224 results found
Bouras E, Papandreou C, Tzoulaki I, et al., 2021, Endogenous sex steroid hormones and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Discover Oncology, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 2730-6011
Preclinical data suggest that endogenous sex steroid hormones may be implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development, however, findings from epidemiological studies are conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between endogenous concentrations of sex hormones and CRC risk. PubMed and Scopus were searched until June 2020 for prospective studies evaluating the association between pre-diagnostic plasma/serum concentrations of estradiol, testosterone and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and CRC risk. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the inverse-variance weighted random-effects model based on the DerSimonian-Laird estimator. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis after evaluating 3,859 non-duplicate records. Four of the eight studies had a nested case–control design, one study was a case-cohort and the rest three studies were cohort studies, and they included on average 295 cases (range:48–732) and 2,105 controls. No associations were found for endogenous sex steroid hormones in men or post-menopausal women with CRC risk, with evidence for substantial heterogeneity observed among women. Findings from this meta-analysis do not support presence of associations between pre-diagnostic concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and SHBG with incident CRC risk in men and post-menopausal women.
Ried-Larsen M, Rasmussen MG, Blond K, et al., 2021, Association of Cycling With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Persons With Diabetes, JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN: 2168-6106
Tsilidis K, 2021, An umbrella review of the evidence associating diet and cancer risk at 11 anatomical sites, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723
Janiaud P, Agarwal A, Tzoulaki I, et al., 2021, Validity of observational evidence on putative risk and protective factors: appraisal of 3744 meta-analyses on 57 topics, BMC Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015
BACKGROUND: The validity of observational studies and their meta-analyses is contested. Here, we aimed to appraise thousands of meta-analyses of observational studies using a pre-specified set of quantitative criteria that assess the significance, amount, consistency, and bias of the evidence. We also aimed to compare results from meta-analyses of observational studies against meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies. METHODS: We retrieved from PubMed (last update, November 19, 2020) umbrella reviews including meta-analyses of observational studies assessing putative risk or protective factors, regardless of the nature of the exposure and health outcome. We extracted information on 7 quantitative criteria that reflect the level of statistical support, the amount of data, the consistency across different studies, and hints pointing to potential bias. These criteria were level of statistical significance (pre-categorized according to 10-6, 0.001, and 0.05 p-value thresholds), sample size, statistical significance for the largest study, 95% prediction intervals, between-study heterogeneity, and the results of tests for small study effects and for excess significance. RESULTS: 3744 associations (in 57 umbrella reviews) assessed by a median number of 7 (interquartile range 4 to 11) observational studies were eligible. Most associations were statistically significant at P < 0.05 (61.1%, 2289/3744). Only 2.6% of associations had P < 10-6, ≥1000 cases (or ≥20,000 participants for continuous factors), P < 0.05 in the largest study, 95% prediction interval excluding the null, and no large between-study heterogeneity, small study effects, or excess significance. Across the 57 topics, large heterogeneity was observed in the proportion of associations fulfilling various quantitative criteria. The quantitative criteria were mostly independent from one another. Across 62 associations assessed in both RCTs and in o
Gill D, Zuber V, Dawson J, et al., 2021, Risk factors mediating the effect of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio on cardiovascular outcomes: Mendelian randomization analysis, International Journal of Obesity, Vol: 45, Pages: 1428-1438, ISSN: 0307-0565
BackgroundHigher body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but the extent to which this is mediated by blood pressure, diabetes, lipid traits, and smoking is not fully understood.MethodsUsing consortia and UK Biobank genetic association summary data from 140,595 to 898,130 participants predominantly of European ancestry, Mendelian randomization mediation analysis was performed to investigate the degree to which systolic blood pressure (SBP), diabetes, lipid traits, and smoking mediated an effect of BMI and WHR on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and stroke.ResultsThe odds ratio of CAD per 1-standard deviation increase in genetically predicted BMI was 1.49 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.60). This attenuated to 1.34 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.45) after adjusting for genetically predicted SBP (proportion mediated 27%, 95% CI 3% to 50%), to 1.27 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.37) after adjusting for genetically predicted diabetes (41% mediated, 95% CI 18% to 63%), to 1.47 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.59) after adjusting for genetically predicted lipids (3% mediated, 95% −23% to 29%), and to 1.46 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.58) after adjusting for genetically predicted smoking (6% mediated, 95% CI −20% to 32%). Adjusting for all the mediators together, the estimate attenuated to 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.26; 66% mediated, 95% CI 42% to 91%). A similar pattern was observed when considering genetically predicted WHR as the exposure, and PAD or stroke as the outcome.ConclusionsMeasures to reduce obesity will lower the risk of cardiovascular disease primarily by impacting downstream metabolic risk factors, particularly diabetes and hypertension. Reduction of obesity prevalence alongside control and management of its mediators is likely to be most effective for minimizing the burden of obesity.
