Rehkamper M, et al., 2017, Variable Tl, Pb and Cd concentrations and isotope compositions of enstatite and ordinary chondrites – evidence for volatile element mobilization and decay of extinct 205Pb, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol: 53, Pages: 167-186, ISSN: 1086-9379
New Tl, Pb, and Cd concentration and Tl, Pb isotope data are presented for enstatite as well as L- and LL-type ordinary chondrites, with additional Cd stable isotope results for the former. All three chondrite suites have Tl and Cd contents that vary by more than 1–2 orders of magnitude but Pb concentrations are more uniform, as a result of terrestrial Pb contamination. Model calculations based on Pb isotope compositions indicate that for more than half of the samples, more than 50% of the measured Pb contents are due to addition of modern terrestrial Pb. In part, this is responsible for the relatively young and imprecise Pb-Pb ages determined for EH, L, and LL chondrites, which are hence only of limited chronological utility. In contrast, four particularly pristine EL chondrites define a precise Pb-Pb cooling age of 4559 ± 6 Ma. The enstatite chondrites (ECs) have highly variable ε114/110Cd of between about +3 and +70 due to stable isotope fractionation from thermal and shock metamorphism. Furthermore, nearly all enstatite meteorites display ε205Tl values from −3.3 to +0.8, while a single anomalous sample is highly fractionated in both Tl and Cd isotopes. The majority of the ECs thereby define a correlation of ε205Tl with ε114/110Cd, which suggests that at least some of the Tl isotope variability reflects stable isotope fractionation rather than radiogenic ingrowth of 205Tl from 205Pb decay. Considering L chondrites, most ε205Tl values range between −4 and +1, while two outliers with ε205Tl ≤ −10 are indicative of stable isotope fractionation. Considering only those L chondrites which are least likely to feature Pb contamination or stable Tl isotope effects, the results are in accord with the former presence of live 205Pb on the parent body, with an initial 205Pb/204Pb = (1.5 ± 1.4) × 10−4, which suggests late equilibration of the Pb-Tl system 26–113 Ma after
Hunt AC, Benedix GK, Hammond SJ, et al., 2016, A geochemical study of the winonaites: Evidence for limited partial melting and constraints on the precursor composition, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol: 199, Pages: 13-30, ISSN: 0016-7037
The winonaites are primitive achondrites which are associated with the IAB iron meteorites. Textural evidence implies heating to at least the Fe, Ni-FeS cotectic, but previous geochemical studies are ambiguous about the extent of silicate melting in these samples. Oxygen isotope evidence indicates that the precursor material may be related to the carbonaceous chondrites. Here we analysed a suite of winonaites for modal mineralogy and bulk major- and trace-element chemistry in order to assess the extent of thermal processing as well as constrain the precursor composition of the winonaite-IAB parent asteroid. Modal mineralogy and geochemical data are presented for eight winonaites. Textural analysis reveals that, for our sub-set of samples, all except the most primitive winonaite (Northwest Africa 1463) reached the Fe, Ni-FeS cotectic. However, only one (Tierra Blanca) shows geochemical evidence for silicate melting processes. Tierra Blanca is interpreted as a residue of small-degree silicate melting. Our sample of Winona shows geochemical evidence for extensive terrestrial weathering. All other winonaites studied here (Fortuna, Queen Alexander Range 94535, Hammadah al Hamra 193, Pontlyfni and NWA 1463) have chondritic major-element ratios and flat CI-normalised bulk rare-earth element patterns, suggesting that most of the winonaites did not reach the silicate melting temperature. The majority of winonaites were therefore heated to a narrow temperature range of between ~1220 (the Fe, Ni-FeS cotectic temperature) and ~1370 K (the basaltic partial melting temperature). Silicate inclusions in the IAB irons demonstrate partial melting did occur in some parts of the parent body (Ruzicka and Hutson, 2010), thereby implying heterogeneous heat distribution within this asteroid. Together, this indicates that melting was the result of internal heating by short-lived radionuclides. The brecciated nature of the winonaites suggests that the parent body was later disrupted by a cat
Wiggenhauser M, Bigalke M, Imseng M, et al., 2016, Cadmium isotope fractionation in soil-wheat systems, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol: 50, Pages: 9223-9231, ISSN: 0013-936X
Analyses of stable metal isotope ratios constitute a novel tool in order to improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes in soil-plant systems. In this study, we used such measurements to assess Cd uptake and transport in wheat grown on three agricultural soils under controlled conditions. Isotope ratios of Cd were determined in the bulk C and A horizons, in the Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd soil pool, and in roots, straw, and grains. The Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd was isotopically heavier than the Cd in the bulk A horizon (Δ(114/110)Cdextract-Ahorizon = 0.16 to 0.45‰). The wheat plants were slightly enriched in light isotopes relative to the Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd or showed no significant difference (Δ(114/110)Cdwheat-extract = -0.21 to 0.03‰). Among the plant parts, Cd isotopes were markedly fractionated: straw was isotopically heavier than roots (Δ(114/110)Cdstraw-root = 0.21 to 0.41‰), and grains were heavier than straw (Δ(114/110)Cdgrain-straw = 0.10 to 0.51‰). We suggest that the enrichment of heavy isotopes in the wheat grains was caused by mechanisms avoiding the accumulation of Cd in grains, such as the chelation of light Cd isotopes by thiol-containing peptides in roots and straw. These results demonstrate that Cd isotopes are significantly and systematically fractionated in soil-wheat systems, and the fractionation patterns provide information on the biogeochemical processes in these systems.
