315 results found
Kliemann N, Rauber F, Levy R, et al., 2023, Food processing and cancer risk in Europe: results from the prospective EPIC cohort study, The Lancet Planetary Health, Vol: 7, Pages: E219-E232, ISSN: 2542-5196
BackgroundFood processing has been hypothesised to play a role in cancer development; however, data from large-scale epidemiological studies are scarce. This study investigated the association between dietary intake according to amount of food processing and risk of cancer at 25 anatomical sites using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.MethodsThis study used data from the prospective EPIC cohort study, which recruited participants between March 18, 1991, and July 2, 2001, from 23 centres in ten European countries. Participant eligibility within each cohort was based on geographical or administrative boundaries. Participants were excluded if they had a cancer diagnosis before recruitment, had missing information for the NOVA food processing classification, or were within the top and bottom 1% for ratio of energy intake to energy requirement. Validated dietary questionnaires were used to obtain information on food and drink consumption. Participants with cancer were identified using cancer registries or during follow-up from a combination of sources, including cancer and pathology centres, health insurance records, and active follow-up of participants. We performed a substitution analysis to assess the effect of replacing 10% of processed foods and ultra-processed foods with 10% of minimally processed foods on cancer risk at 25 anatomical sites using Cox proportional hazard models.Findings521 324 participants were recruited into EPIC, and 450 111 were included in this analysis (318 686 [70·8%] participants were female individuals and 131 425 [29·2%] were male individuals). In a multivariate model adjusted for sex, smoking, education, physical activity, height, and diabetes, a substitution of 10% of processed foods with an equal amount of minimally processed foods was associated with reduced risk of overall cancer (hazard ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·95–0·9
Carreras-Torres R, Kim AE, Lin Y, et al., 2023, Genome-wide Interaction Study with Smoking for Colorectal Cancer Risk Identifies Novel Genetic Loci Related to Tumor Suppression, Inflammation, and Immune Response., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, Vol: 32, Pages: 315-328
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, genetically defined population subgroups may have increased susceptibility to smoking-related effects on colorectal cancer. METHODS: A genome-wide interaction scan was performed including 33,756 colorectal cancer cases and 44,346 controls from three genetic consortia. RESULTS: Evidence of an interaction was observed between smoking status (ever vs. never smokers) and a locus on 3p12.1 (rs9880919, P = 4.58 × 10-8), with higher associated risk in subjects carrying the GG genotype [OR, 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20-1.30] compared with the other genotypes (OR <1.17 for GA and AA). Among ever smokers, we observed interactions between smoking intensity (increase in 10 cigarettes smoked per day) and two loci on 6p21.33 (rs4151657, P = 1.72 × 10-8) and 8q24.23 (rs7005722, P = 2.88 × 10-8). Subjects carrying the rs4151657 TT genotype showed higher risk (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.16) compared with the other genotypes (OR <1.06 for TC and CC). Similarly, higher risk was observed among subjects carrying the rs7005722 AA genotype (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.28) compared with the other genotypes (OR <1.13 for AC and CC). Functional annotation revealed that SNPs in 3p12.1 and 6p21.33 loci were located in regulatory regions, and were associated with expression levels of nearby genes. Genetic models predicting gene expression revealed that smoking parameters were associated with lower colorectal cancer risk with higher expression levels of CADM2 (3p12.1) and ATF6B (6p21.33). CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified novel genetic loci that may modulate the risk for colorectal cancer of smoking status and intensity, linked to tumor suppression and immune response. IMPACT: These findings can guide potential prevention treatments.
Fernandez-Rozadilla C, Timofeeva M, Chen Z, et al., 2023, Author Correction: Deciphering colorectal cancer genetics through multi-omic analysis of 100,204 cases and 154,587 controls of European and east Asian ancestries., Nat Genet, Vol: 55, Pages: 519-520
Chalitsios CV, Tsilidis KK, Tzoulaki I, 2023, Response to comment on "Psoriasis and COVID-19: A bidirectional Mendelian randomization study"., J Am Acad Dermatol, Vol: 88
Chalitsios CV, Georgiou A, Bouras E, et al., 2023, Investigating modifiable pathways in psoriasis: A Mendelian randomization study., J Am Acad Dermatol, Vol: 88, Pages: 593-601
BACKGROUND: Potentially modifiable risk factors have previously been investigated only in conventional observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether genetically predicted exposures to modifiable factors are associated with the risk of psoriasis. METHODS: Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. RESULTS: An increased risk of psoriasis was noted for genetically predicted lifetime smoking index (odds ratio [OR]MR-IVW = 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.51), childhood (OR MR-IVW = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14-1.71) and adult body mass index (OR MR-IVW = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.32-2), waist (OR IVW = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.31-2.64), and hip circumference (OR MR-IVW = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.07). Protective association was also reported between genetically predicted longer sleep duration (OR MR-IVW = 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.84) and increased years of education (OR MR-IVW = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.98). This effect of education persisted in multivariable MR after adjusting for genetic predictors of smoking and adult body mass index (ORMVMR-IVW = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.92). LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to stratify for psoriasis severity. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation and prevention of obesity are important strategies for decreasing the incidence of psoriasis. Similarly, targeting education inequality is expected to lead further to reductions in cases of psoriasis.