Lopez DS, Polychronopoulou E, Tsilidis KK, et al., 2021, Independent and Joint Effects of Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Statins use on the Risk o Prostate Cancer Among White, Black, and Hispanic Men, CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH, Vol: 14, Pages: 719-728, ISSN: 1940-6207
Christakoudi S, Tsilidis K, Evangelou E, et al., 2021, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), hip index and risk of cancer in the UK Biobank cohort, Cancer Medicine, ISSN: 2045-7634
Abdominal size is associated positively with the risk of some cancers but the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gluteofemoral size is unclear because waist and hip circumference are strongly correlated with BMI. We examined associations of 33 cancers with A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and hip index (HI), which are independent of BMI by design, and compared these with waist and hip circumference, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in UK Biobank. During a mean follow up of seven years, 14,682 incident cancers were ascertained in 200,289 men and 12,965 cancers in 230,326 women. In men, ABSI was associated positively with cancers of the head and neck (hazard ratio HR=1.14; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.26 per one standard deviation increment), oesophagus (adenocarcinoma, HR=1.27; 1.12-1.44), gastric cardia (HR=1.31; 1.07-1.61), colon (HR=1.18; 1.10-1.26), rectum (HR=1.13; 1.04-1.22), lung (adenocarcinoma, HR=1.16; 1.03-1.30; squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), HR=1.33; 1.17-1.52), and bladder (HR=1.15; 1.04-1.27), while HI was associated inversely with cancers of the oesophagus (adenocarcinoma, HR=0.89; 0.79-1.00), gastric cardia (HR=0.79; 0.65-0.96), colon (HR=0.92; 0.86-0.98), liver (HR=0.86; 0.75-0.98), and multiple myeloma (HR=0.86; 0.75-1.00). In women, ABSI was associated positively with cancers of the head and neck (HR=1.27; 1.10-1.48), oesophagus (SCC, HR=1.37; 1.07-1.76), colon (HR=1.08; 1.01-1.16), lung (adenocarcinoma, HR=1.17; 1.06-1.29; SCC, HR=1.40; 1.20-1.63; small-cell, HR=1.39; 1.14-1.69), kidney (clear-cell, HR=1.25; 1.03-1.50), and post-menopausal endometrium (HR=1.11; 1.02-1.20), while HI was associated inversely with skin SCC (HR=0.91; 0.83-0.99), post-menopausal kidney cancer (HR=0.77; 0.67-0.88) and post-menopausal melanoma (HR=0.90; 0.83-0.98). Unusually, ABSI was associated inversely with melanoma in men (HR=0.89; 0.82-0.96) and pre-menopausal women (HR=0.77; 0.65-0.91). Waist and hip circumference reflected associations with BMI
Agudo A, Cayssials V, Bonet C, et al., 2021, Inflammatory potential of the diet & risk of gastric cancer in the European Investigation into Cancer & Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN: 1938-3207
Kanellopoulou A, Koskeridis F, Markozannes G, et al., 2021, Awareness, knowledge and trust in the Greek authorities towards COVID-19 pandemic: results from the Epirus Health Study cohort, BMC Public Health, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1471-2458
Background: To assess the level of knowledge and trust in the policy decisions taken regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic among Epirus Health Study (EHS) participants.Methods: The EHS is an ongoing and deeply-phenotyped prospective cohort study that has recruited 667 participants in northwest Greece until August 31st, 2020. Level of knowledge on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and COVID-19 severity was labeled as poor, moderate or good. Variables assessing knowledge and beliefs towards the pandemic were summarized overall and by sex, age group (25-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥60 years) and period of report (before the lifting of lockdown measures in Greece: March 30th to May 3rd, and two post-lockdown time periods: May 4th to June 31st, July 1st to August 31st). A hypothesis generating exposure-wide association analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between 153 agnostically-selected explanatory variables and participants’ knowledge. Correction for multiple comparisons was applied using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of 5%.Results: A total of 563 participants (49 years mean age; 60% women) had available information on the standard EHS questionnaire, the clinical and biochemical measurements, and the COVID-19-related questionnaire. Percentages of poor, moderate and good knowledge status regarding COVID-19 were 4.5%, 10.0% and 85.6%, respectively. The majority of participants showed absolute or moderate trust in the Greek health authorities for the management of the epidemic (90.1%), as well as in the Greek Government (84.7%) and the official national sources of information (87.4%). Trust in the authorities was weaker in younger participants and those who joined the study after the lifting of lockdown measures (p-value0.001). None of the factors examined was associated with participants’ level of knowledge after correction for multiple testing.Conclusions: High level of knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic and t
