Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Visiting Professor



+44 (0)20 7594 1594k.nikolic




Bessemer 420CBessemer BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Mirza, KB and Kulasekeram, N and Liu, Y and Nikolic, K and Toumazou, C},
doi = {10.1109/iscas.2019.8702804},
publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
title = {System on chip for closed loop neuromodulation based on dual mode biosignals},
url = {},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Closed loop neuromodulation, where the stimulation is controlled autonomously based on physiological events, has been more effective than open loop techniques. In the few existing closed loop implementations which have a feedback, indirect non-neurophysiological biomarkers have been typically used (e.g. heart rate, stomach distension). Although these biomarkers enable automatic initiation of neural stimulation, they do not enable intelligent control of stimulation dosage. In this paper, we present a novel closed loop neuromodulation System-on-Chip (SoC) based on a dual signal mode that is detecting both electrical and chemical signatures of neural activity. We use vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as a design case here. Vagal chemical (pH) signal is detected and used for initiating VNS and vagal compound nerve action potential (CNAP) signals are used to determine the stimulation dosage and pattern. Although we used the paradigm of appetite control and neurometabolic therapies for developing the algorithms for neurostimulation control, the SoC described here can be utilised for other types of closed loop neuromodulation implants.
AU - Mirza,KB
AU - Kulasekeram,N
AU - Liu,Y
AU - Nikolic,K
AU - Toumazou,C
DO - 10.1109/iscas.2019.8702804
PB - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
PY - 2019///
SN - 2158-1525
TI - System on chip for closed loop neuromodulation based on dual mode biosignals
UR -
UR -
ER -