112 results found
Madani K, 2019, The value of extreme events: What doesn't exterminate your water system makes it more resilient, Journal of Hydrology, Vol: 575, Pages: 269-272, ISSN: 0022-1694
© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Problems have a high rank in decision making when they are both urgent and important. Accordingly, water has not earned the attention it deserves in public policy agenda because under normal circumstances it is not viewed as an urgent matter in the eyes of the public and politicians. By creating a sense of urgency, extreme events such as droughts, floods, conflicts, and migrations can create opportunities for implementing some essential policy reforms that would be politically costly otherwise. So, despite their high short-term costs, extreme natural and societal events have the potential to increase the resilience of water systems in the long run. It is argued here that the societal and political sense of urgency about water must be promoted through public outreach and information dissemination. Otherwise, for useful reforms and long-term improvements, we will rely on costly and risky extreme events that sometimes have the potential to fully collapse the human-natural system-of-systems.
Aljefri YM, Fang L, Hipel KW, et al., 2019, Strategic Analyses of the Hydropolitical Conflicts Surrounding the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, GROUP DECISION AND NEGOTIATION, Vol: 28, Pages: 305-340, ISSN: 0926-2644
Ristic B, Mahlooji M, Gaudard L, et al., 2019, The relative aggregate footprint of electricity generation technologies in the European Union (EU): A system of systems approach, RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING, Vol: 143, Pages: 282-290, ISSN: 0921-3449
Gaudard L, Madani K, 2019, Energy storage race: Has the monopoly of pumped-storage in Europe come to an end?, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 126, Pages: 22-29, ISSN: 0301-4215
Ristic B, Madani K, 2019, A Game Theory Warning to Blind Drivers Playing Chicken With Public Goods, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, Vol: 55, Pages: 2000-2013, ISSN: 0043-1397
Ashraf S, AghaKouchak A, Nazemi A, et al., 2019, Compounding effects of human activities and climatic changes on surface water availability in Iran, CLIMATIC CHANGE, Vol: 152, Pages: 379-391, ISSN: 0165-0009
Khazaei B, Khatami S, Alemohammad SH, et al., 2019, Climatic or regionally induced by humans? Tracing hydro-climatic and land-use changes to better understand the Lake Urmia tragedy, JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY, Vol: 569, Pages: 203-217, ISSN: 0022-1694
Al-Saqlawi J, Madani K, Mac Dowell N, 2018, Techno-economic feasibility of grid-independent residential roof-top solar PV systems in Muscat, Oman, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 178, Pages: 322-334, ISSN: 0196-8904
Oman is a country characterised by high solar availability, yet very little electricity is produced using solar energy. As the residential sector is the largest consumer of electricity in Oman, we develop a novel approach, using houses in Muscat as a case study, to assess the potential of implementing roof-top solar PV/battery technologies, that operate without recourse to the electricity grid. Such systems target the complete decarbonisation of electricity demand per household and are defined in this study as grid-independent systems. The approach adopted starts with a technical assessment of grid-independent systems that evaluates the characteristics of the solar panel and the battery facility required to provide grid-independence. This is then compared to a similar grid-connected system and any techno-economic targets necessary to enhance the feasibility of residential roof-top PV systems in Muscat are identified. Such an analysis was achieved through developing a detailed techno-economic mathematical model describing four sub-systems; the solar panel DC source, the grid-independent sub-system, the grid-connected sub-system and the economic sub-system. The model was implemented in gPROMS and uses real hourly weather and climate conditions matched with real demand data, over a simulated period of 20 years. The results indicate that, in the context of the system studied, grid-independent PV systems are not feasible. However, combined with a sufficiently high electricity price, grid-independent systems can become economically feasible only with significant reductions in battery costs (>90% reductions).
Kasprzyk JR, Smith RM, Stillwell AS, et al., 2018, Defining the Role of Water Resources Systems Analysis in a Changing Future, JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 144, ISSN: 0733-9496
Madani K, 2018, Radicals running riot, NEW SCIENTIST, Vol: 240, Pages: 24-25, ISSN: 0262-4079
Babovic F, Mijic A, Madani K, 2018, Decision making under deep uncertainty for adapting urban drainage systems to change, Urban Water Journal, Vol: 15, Pages: 552-560, ISSN: 1573-062X
Urbanisation and climate change are augmenting the uncertainty surrounding the future state of the world’s water resource and are resulting in cities experiencing growing levels of risk of pluvial flooding. Drainage infrastructure is generally built using the paradigm of ‘predict and optimise’; however, this approach fails to account for erroneous predictions. This can result in drainage systems delivering insufficient levels of flood protection. Irrespective of these uncertainties new drainage systems must be built, and existing ones adapted in such a way that they remain reliable. This work presents a critical analysis of the drivers of change of urban pluvial flooding and the uncertainties surrounding urban flood planning; thereby highlighting the shortcomings of current planning methodologies. Different Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMDU) frameworks are then explored and it is shown that they offer an improved ability to design reliable urban flood systems regardless of highly uncertain future conditions.