Dossus L, Kouloura E, Biessy C, et al., 2021, Prospective analysis of circulating metabolites and endometrial cancer risk, Gynecologic Oncology, ISSN: 0090-8258
AbstractBackgroundEndometrial cancer is strongly associated with obesity and dysregulation of metabolic factors such as estrogen and insulin signaling are causal risk factors for this malignancy. To identify additional novel metabolic pathways associated with endometrial cancer we performed metabolomic analyses on pre-diagnostic plasma samples from 853 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).MethodsA total of 129 metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexoses, and sphingolipids) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the associations of metabolites with endometrial cancer risk. An analysis focusing on clusters of metabolites using the bootstrap lasso method was also employed.ResultsAfter adjustment for body mass index, sphingomyelin [SM] C18:0 was positively (OR1SD: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05–1.33), and glycine, serine, and free carnitine (C0) were inversely (OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80–0.99; OR1SD: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79–1.00 and OR1SD: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81–1.00, respectively) associated with endometrial cancer risk. Serine, C0 and two sphingomyelins were selected by the lasso method in >90% of the bootstrap samples. The ratio of esterified to free carnitine (OR1SD: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02–1.28) and that of short chain to free acylcarnitines (OR1SD: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00–1.25) were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further adjustment for C-peptide or other endometrial cancer risk factors only minimally altered the results.ConclusionThese findings suggest that variation in levels of glycine, serine, SM C18:0 and free carnitine may represent specific pathways linked to endometrial cancer development. If causal, these pathways may offer novel targets for endometrial cancer prevention.
Corlin L, Ruan M, Tsilidis KK, et al., 2021, Two-sample mendelian randomization analysis of associations between periodontal disease and risk of cancer., JNCI Cancer Spectrum, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2515-5091
Background: Observational studies indicate that periodontal disease may increase the risk of colorectal, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Using a 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis, we assessed whether a genetic predisposition index for periodontal disease was associated with colorectal, lung, or pancreatic cancer risks. Methods: Our primary instrument included single nucleotide polymorphisms with strong genome-wide association study evidence for associations with chronic, aggressive, and/or severe periodontal disease (rs729876, rs1537415, rs2738058, rs12461706, rs16870060, rs2521634, rs3826782, and rs7762544). We used summary-level genetic data for colorectal cancer (n = 58 131 cases; Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colon Cancer Family Registry, and Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study), lung cancer (n = 18 082 cases; International Lung Cancer Consortium), and pancreatic cancer (n = 9254 cases; Pancreatic Cancer Consortia). Four MR approaches were employed for this analysis: random-effects inverse-variance weighted (primary analyses), Mendelian Randomization-Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier, simple median, and weighted median. We conducted secondary analyses to determine if associations varied by cancer subtype (colorectal cancer location, lung cancer histology), sex (colorectal and pancreatic cancers), or smoking history (lung and pancreatic cancer). All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: The genetic predisposition index for chronic or aggressive periodontitis was statistically significantly associated with a 3% increased risk of colorectal cancer (per unit increase in genetic index of periodontal disease; P = .03), 3% increased risk of colon cancer (P = .02), 4% increased risk of proximal colon cancer (P = .01), and 3% increased risk of colorectal cancer among females (P = .04); however, it was not statistically significantl