Rothwell JA, Bešević J, Dimou N, et al., 2023, Circulating amino acid levels and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and UK Biobank cohorts, BMC Medicine, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1741-7015
BACKGROUND: Amino acid metabolism is dysregulated in colorectal cancer patients; however, it is not clear whether pre-diagnostic levels of amino acids are associated with subsequent risk of colorectal cancer. We investigated circulating levels of amino acids in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and UK Biobank cohorts. METHODS: Concentrations of 13-21 amino acids were determined in baseline fasting plasma or serum samples in 654 incident colorectal cancer cases and 654 matched controls in EPIC. Amino acids associated with colorectal cancer risk following adjustment for the false discovery rate (FDR) were then tested for associations in the UK Biobank, for which measurements of 9 amino acids were available in 111,323 participants, of which 1221 were incident colorectal cancer cases. RESULTS: Histidine levels were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in EPIC (odds ratio [OR] 0.80 per standard deviation [SD], 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.92, FDR P-value=0.03) and in UK Biobank (HR 0.93 per SD, 95% CI 0.87-0.99, P-value=0.03). Glutamine levels were borderline inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in EPIC (OR 0.85 per SD, 95% CI 0.75-0.97, FDR P-value=0.08) and similarly in UK Biobank (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.01, P=0.09) In both cohorts, associations changed only minimally when cases diagnosed within 2 or 5 years of follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating levels of histidine were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in two large prospective cohorts. Further research to ascertain the role of histidine metabolism and potentially that of glutamine in colorectal cancer development is warranted.
Christakoudi S, Tsilidis KK, Evangelou E, et al., 2023, Sex differences in the associations of body size and body shape with platelets in the UK Biobank cohort, Biology of Sex Differences, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2042-6410
Background: Obesity is accompanied with low-grade inflammation and leucocytosis and increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Associations with platelet count, however, are unclear because several studies have reported positive associations only in women. Associations with body shape are also unclear, because waist and hip circumferences reflect overall body size, as well as body shape, and are correlated strongly positively with body mass index (BMI).Methods: We evaluated body shape with the allometric body shape index (ABSI) and hip index (HI), which reflect waist and hip size among individuals with the same weight and height and are uncorrelated with BMI. We examined the associations of BMI, ABSI, and HI with platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) in multivariable linear regression models for 125,435 UK Biobank women and 114,760 men. We compared men with women, post-menopausal with pre-menopausal women, and older (≥52 years) with younger (<52 years) men.Results: BMI was associated positively with platelet count in women, more strongly in pre-menopausal than in post-menopausal, and weakly positively in younger men but strongly inversely in older men. Associations of BMI with platelet count were shifted towards the inverse direction for daily alcohol consumption and current smoking, resulting in weaker positive associations in women and stronger inverse associations in men, compared to alcohol≤3 times/month and never smoking. BMI was associated inversely with MPV and PDW in pre-menopausal women but positively in post-menopausal women and in men. ABSI was associated positively with platelet count, similarly in women and men, while HI was associated weakly inversely only in women. ABSI was associated inversely and HI positively with MPV but not with PDW and only in women. Platelet count was correlated inversely with platelet size and positively with leucocyte counts, most strongly with neutrophils. Conclusions:
Chan DSM, Vieira R, Abar L, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis body fatness, weight change and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Program (CUP global) systematic literature review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 572-599, ISSN: 0020-7136
Previous evidence on postdiagnosis body fatness and mortality after breast cancer was graded as limited-suggestive. To evaluate the evidence on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio and weight change in relation to breast cancer prognosis, an updated systematic review was conducted. PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant studies published up to 31 October, 2021. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate summary relative risks (RRs). The evidence was judged by an independent Expert Panel using pre-defined grading criteria. One randomized controlled trial and 225 observational studies were reviewed (220 publications). There was strong evidence (likelihood of causality: probable) that higher postdiagnosis BMI was associated with increased all-cause mortality (64 studies, 32 507 deaths), breast cancer-specific mortality (39 studies, 14 106 deaths) and second primary breast cancer (11 studies, 5248 events). The respective summary RRs and 95% confidence intervals per 5 kg/m2 BMI were 1.07 (1.05-1.10), 1.10 (1.06-1.14) and 1.14 (1.04-1.26), with high between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 56%, 60%, 66%), but generally consistent positive associations. Positive associations were also observed for waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio and all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. There was limited-suggestive evidence that postdiagnosis BMI was associated with higher risk of recurrence, nonbreast cancer deaths and cardiovascular deaths. The evidence for postdiagnosis (unexplained) weight or BMI change and all outcomes was graded as limited-no conclusion. The RCT showed potential beneficial effect of intentional weight loss on disease-free-survival, but more intervention trials and well-designed observational studies in diverse populations are needed to elucidate the impact of body composition and their changes on breast cancer outcomes.