Lambelet M, van de Flierdt T, Crocket K, et al., 2016, Neodymium isotopic composition and concentration in the western North Atlantic Ocean: results from the GEOTRACES GA02 section, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol: 177, Pages: 1-29, ISSN: 0016-7037
The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater is commonly used as a proxy to study past changes in the thermohaline circulation. The modern database for such reconstructions is however poor and the understanding of the underlying processes is incomplete. Here we present new observational data for Nd isotopes and concentrations from twelve seawater depth profiles, which follow the flow path of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) from its formation region in the North Atlantic to the northern equatorial Atlantic. Samples were collected during two cruises constituting the northern part of the Dutch GEOTRACES transect GA02 in 2010. The results show that the different water masses in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean, which ultimately constitute NADW, have the following Nd isotope characteristics: Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW), εNd = -14.2 ± 0.3; Labrador Sea Water (LSW), εNd = -13.7 ± 0.9; Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW), εNd = -12.5 ± 0.6; Northwest Atlantic Bottom Water (NWABW), εNd = -11.8 ± 1.4. In the subtropics, where these source water masses have mixed to form NADW, which is exported to the global ocean, upper-NADW is characterised by εNd values of -13.2 ± 1.0 (2sd) and lower-NADW exhibits values of εNd = -12.4 ± 0.4 (2sd). While both signatures overlap within error, the signature for lower-NADW is significantly more radiogenic than the traditionally used value for NADW (εNd = -13.5) due to the dominance of source waters from the Nordic Seas (NWABW and NEADW). Comparison between the concentration profiles and the corresponding Nd isotope profiles with other water mass properties such as salinity, silicate concentrations, neutral densities and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentration provides novel insights into the geochemical cycle of Nd and reveals that different processes are necessary to account for the observed Nd characteristics in the subpolar and su
Struve T, van de Flierdt T, Robinson LF, et al., 2016, Neodymium isotope analyses after combined extraction of actinide and lanthanide elements from seawater and deep-sea coral aragonite, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, Vol: 17, Pages: 232-240, ISSN: 1525-2027
Isotopes of the actinide elements protactinium (Pa), thorium (Th) and uranium (U), and the lanthanide element neodymium (Nd) are often used as complementary tracers of modern and past oceanic processes. The extraction of such elements from low abundance matrices, such as seawater and carbonate, is however labor-intensive and requires significant amounts of sample material. We here present a combined method for the extraction of Pa, Th and Nd from 5 to 10 L seawater samples, and of U, Th and Nd from <1 g carbonate samples. Neodymium is collected in the respective wash fractions of Pa-Th and U-Th anion exchange chromatographies. Regardless of the original sample matrix, Nd is extracted during a two-stage ion chromatography, followed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) analysis as NdO+. Using this combined procedure, we obtained results for Nd isotopic compositions on two GEOTRACES consensus samples from Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS), which are within error identical to results for separately sampled and processed dedicated Nd samples (εNd = -9.20 ± 0.21 and -13.11 ± 0.21 for 15 and 2000 m water depths, respectively; intercalibration results from 14 laboratories: εNd = -9.19 ± 0.57 and -13.14 ± 0.57). Furthermore, Nd isotope results for an in-house coral reference material are identical within analytical uncertainty for dedicated Nd chemistry and after collection of Nd from U-Th anion exchange chromatography. Our procedure does not require major adaptations to independently used ion exchange chromatographies for U-Pa-Th and Nd, and can hence be readily implemented for a wide range of applications.
Murphy K, Rehkämper M, Kreissig K, et al., 2015, Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol: 31, Pages: 319-327, ISSN: 1364-5544
Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liqui
Laycock A, Coles B, Kreissig K, et al., 2015, High precision Ce-142/Ce-140 stable isotope measurements of purified materials with a focus on CeO2 nanoparticles, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol: 31, Pages: 297-302, ISSN: 1364-5544
Engineered CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming increasingly prevalent in consumer products and this has raised concerns about the unknown behaviour and fate of such materials in the environment. Analytical limitations have hampered the detection of CeO2 NPs in natural systems at environmentally relevant levels. This study presents data on the inherent stable isotope composition of commercially available purified Ce materials with a particular focus on CeO2 NPs. The aim of this investigation is to determine whether CeO2 NPs posses a distinct isotopic signature that may be exploited for their detection in natural systems. To achieve this, suitable stable isotope measurement protocols were developed for the precise determination of the 142Ce/140Ce isotope ratio by multiple collector ICP-MS using Ba for external normalisation of the instrumental mass bias. The data presented show that precisions of ±0.01‰ (2se) and ±0.04‰ (2sd) can be routinely achieved with these techniques. The results also demonstrate that commercially available CeO2 NPs do not have a distinct Ce isotope composition that may be exploited for the purpose of stable isotope tracing.
Lambelet M, Rehkaemper M, de Flierdt TV, et al., 2013, Isotopic analysis of Cd in the mixing zone of Siberian rivers with the Arctic Ocean-New constraints on marine Cd cycling and the isotope composition of riverine Cd, EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, Vol: 361, Pages: 64-73, ISSN: 0012-821X
van de Flierdt T, Pahnke K, Amakawa H, et al., 2012, GEOTRACES intercalibration of neodymium isotopes and rare earth element concentrations in seawater and suspended particles. Part 1: reproducibility of results for the international intercomparison, LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY-METHODS, Vol: 10, Pages: 234-251, ISSN: 1541-5856
Larner F, Rehkaemper M, Coles BJ, et al., 2011, A new separation procedure for Cu prior to stable isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS, JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY, Vol: 26, Pages: 1627-1632, ISSN: 0267-9477
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