Imperial College London

Dr Kiran Haresh Kumar Patel

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Clinical Research Fellow







ICTEM buildingHammersmith Campus





Publication Type

11 results found

Patel K, li X, xu X, Lin S, maddalena A, Punjabi P, Purkayastha S, Peters NS, Ware JS, Ng FSet al., 2022, Increasing adiposity is associated with QTc interval prolongation and increased ventricular arrhythmic risk in the context of metabolic dysfunction: results from the UK Biobank, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2297-055X

Background: Small-scale studies have linked obesity (Ob) and metabolic ill-health with proarrhythmic repolarisation abnormalities. Whether these are observed at a population-scale, modulated by individuals’ genetics and confer higher risks of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) are not known. Methods and Results: Firstly, using the UK Biobank, the association between adiposity and QTc interval was assessed in participants with resting 12-lead ECG (n=23,683), and a polygenic risk score was developed to investigate any modulatory effect of genetics. Participants were also categorised into four phenotypes according to presence (+) or absence (-) of Ob, and if they were metabolically unhealthy (MU+) or not (MU-). QTc was positively associated with body mass index, body fat, waist:hip ratio, and hip and waist girths. Individuals’ genetics had no significant modulatory effect on QTc-prolonging effects of increasing adiposity. QTc was comparably longer in those with metabolic perturbationwithout obesity (Ob-MU+) and obesity alone (Ob+MU-) compared to individuals with neither (Ob-MU-), and their co-existence (Ob+MU+) had an additive effect on QTc interval. Secondly, for 502,536 participants in the UK Biobank, odds ratios (OR) for ventricular arrhythmias (VA) were computed for the four clinical phenotypes above using their past medical records. Referenced to Ob-MU-, ORs for VA in Ob-MU+ males and females were 5.96 (95%CI: 4.70-7.55) and 5.10 (95%CI: 3.34-7.80), respectively. OR for Ob+MU+ were 6.99 (95%CI: 5.72-8.54) and 3.56 (95%CI: 2.66-4.77) in males and females, respectively. Conclusion: Adiposity and metabolic perturbation increase QTc to a similar degree, and their co-existence exerts an additive effect. These effects are not modulated by individuals’ genetics. Metabolic ill-health is associated with higher OR for VA than obesity.

Journal article

Sau A, Kaura A, Ahmed A, Patel KHK, Li X, Mulla A, Glampson B, Panoulas V, Davies J, Woods K, Gautama S, Shah AD, Elliott P, Hemingway H, Williams B, Asselbergs FW, Melikian N, Peters NS, Shah AM, Perera D, Kharbanda R, Patel RS, Channon KM, Mayet J, Ng FSet al., 2022, Prognostic significance of ventricular arrhythmias in 13444 patients with acute coronary syndrome: a retrospective cohort study based on routine clinical data (NIHR Health Informatics Collaborative VA-ACS Study), Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 2047-9980

Background: A minority of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases are associated with ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and/or cardiac arrest (CA). We investigated the effect of VA/CA at time of ACS on long-term outcomes.Methods and Results: We analysed routine clinical data from 5 NHS Trusts in the United Kingdom, collected between 2010 and 2017, by the National Institute for Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative (NIHR HIC).13,444 patients with ACS, of which 376 (2.8%) had concurrent VA, survived to hospital discharge and were followed up for a median of 3.42 years. Patients with VA or CA at index presentation had significantly increased risks of subsequent VA during follow-up (VA group: adjusted HR 4.15, 95% CI 2.42-7.09, CA group: adjusted HR 2.60 95% CI 1.23-5.48). Patients who suffered a CA in the context of ACS and survived to discharge also had a 36% increase in long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.36 (95% 1.04-1.78)), though the concurrent diagnosis of VA alone during ACS did not affect all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80-1.33). Conclusions: Patients who develop VA or CA during ACS, who survive to discharge, have increased risks of subsequent VA, while those who have CA during ACS also have an increase in long-term mortality. These individuals may represent a subgroup at greater risk of subsequent arrhythmic events due to intrinsically lower thresholds for developing VA.