Cariolou M, Abar L, Aune D, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis recreational physical activity and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) systematic literature review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 600-615, ISSN: 0020-7136
It is important to clarify the associations between modifiable lifestyle factors such as physical activity and breast cancer prognosis to enable the development of evidence-based survivorship recommendations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to summarise the evidence on the relationship between postbreast cancer diagnosis physical activity and mortality, recurrence and second primary cancers. We searched PubMed and Embase through 31st October 2021 and included 20 observational studies and three follow-up observational analyses of patients enrolled in clinical trials. In linear dose-response meta-analysis of the observational studies, each 10-unit increase in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/week higher recreational physical activity was associated with 15% and 14% lower risk of all-cause (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8%-22%, studies = 12, deaths = 3670) and breast cancer-specific mortality (95% CI: 4%-23%, studies = 11, deaths = 1632), respectively. Recreational physical activity was not associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.91-1.05, studies = 6, deaths = 1705). Nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses indicated 48% lower all-cause and 38% lower breast cancer-specific mortality with increasing recreational physical activity up to 20 MET-h/week, but little further reduction in risk at higher levels. Predefined subgroup analyses across strata of body mass index, hormone receptors, adjustment for confounders, number of deaths, menopause and physical activity intensities were consistent in direction and magnitude to the main analyses. Considering the methodological limitations of the included studies, the independent Expert Panel concluded ‘limited-suggestive’ likelihood of causality for an association between recreational physical activity and lower risk of all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality.
Tsilidis KK, Cariolou M, Becerra-Tomas N, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis body fatness, recreational physical activity, dietary factors and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) summary of evidence grading, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 635-644, ISSN: 0020-7136
Based on the Global Cancer Update Programme, formally known as the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses to investigate the association of postdiagnosis body fatness, physical activity and dietary factors with breast cancer prognosis. We searched PubMed and Embase for randomised controlled trials and longitudinal observational studies from inception to 31 October 2021. We calculated summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects meta-analyses. An independent Expert Panel graded the quality of evidence according to predefined criteria. The evidence on postdiagnosis body fatness and higher all-cause mortality (RR per 5 kg/m2 in body mass index: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10), breast cancer-specific mortality (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.14) and second primary breast cancer (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.26) was graded as strong (likelihood of causality: probable). The evidence for body fatness and breast cancer recurrence and other nonbreast cancer-related mortality was graded as limited (likelihood of causality: limited-suggestive). The evidence on recreational physical activity and lower risk of all-cause (RR per 10 metabolic equivalent of task-hour/week: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.92) and breast cancer-specific mortality (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.96) was judged as limited-suggestive. Data on dietary factors was limited, and no conclusions could be reached except for healthy dietary patterns, isoflavone and dietary fibre intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations that were graded with limited-suggestive evidence for lower risk of the examined outcomes. Our results encourage the development of lifestyle recommendations for breast cancer patients to avoid obesity and be physically active.