Burgman MA, Tennant M, Voulvoulis N, et al., 2018, Facilitating the transition to sustainable green chemistry, Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Vol: 13, Pages: 130-136, ISSN: 2452-2236
Sustainable green chemistry depends on technically feasible, cost-effective and socially acceptable decisions by regulators, industry and the wider community. The discipline needs to embrace a new suite of tools and train proponents in their use. We propose a set of tools that will bridge the gap between technical feasibility and efficiency on one hand, and social preferences and values on the other. We argue that they are indispensable in the next generation of regulators and chemistry industry proponents.
Nazemi A, Madani K, 2018, Toward addressing urban water security: Searching for practicability, SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY, Vol: 42, Pages: 637-640, ISSN: 2210-6707
Cheng C, Chen F, Li G, et al., 2018, Reform and renewables in China: The architecture of Yunnan's hydropower dominated electricity market, RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, Vol: 94, Pages: 682-693, ISSN: 1364-0321
Alborzi A, Mirchi A, Moftakhari H, et al., 2018, Climate-informed environmental inflows to revive a drying lake facing meteorological and anthropogenic droughts, Environmental Research Letters, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1748-9326
The rapid shrinkage of Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest saline lakes located in northwestern Iran, is a tragic wake-up call to revisit the principles of water resources management based on the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The overarching goal of this paper is to set a framework for deriving dynamic, climate-informed environmental inflows for drying lakes considering both meteorological/climatic and anthropogenic conditions. We report on the compounding effects of meteorological drought and unsustainable water resource management that contributed to Lake Urmia's contemporary environmental catastrophe. Using rich datasets of hydrologic attributes, water demands and withdrawals, as well as water management infrastructure (i.e. reservoir capacity and operating policies), we provide a quantitative assessment of the basin's water resources, demonstrating that Lake Urmia reached a tipping point in the early 2000s. The lake level failed to rebound to its designated ecological threshold (1274 m above sea level) during a relatively normal hydro-period immediately after the drought of record (1998–2002). The collapse was caused by a marked overshoot of the basin's hydrologic capacity due to growing anthropogenic drought in the face of extreme climatological stressors. We offer a dynamic environmental inflow plan for different climate conditions (dry, wet and near normal), combined with three representative water withdrawal scenarios. Assuming effective implementation of the proposed 40% reduction in the current water withdrawals, the required environmental inflows range from 2900 million cubic meters per year (mcm yr−1) during dry conditions to 5400 mcm yr−1 during wet periods with the average being 4100 mcm yr−1. Finally, for different environmental inflow scenarios, we estimate the expected recovery time for re-establishing the ecological level of Lake Urmia.
Hui R, Herman J, Lund J, et al., 2018, Adaptive water infrastructure planning for nonstationary hydrology, ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, Vol: 118, Pages: 83-94, ISSN: 0309-1708
Nazemi A, Madani K, 2018, Urban water security: Emerging discussion and remaining challenges, SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND SOCIETY, Vol: 41, Pages: 925-928, ISSN: 2210-6707
Haghighi E, Madani K, Hoekstra AY, 2018, The water footprint of water conservation using shade balls in California, Nature Sustainability, Vol: 1, Pages: 358-360, ISSN: 2398-9629
The interest in quick technologic fixes to complex water problems increases during extreme hydroclimatic events. However, past evidence shows that such fixes might be associated with unintended consequences. We revisit the idea of using shade balls in the Los Angeles reservoir to reduce evaporation during the recent drought in California, and question its sustainability by revealing the water footprint of this technologic water conservation solution.
Bahaddin B, Mirchi A, Watkins D, et al., 2018, System Archetypes in Water Resource Management, 18th Annual World Environmental and Water Resources Congress of the Environmental-and-Water-Resources-Institute (EWRI), Publisher: AMER SOC CIVIL ENGINEERS, Pages: 130-140
Rosenberg DE, Babbar-Sebens M, Root E, et al., 2017, More Integrated Formal Education and Practice in Water Resources Systems Analysis, JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 143, ISSN: 0733-9496
Ashraf B, AghaKouchak A, Alizadeh A, et al., 2017, Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources., Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (hout) and inflow (hin). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to evaluate the current aquifer regime. We subsequently present two scenarios of changes in human water withdrawals and return flow to the system (individually and combined). Results show that approximately one-third of the selected aquifers in the USA, and half of the selected aquifers in Iran are dominated by human activities, while the selected aquifers in Germany are natural flow-dominated. The scenario analysis results also show that reduced human withdrawals could help with regime change in some aquifers. For instance, in two of the selected USA aquifers, a decrease in anthropogenic influences by ~20% may change the condition of depleted regime to natural flow-dominated regime. We specifically highlight a trending threat to the sustainability of groundwater in northwest Iran and California, and the need for more careful assessment and monitoring practices as well as strict regulations to mitigate the negative impacts of groundwater overexploitation.