Journal article

Ardissino M, Slob E, Millar O, Reddy R, Lazzari L, Patel KHK, Ryan D, Johnson M, Gill D, Ng FSet al., 2022, Maternal hypertension increases risk of pre-eclampsia and low fetal birthweight: genetic evidence from a Mendelian randomization study, Hypertension, Vol: 79, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0194-911X

Background: Maternal cardiovascular risk factors have been associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Given the difficulty in establishing causal relationships using epidemiological data, we applied Mendelian randomization to explore the role of cardiovascular risk factors on risk of developing pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, and low fetal birthweight.Methods: Uncorrelated single nucleotide polymorphisms associated systolic blood pressure, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein with cholesterol, smoking, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate at genome-wide significance in studies of 298,957 to 1,201,909 European ancestry participants were selected as instrumental variables. A two-sample Mendelian randomization study was performed with primary outcome of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia (PET). Risk factors associated with PET were further investigated for their association with low birthweight. Results: Higher genetically-predicted systolic blood pressure was associated increased risk of PET [odds ratio (OR) per 1-SD systolic blood pressure increase 1.90 (95% confidence interval (CI)1.45-2.49;p=3.23x10-6 and reduced birthweight (OR=0.83; 95%CI=0.79-0.86;p=3.96x10-18), and this was not mediated by PET. Body mass index and type 2 diabetes were also associated with PET (respectively, OR per 1-SD body mass index increase=1.67 95%CI=1.44-1.94,;p=7.45x10-12; and OR per logOR increase type 2 diabetes=1.11 95%CI=1.04-1.19p;=1.19x10-3), but not with reduced birthweight. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for causal effects of systolic blood pressure, body mass index and type 2 diabetes on PET, and identify that systolic blood pressure is associated with reduced birthweight independently of PET. The results provide insight into the pathophysiological basis of PET and identify hypertension as a potentially modifiable risk factor amenable to therapeutic intervention.

Journal article

Ardissino M, Reddy RK, Slob EAW, Patel KHK, Ryan DK, Gill D, Ng FSet al., 2022, Sleep disordered breathing, obesity and atrial fibrillation: a mendelian randomisation study, Geneses, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1155-3219

It remains unclear whether the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a form of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and atrial fibrillation (AF) is causal or mediated by shared co-morbidities such as obesity. Existing observational studies are conflicting and limited by confounding and reverse causality. We performed Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal relationships between SDB, body mass index (BMI) and AF. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with SDB (n = 29) and BMI (n = 453) were selected as instrumental variables to investigate the effects of SDB and BMI on AF, using genetic association data on 55,114 AF cases and 482,295 controls. Primary analysis was conducted using inverse-variance weighted MR. Higher genetically predicted SDB and BMI were associated with increased risk of AF (OR per log OR increase in snoring liability 2.09 (95% CI 1.10–3.98), p = 0.03; OR per 1-SD increase in BMI 1.33 (95% CI 1.24–1.42), p < 0.001). The association between SDB and AF was not observed in sensitivity analyses, whilst associations between BMI and AF remained consistent. Similarly, in multivariable MR, SDB was not associated with AF after adjusting for BMI (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.42–1.10), p = 0.12). Higher BMI remained associated with increased risk of AF after adjusting for OSA (OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.30–1.51), p < 0.001). Elevated BMI appears causal for AF, independent of SDB. Our data suggest that the association between SDB, in general, and AF is attributable to mediation or confounding from obesity, though we cannot exclude that more severe SDB phenotypes (i.e., OSA) are causal for AF.