Becerra-Tomas N, Balducci K, Abar L, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis dietary factors, supplement use and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) systematic literature review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 616-634, ISSN: 0020-7136
Little is known about how diet might influence breast cancer prognosis. The current systematic reviews and meta-analyses summarise the evidence on postdiagnosis dietary factors and breast cancer outcomes from randomised controlled trials and longitudinal observational studies. PubMed and Embase were searched through 31st October 2021. Random-effects linear dose-response meta-analysis was conducted when at least three studies with sufficient information were available. The quality of the evidence was evaluated by an independent Expert Panel. We identified 108 publications. No meta-analysis was conducted for dietary patterns, vegetables, wholegrains, fish, meat, and supplements due to few studies, often with insufficient data. Meta-analysis was only possible for all-cause mortality with dairy, isoflavone, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, alcohol intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and for breast cancer-specific mortality with fruit, dairy, carbohydrate, protein, dietary fat, fibre, alcohol intake and serum 25(OH)D. The results, with few exceptions, were generally null. There was limited-suggestive evidence that predefined dietary patterns may reduce the risk of all-cause and other causes of death; that isoflavone intake reduces the risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR) per 2 mg/day: 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.02), breast cancer-specific mortality (RR for high vs low: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.64-1.07), and recurrence (RR for high vs low: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92); that dietary fibre intake decreases all-cause mortality (RR per 10 g/day: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.94); and that serum 25(OH)D is inversely associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality (RR per 10 nmol/L: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.97 and 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99, respectively). The remaining associations were graded as limited-no conclusion.
Aglago EK, Cross AJ, Riboli E, et al., 2023, Dietary intake of total, heme and non-heme iron and the risk of colorectal cancer in a European prospective cohort study, British Journal of Cancer, ISSN: 0007-0920
Huang J, Su B, Karhunen V, et al., 2023, Inflammatory diseases, inflammatory biomarkers, and Alzheimer disease: an observational analysis and mendelian randomization, Neurology, Vol: 100, Pages: e568-e581, ISSN: 0028-3878
OBJECTIVES: Whether chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases causally affect the risk of AD is controversial. We characterised the relationship between inflammatory diseases and the risk of AD and explore the role of circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the relationships between inflammatory diseases and AD. METHODS: We performed observational analyses for chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases and risk of AD using data from 2,047,513 participants identified in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Using data of a total of more than 1,100,000 individuals from 15 large scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets, we performed two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the relationships between chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases, circulating inflammatory biomarker levels, and risk of AD. RESULTS: Cox regression models using CPRD data showed that overall incidence of AD was higher among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (hazard ratio (HR)=1.17; 95%CI 1.15 to 1.19; P-value=2.1×10-4), other inflammatory polyarthropathies & systematic connective tissue disorders (OID) (HR=1.13; 95%CI 1.12 to 1.14; P-value=8.6×10-5), psoriasis (HR=1.13; 95%CI 1.10 to 1.16; P-value=2.6×10-4), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (HR=1.08; 95%CI 1.06 to 1.11; P-value=4.0×10-4), and multiple sclerosis (MS) (HR=1.06; 95%CI 1.04 to 1.07; P-value=2.8×10-4) compared to the age (± 5 years) and sex-matched comparison groups free from all inflammatory diseases under investigation. Bidirectional MR analysis identified relationships between chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases and circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Particularly, circulating monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) level was suggestively associated with a higher risk of AD (odds ratio from inverse variance weighted (ORIVW)=1.23; 95%CI 1.06 to 1.42; PIVW=0.007), and lower risk of Crohn's disease (ORIVW=0.73; 95%CI -0.62, 0.86; PIVW=1.3×10
Semertzidou A, Grout-Smith H, Kalliala I, et al., 2023, Diabetes and anti-diabetic interventions and the risk of gynaecological and obstetric morbidity: an umbrella review of the literature, BMC Medicine, ISSN: 1741-7015
Murphy N, Newton CC, Song M, et al., 2023, Body mass index and molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol: 115, Pages: 165-173, ISSN: 0027-8874
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but the evidence for the association is inconsistent across molecular subtypes of the disease. METHODS: We pooled data on body mass index (BMI), tumor microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype status, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and Jass classification types for 11 872 CRC cases and 11 013 controls from 11 observational studies. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for covariables. RESULTS: Higher BMI was associated with increased CRC risk (OR per 5 kg/m2 = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.22). The positive association was stronger for men than women but similar across tumor subtypes defined by individual molecular markers. In analyses by Jass type, higher BMI was associated with elevated CRC risk for types 1-4 cases but not for type 5 CRC cases (considered familial-like/Lynch syndrome microsatellite instability-H, CpG island methylator phenotype-low or negative, BRAF-wild type, KRAS-wild type, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.20). This pattern of associations for BMI and Jass types was consistent by sex and design of contributing studies (cohort or case-control). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous reports with fewer study participants, we found limited evidence of heterogeneity for the association between BMI and CRC risk according to molecular subtype, suggesting that obesity influences nearly all major pathways involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The null association observed for the Jass type 5 suggests that BMI is not a risk factor for the development of CRC for individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Papandreou C, Papagiannopoulos C, Koutsonida M, et al., 2023, Mediterranean diet related metabolite profiles and cognitive performance., Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 42, Pages: 173-181, ISSN: 0261-5614