Whelan E, Kalliala I, Semertzidou A, et al., 2021, Risk factors for ovarian cancer: an umbrella review of the literature, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 71-71, ISSN: 1470-0328
Tsilidis KK, 2021, Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study (vol 113, pg 1490, 2021), AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 113, Pages: 1715-1715, ISSN: 0002-9165
Pearson-Stuttard J, Papadimitriou N, Markozannes G, et al., 2021, Type 2 diabetes and cancer: an umbrella review of observational and Mendelian randomisation studies, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 30, Pages: 1218-1228, ISSN: 1055-9965
Background Type 2 diabetes(T2DM) has been associated with an increased risk of developing several common cancers, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. We aimed to summarise the evidence on T2DM and cancer and evaluate the validity of associations from both observational and Mendelian randomisation(MR) studies. Methods We performed an umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations of T2DM with risk of developing or dying from site-specific cancers, and MR studies that explored the potential causal association of T2DM and associated biomarkers with cancer risk. Results We identified eligible observational meta-analyses that assessed associations between T2DM and cancer incidence for 18 cancer sites, cancer mortality for seven sites, and cancer incidence or mortality for four sites. Positive associations between T2DM and six cancers reached strong or highly suggestive evidence. We found eight MR studies assessing the association of genetically predicted T2DM and seven and eight studies assessing the association of genetically predicted fasting insulin or fasting glucose concentrations, respectively, upon site-specific cancers. Positive associations were found between genetically predicted T2DM and fasting insulin and risk of six cancers. There was no association between genetically predicted fasting plasma glucose and cancer except for squamous cell lung carcinoma. Conclusions We found robust observational evidence for the association between T2DM and colorectal, hepatocellular, gallbladder, breast, endometrial and pancreatic cancer. Impact Potential causal associations were identified for genetically predicted T2DM and fasting insulin concentrations and risk of endometrial, pancreas, kidney, breast, lung and cervical cancer.
Tsilidis KK, Papadimitriou N, Dimou N, et al., 2021, Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 113, Pages: 1490-1502, ISSN: 0002-9165
BACKGROUND: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited. OBJECTIVES: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions. RESULTS: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetica
Lopez DS, Huang D, Tsilidis KK, et al., 2021, The role of testosterone replacement therapy and statin use, and their combination, in prostate cancer, Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN: 0957-5243
Purpose:Previous studies have reported conflicting results in the associations of testosterone replacement therapy (TTh) and statins use with prostate cancer (PCa). However, the combination of these treatments with PCa stage and grade at diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and by race/ethnicity remains unclear.Methods:We identified non-Hispanic White (NHW, N = 58,576), non-Hispanic Black (NHB, n = 9,703) and Hispanic (n = 4,898) men diagnosed with PCa in SEER-Medicare data 2007–2011. Pre-diagnostic prescription of TTh and statins was ascertained for this analysis. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of TTh and statins use with PCa stage and grade and PCSM.Results:22.5% used statins alone, 1.2% used TTh alone, and 0.8% used both. TTh and statins were independently, inversely associated with PCa advanced stage and high grade. TTh plus statins was associated with 44% lower odds of advanced stage PCa (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.91). As expected, similar inverse associations were present in NHWs as the overall cohort is mostly comprised NHW men. In Hispanic men, statin use with or without TTh was inversely associated with aggressive PCa.Conclusions:Pre-diagnostic use of TTh or statins, independent or in combination, was inversely associated with aggressive PCa, including in NHW and Hispanics men, but was not with PCSM. The findings for use of statins with aggressive PCa are consistent with cohort studies. Future prospective studies are needed to explore the independent inverse association of TTh and the combined inverse association of TTh plus statins on fatal PCa.