Journal article

Patel K, Hwang T, Se Liebers C, Ng FSet al., 2021, Epicardial adipose tissue as a mediator of cardiac arrhythmias, American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol: 322, ISSN: 0363-6135

Obesity is associated with higher risks of cardiac arrhythmias. Although this may be partly explained by concurrent cardiometabolic ill-health, growing evidence suggests that increasing adiposity independently confers risk for arrhythmias. Amongst fat depots, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) exhibits a proinflammatory secretome, and given the lack of fascial separation, has been implicated as a transducer of inflammation to the underlying myocardium. The present review explores the mechanisms underpinning adverse electrophysiological remodelling as a consequence of EAT accumulation and the consequent inflammation. We first describe the physiological and pathophysiological function of EAT and its unique secretome, and subsequently discuss the evidence for ionic channel and connexin expression modulation as well as fibrotic remodelling induced by cytokines and free fatty acids that are secreted by EAT. Finally, we highlight how weight reduction and regression of EAT volume may cause reverse remodelling to ameliorate arrhythmic risk.

Journal article

Patel K, Li X, Sun L, Peters N, Ng FSet al., 2021, Neural networks applied to 12-lead electrocardiograms predict body mass index, visceral adiposity and concurrent cardiometabolic ill-health, Cardiovascular Digital Health Journal, Vol: 2, Pages: S1-S10, ISSN: 2666-6936

BackgroundObesity is associated with electrophysiological remodeling, which manifests as detectable changes on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG).ObjectiveTo develop neural networks (NN) to predict body mass index (BMI) from ECGs and test the hypothesis that discrepancies between NN-predicted BMI and measured BMI are indicative of underlying adiposity and/or concurrent cardiometabolic ill-health.MethodsNN models were developed using 36,856 12-lead resting ECGs from the UK Biobank. Two architectures were developed for continuous and categorical BMI estimation (normal weight [BMI <25 kg/m2] vs overweight/obese [BMI ≥25 kg/m2]). Models for male and female participants were trained and tested separately. For each sex, data were randomly divided into 4 folds, and models were evaluated in a leave-1-fold-out manner.ResultsECGs were available for 17,807 male and 19,049 female participants (mean ages: 61 ± 7 and 63 ± 8 years; mean BMI 26 ± 5 kg/m2 and 27 ± 4 kg/m2, respectively). NN models detected overweight/obese individuals with average accuracies of 75% and 73% for male and female subjects, respectively. The magnitudes of difference between NN-predicted BMI and actual BMI were significantly correlated with visceral adipose tissue volumes. Concurrent hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and/or coronary heart disease explained false-positive classifications (ie, calculated BMI <25 kg/m2 misclassified as ≥25 kg/m2 by NN model, P < .001).ConclusionNN models applied to 12-lead ECGs predict BMI with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Discrepancies between NN-predicted and calculated BMI may be indicative of underlying visceral adiposity and concomitant cardiometabolic perturbation, which could be used to identify individuals at risk of cardiometabolic disease.

Journal article

Patel K, Li X, Quint J, Ware J, Peters N, Ng FSet al., 2021, Increasing adiposity and the presence of cardiometabolic morbidity is associated with increased Covid-19-related mortality: results from the UK Biobank, BMC Endocrine Disorders, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 1472-6823

Background: Although obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and more severe course of illness in Covid-19 positive patients amongst the British population, it is unclear if this translates into increased mortality. Furthermore, given that BMI is an insensitive indicator of adiposity, the effect of adipose volume on Covid-19 outcomes is also unknown. Methods: We used the UK Biobank repository, which contains clinical and anthropometric data, and is linked to Public Health England Covid-19 healthcare records, to address our research question. We performed age- and sex- adjusted logistic regression and Chi-squared test to compute the odds for Covid-19-related mortality as a consequence of increasing BMI, other more sensitive indices of adiposity such as waist:hip ratio (WHR) and percent body fat, as well as concomitant cardiometabolic illness.Results: 13502 participants were tested for Covid-19 (mean age 70+8 years, 48.9% male). 1,582 tested positive (mean age 68+9 years, 52.8% male), of which 305 died (mean age 75+6 years, 65.5% male). Increasing adiposity was associated with higher odds for Covid-19-related mortality. For every unit increase in BMI, WHR and percent body fat, the odds of death amongst the Covid19-positive participants increased by 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), 10.71 (95% CI 1.57-73.06) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05), respectively (all p<0.05). Referenced to Covid-19 positive participants with a normal weight (BMI 18.5-25kg/m2), Covid-19 positive participants with BMI>35kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of Covid-19-related death (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06-2.74, p<0.05). Covid-19-positive participants with metabolic (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia) or cardiovascular morbidity (atrial fibrillation, angina) also had higher odds of death.Conclusions: Anthropometric indices that are more sensitive to adipose volume and its distribution than BMI, as well as concurrent cardiometabolic illnes