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence suggests that adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) affects human metabolism and may contribute to better cognitive performance. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. OBJECTIVE: We generated a metabolite profile for adherence to MedDiet and evaluated its cross-sectional association with aspects of cognitive performance. METHODS: A total of 1250 healthy Greek middle-aged adults from the Epirus Health Study cohort were included in the analysis. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed using the 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS); cognition was measured using the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency test and the Logical Memory test. A targeted metabolite profiling (n = 250 metabolites) approach was applied, using a high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance platform. We used elastic net regularized regressions, with a 10-fold cross-validation procedure, to identify a metabolite profile for MEDAS. We evaluated the associations of the identified metabolite profile and MEDAS with cognitive tests, using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: We identified a metabolite profile composed of 42 metabolites, mainly lipoprotein subclasses and fatty acids, significantly correlated with MedDiet adherence (Pearson r = 0.35, P-value = 5.5 × 10-37). After adjusting for known risk factors and accounting for multiple testing, the metabolite profile and MEDAS were not associated with the cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma metabolite profile related to better adherence to the MedDiet was not associated with the tested aspects of cognitive performance, in a middle-aged Mediterranean population.
Al-Jafar R, Wahyuni NS, Belhaj K, et al., 2023, The impact of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric measurements and body composition: evidence from London Ramadan Study and a meta-analysis, Frontiers in Nutrition, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 2296-861X
Background: Although the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on anthropometry and body composition has been questioned, none of the previous studies tried to explain the reported changes in these parameters. Also, systematic reviews that investigated the topic were limited to healthy individuals or a specific disease group.Methods: The London Ramadan Study (LORANS) is an observational study on health effects of RIF. We measured weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), basal metabolic rate (BMR), fat percentage (FP), free-fat mass (FFM), extremities predicted muscle mass, total body water (TBW), trunk FM, trunk FFM and trunk predicted muscle mass before and immediately after Ramadan. Using mixed-effects regression models, we investigated the effect of RIF with adjustment for potential confounders. We also conducted a meta-analysis of the results of LORANS with other studies that investigated the effect of RIF on anthropometry and body composition. The review protocol is registered with PROSPERO registry (CRD42020186532).Results: We recruited 146 participants (Mean ± SD age = 43.3 ± 15 years). Immediately after Ramadan, compared with before Ramadan, the mean difference was−1.6 kg (P<0.01) in weight,−1.95cm (P<0.01) in WC,−2.86cm (P <0.01) in HC, −0.60 kg/m2 (P < 0.01) in BMI and −1.24 kg (P < 0.01) in FM. In the systematic review and meta-analysis, after screening 2,150 titles and abstracts, 66 studies comprising 7,611 participants were included. In the general population, RIF was followed by a reduction of 1.12 Kg in body weight (−1.89– −0.36, I2 = 0), 0.74 kg/m2 reduction in BMI (−0.96– −0.53, I2 = 0), 1.54cm reduction in WC (−2.37– −0.71, I2 = 0) and 1.76cm reduction in HC (−2.69– −0.83, I2 = 0). The effect of fasting on anthropometric and body composition parame
Papadimitriou N, Bull CJ, Jenab M, et al., 2023, Separating the effects of early and later life adiposity on colorectal cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization study, BMC Medicine, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1741-7015
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have linked childhood obesity with elevated risk of colorectal cancer; however, it is unclear if this association is causal or independent from the effects of obesity in adulthood on colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate potential causal relationships between self-perceived body size (thinner, plumper, or about average) in early life (age 10) and measured body mass index in adulthood (mean age 56.5) with risk of colorectal cancer. The total and independent effects of body size exposures were estimated using univariable and multivariable MR, respectively. Summary data were obtained from a genome-wide association study of 453,169 participants in UK Biobank for body size and from a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of three colorectal cancer consortia of 125,478 participants. RESULTS: Genetically predicted early life body size was estimated to increase odds of colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR] per category change: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.27), with stronger results for colon cancer (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00-1.35), and distal colon cancer (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04-1.51). After accounting for adult body size using multivariable MR, effect estimates for early life body size were attenuated towards the null for colorectal cancer (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.77-1.22) and colon cancer (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76-1.25), while the estimate for distal colon cancer was of similar magnitude but more imprecise (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.90-1.77). Genetically predicted adult life body size was estimated to increase odds of colorectal (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.57), colon (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.67), and proximal colon (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the positive association between early life body size and colorectal cancer risk is likely due to large body size retainment into adulthood.
