Imperial College London

Dr Kieran Brophy

Faculty of Engineering

Communications and Policy Manager
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 2572kieran.brophy13

 
 
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Location

 

Central LibrarySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

9 results found

Brophy K, Davies S, Olenik S, Cotur Y, Ming D, Van Zalk N, O'Hare D, Guder F, Yetisen AKet al., 2021, The future of wearable technologies, Briefing Paper

Report

Castillo Castillo A, Mulakkal M, Bexis P, Brophy Ket al., 2020, Enabling a greener plastic future through molecular science, Briefing Paper

Report

Otter J, Brophy K, Palmer J, Harrison N, Riley J, Williams D, Larrouy-Maumus Get al., 2020, Smart surfaces to tackle infection and antimicrobial resistance, Briefing Paper

Report

Hankin A, Guillen Gosalbez G, Kelsall G, Mac Dowell N, Shah N, Weider S, Brophy Ket al., 2019, Assessing the economic and environmental value of carbon capture and utilisation in the UK, Briefing paper, 3

• As a signatory to the 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement, the UK has committed to an ambitious transformation of its economy.• Decarbonisation of the UK’s economy must be a priority, but carbon-based fuels and platform chemicals will remain important to the global economy; their production from captured carbon dioxide and renewable energy can support this industrial need.• In this Briefing Paper, we report on results of a systematic procedure developed to assess the viability of different carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) pathways.• Our findings on three CCU pathways show that proposed CCU projects should always be assessed on a case-by-case basis, using detailed, UK centric, cradle-to-grave life cycle analyses.• CCU cannot provide the emission mitigation rate of carbon capture and storage (CCS), but as the UK’s entire geological storage capacity is offshore, CCU could mitigate emissions from inland point sources.• Of the considered CCU pathways, presently the production of polyurethane is the most promising for the UK and could provide an immediate short-term mitigation solution for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, methanol production does not appear to be a viable solution.

Report

Hankin A, Guillen Gosalbez G, Kelsall G, Mac Dowell N, Shah N, Weider S, Brophy Ket al., 2019, Assessing the economic and environmental value of carbon capture and utilisation in the UK, Briefing Note – summary of Briefing Paper No 3

• As a signatory to the 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement, the UK has committed to an ambitious transformation of its economy.• Decarbonisation of the UK’s economy must be a priority, but carbon-based fuels and platform chemicals will remain important to the global economy; their production from captured carbon dioxide and renewable energy can support this industrial need.• In this Briefing Paper, we report on results of a systematic procedure developed to assess the viability of different carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) pathways.• Our findings on three CCU pathways show that proposed CCU projects should always be assessed on a case-by-case basis, using detailed, UK centric, cradle-to-grave life cycle analyses.• CCU cannot provide the emission mitigation rate of carbon capture and storage (CCS), but as the UK’s entire geological storage capacity is offshore, CCU could mitigate emissions from inland point sources.• Of the considered CCU pathways, presently the production of polyurethane is the most promising for the UK and could provide an immediate short-term mitigation solution for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, methanol production does not appear to be a viable solution.

Report

Brophy K, Graven H, Manning AJ, White E, Arnold T, Fischer ML, Jeong S, Cui X, Rigby Met al., 2019, Characterizing uncertainties in atmospheric inversions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol: 19, Pages: 2991-3006, ISSN: 1680-7316

Atmospheric inverse modelling has become an increasingly useful tool for evaluating emissions of greenhouse gases including methane, nitrous oxide, and synthetic gases such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Atmospheric inversions for emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion (ffCO2) are currently being developed. The aim of this paper is to investigate potential errors and uncertainties related to the spatial and temporal prior representation of emissions and modelled atmospheric transport for the inversion of ffCO2 emissions in the US state of California. We perform simulation experiments based on a network of ground-based observations of CO2 concentration and radiocarbon in CO2 (a tracer of ffCO2), combining prior (bottom-up) emission models and transport models currently used in many atmospheric studies. The potential effect of errors in the spatial and temporal distribution of prior emission estimates is investigated in experiments by using perturbed versions of the emission estimates used to create the pseudo-data. The potential effect of transport error was investigated by using three different atmospheric transport models for the prior and pseudo-data simulations. We find that the magnitude of biases in posterior total state emissions arising from errors in the spatial and temporal distribution in prior emissions in these experiments are 1 %–15 % of posterior total state emissions and are generally smaller than the 2σ uncertainty in posterior emissions. Transport error in these experiments introduces biases of −10 % to +6 % into posterior total state emissions. Our results indicate that uncertainties in posterior total state ffCO2 estimates arising from the choice of prior emissions or atmospheric transport model are on the order of 15 % or less for the ground-based network in California we consider. We highlight the need for temporal variations to be included in prior emissions and for continuing efforts to