Christakoudi S, Evangelou E, Riboli E, et al., 2021, GWAS of allometric body-shape indices in UK Biobank identifies loci suggesting associations with morphogenesis, organogenesis, adrenal cell renewal and cancer, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2045-2322
Genetic studies have examined body-shape measures adjusted for body mass index (BMI), while allometric indices are additionally adjusted for height. We performed the first genome-wide association study of A Body Shape Index (ABSI), Hip Index (HI) and the new Waist-to-Hip Index and compared these with traditional indices, using data from the UK Biobank Resource for 219,872 women and 186,825 men with white British ancestry and Bayesian linear mixed-models (BOLT-LMM). One to two thirds of the loci identified for allometric body-shape indices were novel. Most prominent was rs72959041 variant in RSPO3 gene, expressed in visceral adipose tissue and regulating adrenal cell renewal. Highly ranked were genes related to morphogenesis and organogenesis, previously additionally linked to cancer development and progression. Genetic associations were fewer in men compared to women. Prominent region-specific associations showed variants in loci VEGFA and HMGA1 for ABSI and KLF14 for HI in women, and C5orf67 and HOXC4/5 for ABSI and RSPO3, VEGFA and SLC30A10 for HI in men. Although more variants were associated with waist and hip circumference adjusted for BMI compared to ABSI and HI, associations with height had previously been reported for many of the additional variants, illustrating the importance of adjusting correctly for height.
Watts EL, Fensom GK, Byrne KS, et al., 2021, Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, total and free testosterone concentrations and prostate cancer risk in 200 000 men in UK Biobank, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 148, Pages: 2274-2288, ISSN: 0020-7136
Insulin‐like growth factor‐I (IGF‐I) and testosterone have been implicated in prostate cancer aetiology. Using data from a large prospective full‐cohort with standardised assays and repeat blood measurements, and genetic data from an international consortium, we investigated the associations of circulating IGF‐I, sex hormone‐binding globulin (SHBG), and total and calculated free testosterone concentrations with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. For prospective analyses, risk was estimated using multivariable‐adjusted Cox regression in 199 698 male UK Biobank participants. Hazard ratios (HRs) were corrected for regression dilution bias using repeat hormone measurements from a subsample. Two‐sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of IGF‐I and risk used genetic instruments identified from UK Biobank men and genetic outcome data from the PRACTICAL consortium (79 148 cases and 61 106 controls). We used cis‐ and all (cis and trans) SNP MR approaches. A total of 5402 men were diagnosed with and 295 died from prostate cancer (mean follow‐up 6.9 years). Higher circulating IGF‐I was associated with elevated prostate cancer diagnosis (HR per 5 nmol/L increment = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05‐1.12) and mortality (HR per 5 nmol/L increment = 1.15, 1.02‐1.29). MR analyses also supported the role of IGF‐I in prostate cancer diagnosis (cis‐MR odds ratio per 5 nmol/L increment = 1.34, 1.07‐1.68). In observational analyses, higher free testosterone was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer (HR per 50 pmol/L increment = 1.10, 1.05‐1.15). Higher SHBG was associated with a lower risk (HR per 10 nmol/L increment = 0.95, 0.94‐0.97), neither was associated with prostate cancer mortality. Total testosterone was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings implicate IGF‐I and free testosterone in prostate cancer development and/or progression.
Dimou N, Yarmolinsky J, Bouras E, et al., 2021, Causal effects of lifetime smoking on breast and colorectal cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 30, Pages: 953-964, ISSN: 1055-9965
BACKGROUND: Observational evidence has shown that smoking is a risk factor for breast and colorectal cancer. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine causal associations between smoking and risks of breast and colorectal cancer. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with lifetime amount of smoking (n=126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly (n=112 variants). Using two-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to incident breast (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and colorectal cancer (52,775 cases/45,940 controls). RESULTS: In inverse-variance weighted models, a genetic predisposition to higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with breast cancer risk [odds ratio [OR] per 1-standard deviation (SD) increment: 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.26); P: 0.04]; although heterogeneity was observed. Similar associations were found for estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with colorectal cancer [OR per 1-SD increment: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.04-1.40); P: 0.01], colon cancer [OR: 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11-1.55); P: <0.01], and rectal cancer [OR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.73); P: 0.01]. Ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risks of breast [OR: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.90-1.14); P: 0.85] or colorectal cancer [OR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.86-1.10); P: 0.68]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with prior observational evidence and support a causal role of higher lifetime smoking amount in the development of breast and colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The results from this comprehensive MR analysis indicate that lifetime smoking is a causal risk factor for these common malignancies.