Fernandez-Rozadilla C, Timofeeva M, Chen Z, et al., 2023, Deciphering colorectal cancer genetics through multi-omic analysis of 100,204 cases and 154,587 controls of European and east Asian ancestries., Nat Genet, Vol: 55, Pages: 89-99
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 100,204 CRC cases and 154,587 controls of European and east Asian ancestry, identifying 205 independent risk associations, of which 50 were unreported. We performed integrative genomic, transcriptomic and methylomic analyses across large bowel mucosa and other tissues. Transcriptome- and methylome-wide association studies revealed an additional 53 risk associations. We identified 155 high-confidence effector genes functionally linked to CRC risk, many of which had no previously established role in CRC. These have multiple different functions and specifically indicate that variation in normal colorectal homeostasis, proliferation, cell adhesion, migration, immunity and microbial interactions determines CRC risk. Crosstissue analyses indicated that over a third of effector genes most probably act outside the colonic mucosa. Our findings provide insights into colorectal oncogenesis and highlight potential targets across tissues for new CRC treatment and chemoprevention strategies.
Zagkos L, Dib M-J, Pinto R, et al., 2022, Associations of genetically predicted fatty acid levels across the phenome: a mendelian randomisation study, PLoS Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1549-1277
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids are important dietary factors that have been extensively studied for their implication in health and disease. Evidence from epidemiological studies and randomised controlled trials on their role in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and other diseases remains inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess whether genetically predicted fatty acid concentrations affect the risk of disease across a wide variety of clinical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The UK Biobank (UKB) is a large study involving over 500,000 participants aged 40 to 69 years at recruitment from 2006 to 2010. We used summary-level data for 117,143 UKB samples (base dataset), to extract genetic associations of fatty acids, and individual-level data for 322,232 UKB participants (target dataset) to conduct our discovery analysis. We studied potentially causal relationships of circulating fatty acids with 845 clinical diagnoses, using mendelian randomisation (MR) approach, within a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) framework. Regression models in PheWAS were adjusted for sex, age, and the first 10 genetic principal components. External summary statistics were used for replication. When several fatty acids were associated with a health outcome, multivariable MR and MR-Bayesian method averaging (MR-BMA) was applied to disentangle their causal role. Genetic predisposition to higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was associated with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis (odds ratio per mmol/L: 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 0.87). This was supported in replication analysis (FinnGen study) and by the genetically predicted omega-3 fatty acids analyses. Genetically predicted linoleic acid (LA), omega-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and total fatty acids (total FAs) showed positive associations with cardiovascular outcomes with support from replication analysis. Finally, higher genetically predicted levels of DHA (0.83, 0.73 to 0.95) and omega-3 (0.83, 0.75 to 0.
Lopez DS, Taha S, Gutierrez S, et al., 2022, Association of total and free testosterone with cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of white, black, and Mexican American men, International Journal of Impotence Research, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0955-9930
Associations of total testosterone (T) and calculated free T with cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain poorly understood. Particularly how these associations vary according to race and ethnicity in a nationally representative sample of men. Data included 7058 men (≥20 years) from NHANES. CVD was defined as any reported diagnosis of heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. Total T (ng/mL) was obtained among males who participated in the morning examination. Weighted multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. We found associations of low T (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.17–2.11), low calculated free T (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.10–2.17), total T (Q1 vs Q5), and calculated free T (Q1 vs Q5) with CVD after adjusting for estradiol and SHBG. In disease specific analysis, low T increased prevalence of MI (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.08–2.75) and HF (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.08–2.82), but a continuous increment of total T reduced the prevalence of CAD. Similar inverse associations were identified among White and Mexican Americans, but not Blacks (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.49–1.76). Low levels of T and calculated free T were associated with an increased prevalence of overall CVD and among White and Mexican Americans. Associations remained in the same direction with specific CVD outcomes in the overall population.