Increasing population has posed insurmountable challenges to agriculture in the provision of future food security, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region where biophysical conditions are not well-suited for agriculture. Iran, as a major agricultural country in the MENA region, has long been in the quest for food self-sufficiency, however, the capability of its land and water resources to realize this goal is largely unknown. Using very high-resolution spatial data sets, we evaluated the capacity of Iran’s land for sustainable crop production based on the soil properties, topography, and climate conditions. We classified Iran’s land suitability for cropping as (million ha): very good 0.4% (0.6), good 2.2% (3.6), medium 7.9% (12.8), poor 11.4% (18.5), very poor 6.3% (10.2), unsuitable 60.0% (97.4), and excluded areas 11.9% (19.3). In addition to overarching limitations caused by low precipitation, low soil organic carbon, steep slope, and high soil sodium content were the predominant soil and terrain factors limiting the agricultural land suitability in Iran. About 50% of the Iran’s existing croplands are located in low-quality lands, representing an unsustainable practice. There is little room for cropland expansion to increase production but redistribution of cropland to more suitable areas may improve sustainability and reduce pressure on water resources, land, and ecosystem in Iran.
Davtalab R, Mirchi A, Khatami S, et al., 2017, Improving Continuous Hydrologic Modeling of Data-Poor River Basins Using Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrologic Modeling System: Case Study of Karkheh River Basin, JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1084-0699
Gohari A, Mirchi A, Madani K, 2017, Erratum to: System Dynamics Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Water Resources Management in Central Iran, Water Resources Management, Vol: 31, Pages: 4367-4368, ISSN: 0920-4741
Fazel N, Berndtsson R, Uvo CB, et al., 2017, Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Iran’s Lake Urmia basin, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0177-798X
Gohari A, Mirchi A, Madani K, 2017, System Dynamics Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Water Resources Management in Central Iran, Water Resources Management, Vol: 31, Pages: 1413-1434, ISSN: 0920-4741
The Zayandeh-Rud River basin, Iran, is projected to face spatiotemporally heterogeneoustemperature increase and precipitation reduction that will decrease water supply bymid-century. With projected increase (0.70–1.03 °C) in spring temperature and reduction (6–55%) in winter precipitation, the upper Zayandeh-Rud sub-basin, the main source of renewablewater supply, will likely become warmer and drier. In the lower sub-basin, 1.1–1.5 °Cincrease in temperature and 11–31% decrease in annual precipitation are likely. A systemdynamics model was used to analyze adaptation strategies taking into account feedbacksbetween water resources development and biophysical and socioeconomic sub-systems.Results suggest that infrastructural improvements, rigorous water demand management (e.g.,replacing high water demand crops such as rice, corn, and alfalfa), and ecosystem-basedregulatory prioritization, complemented by supply augmentation can temporarily alleviatewater stress in a basin that is essentially governed by the Limits to Growth archetype
Kruitwagen L, Madani K, Caldecott B, et al., 2017, Game theory and corporate governance: conditions for effective stewardship of companies exposed to climate change risks, JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE FINANCE & INVESTMENT, Vol: 7, Pages: 14-36, ISSN: 2043-0795
Tayia A, Madani K, 2017, Resilient Transboundary Water Management Institutions, 17th Annual World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, Publisher: AMER SOC CIVIL ENGINEERS, Pages: 618-627
Zekri S, Madani K, Bazargan-Lari MR, et al., 2016, Feasibility of adopting smart water meters in aquifer management: An integrated hydro-economic analysis, AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT, Vol: 181, Pages: 85-93, ISSN: 0378-3774
Madani K, AghaKouchak A, Mirchi A, 2016, Iran’s socio-economic drought: challenges of a water-bankrupt nation, Iranian Studies, Vol: 49, Pages: 997-1016, ISSN: 1475-4819
Iran is currently experiencing serious water problems. Frequent droughts coupled with over-abstraction of surface and groundwater through a large network of hydraulic infrastructure and deep wells have escalated the nation’s water situation to a critical level. This is evidenced by drying lakes, rivers and wetlands, declining groundwater levels, land subsidence, water quality degradation, soil erosion, desertification and more frequent dust storms. This paper overviews the major drivers of Iran’s water problems. It is argued that while climatic changes and economic sanctions are commonly blamed as the main drivers of water problems, Iran is mainly suffering from a socio-economic drought—i.e. “water bankruptcy,” where water demand exceeds the natural water supply. In theory, this problem can be resolved by re-establishing the balance between water supply and demand through developing additional sources of water supply and implementing aggressive water demand reduction plans. Nevertheless, the current structure of the water governance system in Iran and the absence of a comprehensive understanding of the root causes of the problem leave minimal hope of developing sustainable solutions to Iran’s unprecedented water problems.
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