Kliemann N, Viallon V, Murphy N, et al., 2021, Metabolic signatures of greater body size and their associations with risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, BMC Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015
Background:The mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer relationship are incompletely understood. This study aimed to characterise metabolic signatures of greater body size and to investigate their association with two obesity-related malignancies, endometrial and colorectal cancers, and with weight loss within the context of an intervention study.Methods:Targeted mass spectrometry metabolomics data from 4326 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and 17 individuals from a single-arm pilot weight loss intervention (Intercept) were used in this analysis. Metabolic signatures of body size were first determined in discovery (N = 3029) and replication (N = 1297) sets among EPIC participants by testing the associations between 129 metabolites and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) using linear regression models followed by partial least squares analyses. Conditional logistic regression models assessed the associations between the metabolic signatures with endometrial (N = 635 cases and 648 controls) and colorectal (N = 423 cases and 423 controls) cancer risk using nested case-control studies in EPIC. Pearson correlation between changes in the metabolic signatures and weight loss was tested among Intercept participants.Results:After adjustment for multiple comparisons, greater BMI, WC, and WHR were associated with higher levels of valine, isoleucine, glutamate, PC aa C38:3, and PC aa C38:4 and with lower levels of asparagine, glutamine, glycine, serine, lysoPC C17:0, lysoPC C18:1, lysoPC C18:2, PC aa C42:0, PC ae C34:3, PC ae C40:5, and PC ae C42:5. The metabolic signature of BMI (OR1-sd 1.50, 95% CI 1.30–1.74), WC (OR1-sd 1.46, 95% CI 1.27–1.69), and WHR (OR1-sd 1.54, 95% CI 1.33–1.79) were each associated with endometrial cancer risk. Risk of colorectal cancer was positively associated with
Papadimitriou N, Bouras E, van den Brandt PA, et al., 2021, A prospective diet-wide association study for risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN: 1542-3565
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5,069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta-carotene, fruit, fibre, non-white bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary HR per 1 SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95%CI:1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (1.04; 1.02-1.06), wine (1.04;1.02-1.07), beer/cider (1.06;1.04-1.08), milk (0.95;0.93-0.98), cheese (0.96;0.94-0.99), calcium (0.93;0.90-0.95), phosphorus (0.92;0.90-0.95), magnesium (0.95;0.92-0.98), potassium (0.96;0.94-0.99), riboflavin (0.94;0.92-0.97), beta-carotene (0.96;0.93-0.98), and total protein (0.94;0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta-carotene and total protein.
Bowden S, Bodinier B, Kalliala I, et al., 2021, Genetic variation in cervical preinvasive and invasive disease: a genome-wide association study, The Lancet Oncology, Vol: 22, Pages: 548-557, ISSN: 1213-9432
Background: Most uterine cervical high-risk HPV infections (hrHPV) are transient, with only a small 3fraction developing into cervical cancer. Family aggregation studies and heritability estimates suggest 4a significant inherited genetic component. Candidate gene studies and previous genome-wide 5association studies (GWAS) report associations between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region 6and cervical cancer. 78Methods: Adopting a genome-wide approach, we compared the genetic variation in women with 9invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3, to that in healthy 10controls using the largest reported cohort of unrelated European individuals (N=150,314)to date. We 11sought for replication in a second large independent dataset (N=128,123). We further performed a two-12sample Mendelian Randomisation approach to explore the role of risk factors in the genetic risk of 13cervical cancer.1415Findings: In our analysis (N=4,769 CIN3 and ICC cases; N=145,545 controls), of the (N=9,600,464) 16assayed and imputed SNPs, six independent variants were found associated with CIN3and ICC. These 17included novel loci rs10175462(PAX8; OR=0.87(95%CI=0.84-0.91); P=1.07x10-9) and rs27069 18(CLPTM1L;OR=0.88(95%CI=0.84-0.92); P=2.51x10-9), and previously reported signals at rs9272050 19(HLA-DQA1;OR=1.27(95%CI=1.21-1.32); P=2.51x10-28), rs6938453 (MICA;OR=0.7920(95%CI=0.75-0.83); P=1.97x10-17), rs55986091 (HLA-DQB1;OR=0.66(95%CI=0.60-0.72); 21P=6.42x10-22) and rs9266183 (HLA-B;OR=0.73(95%CI=0.64-0.83); P=1.53x10-6). Mendelian 22randomisation further supported the complementary role of smoking, age at first pregnancy, and number 23of sexual partners in the risk of developing cervical cancer.2425Interpretation: Our results provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer, 26including PAX8, CLPTM1LandHLA genes, suggesting disruption in apoptotic and immun
Christakoudi S, Pagoni P, Ferrari P, et al., 2021, Weight change in middle adulthood and risk of cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 148, Pages: 1637-1651, ISSN: 0020-7136
Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241,323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20,960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio HR=1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (+/-0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR=1.41; 1.01-1.96), post-menopausal breast (HR=1.08, 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR=1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organization categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the post-menopausal breast (HR=1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR=1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR=1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR=1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR=1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR=0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR=0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.