Sedlmeier AMM, Viallon V, Ferrari P, et al., 2022, Body shape phenotypes of multiple anthropometric traits and cancer risk: a multi-national cohort study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, ISSN: 0007-0920
Aune D, Markozannes G, Abar L, et al., 2022, Physical activity and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis, JNCI Cancer Spectrum, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2515-5091
Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with improved health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) among women with breast cancer; however, uncertainty remains regarding PA types and dose (frequency, duration, intensity) and various HRQoL measures. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to clarify whether specific types and doses of physical activity was related to global and specific domains of HRQoL, as part of the Global Cancer Update Programme, formerly known as the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project. Methods: PubMed and CENTRAL databases were searched up to August 31, 2019. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) in HRQoL scores were estimated using random effects models. An independent Expert Panel graded the evidence. Results: Seventy-nine RCTs (14,554 breast cancer patients) were included. PA interventions resulted in higher global HRQoL as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast, WMDs (95% confidence intervals)=5.94 (2.64-9.24, I2=59%, n=12), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, 4.53 (1.94-7.13, I2=72%, n=18), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, 6.78 (2.61-10.95, I2=76.3%, n=17). The likelihood of causality was considered probable that PA improves HRqoL in breast cancer survivors. Effects were weaker for physical function and mental/emotional health. Evidence regarding dose and type of PA remains insufficient for firm conclusions. Conclusion: PA results in improved global HRQoL in breast cancer survivors with weaker effects observed for physical function and mental/emotional health. Additional research is needed to define the impact of types and doses of activity on various domains of HRQoL.
Tang SN, Zuber V, Tsilidis K, 2022, Identifying and ranking causal biochemical biomarkers for breast cancer: a Mendelian randomisation study, BMC Medicine, Vol: 20, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1741-7015
Background:Only a few of the 34 biochemical biomarkers measured in the UK Biobank (UKB) have been associated with breast cancer, with many associations suffering from possible confounding and reverse causation. This study aimed to screen and rank all UKB biochemical biomarkers for possible causal relationships with breast cancer.Methods:We conducted two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses on ~420,000 women by leveraging summary-level genetic exposure associations from the UKB study (n = 194,174) and summary-level genetic outcome associations from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (n = 228,951). Our exposures included all 34 biochemical biomarkers in the UKB, and our outcomes were overall, oestrogen-positive, and oestrogen-negative breast cancer. We performed inverse-variance weighted MR, weighted median MR, MR-Egger, and MR-PRESSO for 30 biomarkers for which we found multiple instrumental variables. We additionally performed multivariable MR to adjust for known risk factors, bidirectional MR to investigate reverse causation, and MR Bayesian model averaging to rank the significant biomarkers by their genetic evidence.Results:Increased genetic liability to overall breast cancer was robustly associated with the following biomarkers by decreasing importance: testosterone (odds ratio (OR): 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.21), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04–1.13), insulin-like growth factor 1 (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02–1.13), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98).ConclusionsOur findings support a likely causal role of genetically predicted levels of testosterone, HDL cholesterol, and IGF-1, as well as a novel potential role of ALP in breast cancer aetiology. Further studies are needed to understand full disease pathways that may inform breast cancer prevention.
Koutsonidia M, Markozannes G, Bouras E, et al., 2022, Metabolic syndrome and cognition: A systematic review across cognitive domains and a bibliometric analysis, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1664-1078
The aim of this review is to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cognitive decline in distinct cognitive domains, and to perform a complementary study description through the bibliometric analysis. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from inception to 15 December 2021 to identify longitudinal studies that examined the association of MetS with incident decline, in order to prevent reverse causality. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis checklist was used to conduct the present systematic review. Thirty studies were included and results were analyzed across the cognitive domains of global cognition, memory, executive functions, attention, visuoconstructive abilities, and language. The majority of the studies reviewed did not report statistically significant results for most cognitive domains investigated, and decline in specific cognitive domains was not consistently associated with the presence of MetS. Meta-analyses were not conducted due to the high degree of between-study heterogeneity regarding the MetS definitions, the cognitive domains examined, the specific tests used for each cognitive domain and the different measures of association used. Bibliometric analysis revealed that most studies are conducted by research teams from USA and China, and that cognitive tasks that reflect real-life abilities are rarely examined. Future studies should employ larger sample sizes, longer follow-up periods, a global consensus for MetS definition and standardized tests of the above mentioned cognitive domains as well as problem-solving tasks with high sensitivity and specificity to clarify the impact of MetS on cognition and its underlying mechanisms.