Journal article

Graven H, Fischer ML, Lueker T, Jeong S, Guilderson TP, Keeling RF, Bambha R, Brophy K, Callahan W, Cui X, Frankenberg C, Gurney K, LaFranchi BW, Lehman SJ, Michelson H, Miller JB, Newman S, Paplawsky W, Parazoo NC, Sloop C, Walker SJet al., 2018, Assessing fossil fuel CO₂ emissions in California using atmospheric observations and models, Environmental Research Letters, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1748-9326

Analysis systems incorporating atmospheric observations could provide a powerful tool for validating fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions reported for individual regions, provided that fossil fuel sources can be separated from other CO2 sources or sinks and atmospheric transport can be accurately accounted for. We quantified ffCO2 by measuring radiocarbon (14C) in CO2, an accurate fossil-carbon tracer, at nine observation sites in California for three months in 2014–15. There is strong agreement between the measurements and ffCO2 simulated using a high-resolution atmospheric model and a spatiotemporally-resolved fossil fuel flux estimate. Inverse estimates of total in-state ffCO2 emissions are consistent with the California Air Resources Board's reported ffCO2 emissions, providing tentative validation of California's reported ffCO2 emissions in 2014–15. Continuing this prototype analysis system could provide critical independent evaluation of reported ffCO2 emissions and emissions reductions in California, and the system could be expanded to other, more data-poor regions.

Journal article

Brophy K, Graven H, Manning AJ, White E, Arnold T, Fischer ML, Jeong S, Cui X, Rigby Met al., 2018, Characterizing uncertainties in atmospheric inversions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Pages: 1-44, ISSN: 1680-7367

Atmospheric inverse modelling has become an increasingly useful tool for evaluating emissions of greenhouse gases including methane, nitrous oxide, and synthetic gases such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Atmospheric inversions for emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion (ffCO2) are currently being developed. The aim of this paper is to investigate potential errors and uncertainties related to the spatial and temporal prior representation of emissions and modelled atmospheric transport for the inversion of ffCO2 emissions in the US state of California. We perform simulation experiments based on a network of ground-based observations of CO2 concentration and radiocarbon in CO2 (a tracer of ffCO2), combining prior (bottom-up) emission models and transport models currently used in many atmospheric studies. The potential effect of errors in the spatial and temporal distribution of prior emission estimates is investigated in experiments by using perturbed versions of the emission estimates used to create the pseudo-data. The potential effect of transport error was investigated by using three different atmospheric transport models for the prior and pseudo-data simulations. We find that the magnitude of biases in posterior total state emissions arising from errors in the spatial and temporal distribution in prior emissions in these experiments are 1 %–15 % of posterior total state emissions and are generally smaller than the 2σ uncertainty in posterior emissions. Transport error in these experiments introduces biases of −10 % to +6 % into posterior total state emissions. Our results indicate that uncertainties in posterior total state ffCO2 estimates arising from the choice of prior emissions or atmospheric transport model are on the order of 15 % or less for the ground-based network in California we consider. We highlight the need for temporal variations to be included in prior emissions and for continuing efforts to

Journal article

Fischer ML, Parazoo N, Brophy K, Cui X, Jeong S, Liu J, Keeling R, Taylor TE, Gurney K, Oda T, Graven Het al., 2017, Simulating estimation of California fossil fuel and biosphere carbon dioxide exchanges combining in situ tower and satellite column observations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol: 122, Pages: 3653-3671, ISSN: 2169-897X

We report simulation experiments estimating the uncertainties in California regional fossil fuel and biosphere CO2 exchanges that might be obtained by using an atmospheric inverse modeling system driven by the combination of ground‐based observations of radiocarbon and total CO2, together with column‐mean CO2 observations from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO‐2). The work includes an initial examination of statistical uncertainties in prior models for CO2 exchange, in radiocarbon‐based fossil fuel CO2 measurements, in OCO‐2 measurements, and in a regional atmospheric transport modeling system. Using these nominal assumptions for measurement and model uncertainties, we find that flask measurements of radiocarbon and total CO2 at 10 towers can be used to distinguish between different fossil fuel emission data products for major urban regions of California. We then show that the combination of flask and OCO‐2 observations yields posterior uncertainties in monthly‐mean fossil fuel emissions of ~5–10%, levels likely useful for policy relevant evaluation of bottom‐up fossil fuel emission estimates. Similarly, we find that inversions yield uncertainties in monthly biosphere CO2 exchange of ~6%–12%, depending on season, providing useful information on net carbon uptake in California's forests and agricultural lands. Finally, initial sensitivity analysis suggests that obtaining the above results requires control of systematic biases below approximately 0.5 ppm, placing requirements on accuracy of the atmospheric measurements, background subtraction, and atmospheric transport modeling.

Journal article

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