Watts EL, Perez-Cornago A, Knuppel A, et al., 2021, Prospective analyses of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin with the risk of 19 types of cancer in men and postmenopausal women in UK Biobank, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 149, Pages: 573-584, ISSN: 0020-7136
Amadou A, Freisling H, Jenab M, et al., 2021, Prevalent diabetes and risk of total, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers in an ageing population: meta-analysis of individual participant data from cohorts of the CHANCES consortium, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 124, Pages: 1882-1890, ISSN: 0007-0920
Ellingjord-Dale M, Christakoudi S, Weiderpass E, et al., 2021, Long-term weight change and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study., International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 0300-5771
BACKGROUND: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status. METHODS: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer. RESULTS: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (±2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85). CONCLUSION: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.
Jayasekara H, MacInnis RJ, Lujan-Barroso L, et al., 2021, Lifetime alcohol intake, drinking patterns over time and risk of stomach cancer: A pooled analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 148, Pages: 2759-2773, ISSN: 0020-7136
Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.
Papadimitriou N, Dimou N, Gill D, et al., 2021, Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micro-nutrients and risk of breast cancer: A Mendelian randomization study, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 148, Pages: 646-653, ISSN: 0020-7136
The epidemiological literature reports inconsistent associations between consumption or circulating concentrations of micro-nutrients and breast cancer risk. We investigated associations between genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micro-nutrients (beta-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc) and breast cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). A two-sample MR study was conducted using 122,977 women with breast cancer and 105,974 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. MR analyses were conducted using the inverse variance weighted approach, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions. One standard deviation (SD: 0.08 mmol/L) higher genetically predicted concentration of magnesium was associated with a 17% (odds ratio [OR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.25, P-value=9.1 ×10-7 ) and 20% (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.34, P-value=3.2×10-6 ) higher risk of overall and ER+ve breast cancer, respectively. An inverse association was observed for a SD (0.5 mg/dL) higher genetically predicted phosphorus concentration and ER-ve breast cancer (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.98, P-value=0.03). There was little evidence that any other nutrient was associated with breast cancer. The results for magnesium were robust under all sensitivity analyses and survived correction for multiple comparisons. Higher circulating concentrations of magnesium and potentially phosphorus may affect breast cancer risk. Further work is required to replicate these findings and investigate underlying mechanisms.
Ellingjord-Dale M, Papadimitriou N, Katsoulis M, et al., 2021, Coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer: A Mendelian randomization study, PLoS One, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203
Background:Observational studies have reported either null or weak protective associations for coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer.Methods:We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate the relationship between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk using 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coffee consumption from a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 212,119 female UK Biobank participants of White British ancestry. Risk estimates for breast cancer were retrieved from publicly available GWA summary statistics from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) on 122,977 cases (of which 69,501 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 21,468 ER-negative) and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR analyses were performed along with several sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential MR assumption violations.Results:One cup per day increase in genetically predicted coffee consumption in women was not associated with risk of total (IVW random-effects; odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.80–1.02, P: 0.12, P for instrument heterogeneity: 7.17e-13), ER-positive (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02, P: 0.09) and ER-negative breast cancer (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.75–1.03, P: 0.12). Null associations were also found in the sensitivity analyses using MR-Egger (total breast cancer; OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.80–1.25), weighted median (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.05) and weighted mode (OR: 1.00, CI: 0.93–1.07).Conclusions:The results of this large MR study do not support an association of genetically predicted coffee consumption on breast cancer risk, but we cannot rule out existence of a weak association.
Aleksandrova K, Reichmann R, Kaaks R, et al., 2021, Development and validation of a lifestyle-based model for colorectal cancer risk prediction: the LiFeCRC score, BMC Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015
BACKGROUND: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population. METHODS: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed. RESULTS: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, li
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