Breeur M, Ferrari P, Dossus L, et al., 2022, Pan-cancer analysis of pre-diagnostic blood metabolite concentrations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, BMC Medicine, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1741-7015
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of associations between metabolites and cancer risk have typically focused on specific cancer types separately. Here, we designed a multivariate pan-cancer analysis to identify metabolites potentially associated with multiple cancer types, while also allowing the investigation of cancer type-specific associations. METHODS: We analysed targeted metabolomics data available for 5828 matched case-control pairs from cancer-specific case-control studies on breast, colorectal, endometrial, gallbladder, kidney, localized and advanced prostate cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. From pre-diagnostic blood levels of an initial set of 117 metabolites, 33 cluster representatives of strongly correlated metabolites and 17 single metabolites were derived by hierarchical clustering. The mutually adjusted associations of the resulting 50 metabolites with cancer risk were examined in penalized conditional logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index, using the data-shared lasso penalty. RESULTS: Out of the 50 studied metabolites, (i) six were inversely associated with the risk of most cancer types: glutamine, butyrylcarnitine, lysophosphatidylcholine a C18:2, and three clusters of phosphatidylcholines (PCs); (ii) three were positively associated with most cancer types: proline, decanoylcarnitine, and one cluster of PCs; and (iii) 10 were specifically associated with particular cancer types, including histidine that was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk and one cluster of sphingomyelins that was inversely associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and positively with endometrial cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: These results could provide novel insights for the identification of pathways for cancer development, in particular those shared across different cancer types.
Chalitsios CV, Tsilidis KK, Tzoulaki I, 2022, Psoriasis and COVID-19: A bidirectional Mendelian randomization study., Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, ISSN: 0190-9622
Botteri E, Peveri G, Berstad P, et al., 2022, Changes in lifestyle and risk of colorectal cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition., American Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0002-9270
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the impact of changes in lifestyle habits on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in a multi-country European cohort. METHODS: We used baseline and follow-up questionnaire data from the EPIC cohort to assess changes in lifestyle habits and their associations with CRC development. We calculated a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score based on smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index and physical activity collected at the two timepoints. HLI ranged from 0 (most unfavourable) to 16 (most favourable). We estimated the association between HLI changes and CRC risk using Cox regression models and reported hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Among 295,865 participants, 2,799 CRC cases were observed over a median of 7.8 years. Median time between questionnaires was 5.7 years. Each unit increase in HLI from the baseline to the follow-up assessment was associated with a statistically significant 3% lower CRC risk. Among participants in the top tertile at baseline (HLI>11), those in the bottom tertile at follow-up (HLI≤9) had a higher CRC risk (HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.02-1.75) than those remaining in the top tertile. Among individuals in the bottom tertile at baseline, those in the top tertile at follow-up had a lower risk (HR 0.77; 95%CI 0.59-1.00) than those remaining in the bottom tertile. DISCUSSION: Improving adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with CRC risk, while worsening adherence was positively associated with CRC risk. These results justify and support recommendations for healthy lifestyle changes and healthy lifestyle maintenance for CRC prevention.
Karalexi MA, Markozannes G, Tagkas CF, et al., 2022, Nutritional status at diagnosis as predictor of survival from childhood cancer: a review of the literature, Diagnostics, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2075-4418
Few studies so far have examined the impact of nutritional status on the survival of children with cancer, with the majority of them focusing on hematological malignancies. We summarized published evidence reporting the association of nutritional status at diagnosis with overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), relapse, and treatment-related toxicity (TRT) in children with cancer. Published studies on children with leukemia, lymphoma, and other solid tumors have shown that both under-nourished and over-nourished children at cancer diagnosis had worse OS and EFS. Particularly, the risk of death and relapse increased by 30–50% among children with leukemia with increased body mass index at diagnosis. Likewise, the risk of TRT was higher among malnourished children with osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Nutritional status seems to play a crucial role in clinical outcomes of children with cancer, thus providing a significant modifiable prognostic tool in childhood cancer management. Future studies with adequate power and longitudinal design are needed to further evaluate the association of nutritional status with childhood cancer outcomes using a more standardized definition to measure nutritional status in this population. The use of new technologies is expected to shed further light on this understudied area and give room to person-targeted intervention strategies.
Yarmolinsky J, Robinson J, Tsilidis KK, et al., 2022, Using Human Genetics to Evaluate the Causal Role of Circulating Inflammatory Markers in Risk of Adult Cancer, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 547-547, ISSN: 0741-0395
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