Journal article

Chowdhury R, Debney M, Protti A, Handa B, Patel K, Lyon A, shah A, ng FS, Peters Net al., 2021, Rotigaptide Infusion for the First 7 Days After Myocardial Infarction–Reperfusion Reduced Late Complexity of Myocardial Architecture of the Healing Border-Zone and Arrhythmia Inducibility, Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2047-9980

BackgroundSurvivors of myocardial infarction are at increased risk of late ventricular arrhythmias, with infarct size and scar heterogeneity being key determinants of arrhythmic risk. Gap junctions facilitate the passage of small ions and morphogenic cell signaling between myocytes. We hypothesized that gap junctions enhancement during infarction–reperfusion modulates structural and electrophysiological remodeling and reduces late arrhythmogenesis.Methods and ResultsInfarction–reperfusion surgery was carried out in male Sprague‐Dawley rats followed by 7 days of rotigaptide or saline administration. The in vivo and ex vivo arrhythmogenicity was characterized by programmed electrical stimulation 3 weeks later, followed by diffusion‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging and Masson's trichrome histology. Three weeks after 7‐day postinfarction administration of rotigaptide, ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation was induced on programmed electrical stimulation in 20% and 53% of rats, respectively (rotigaptide versus control), resulting in reduction of arrhythmia score (3.2 versus 1.4, P=0.018), associated with the reduced magnetic resonance imaging parameters fractional anisotropy (fractional anisotropy: −5% versus −15%; P=0.062) and mean diffusivity (mean diffusivity: 2% versus 6%, P=0.042), and remodeling of the 3‐dimensional laminar structure of the infarct border zone with reduction of the mean (16° versus 19°, P=0.013) and the dispersion (9° versus 12°, P=0.015) of the myofiber transverse angle. There was no change in ECG features, spontaneous arrhythmias, or mortality.ConclusionsEnhancement of gap junctions function by rotigaptide administered during the early healing phase in reperfused infarction reduces later complexity of infarct scar morphology and programmed electrical stimulation–induced arrhythmias, and merits further exploration as a feasible and practicable intervention in the acute myocardial infarcti

Journal article

Patel K, Jones T, Sattler S, Mason J, Ng FSet al., 2020, Pro-arrhythmic electrophysiological and structural remodelling in rheumatoid arthritis, American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol: 319, Pages: H1008-H1020, ISSN: 0363-6135

Chronic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are associated with a two-fold increase in the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) compared to the healthy population. Although this is partly explained by an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, growing evidence suggests that ischaemia alone cannot completely account for the increased risk. The present review explores the mechanisms of cardiac electrophysiological remodelling in response to chronic inflammation in RA. In particular, it focuses on the roles of non-ischaemic structural remodelling, altered cardiac ionic currents and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in ventricular arrhythmogenesis and SCD. It also explores whether common genetic elements predispose to both RA and SCD. Finally, it evaluates the potential dual effects of disease-modifying therapy in both diminishing and promoting the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and SCD.

Journal article

Creta A, Chow AW, Sporton S, Finlay M, Papageorgiou N, Honarbakhsh S, Dhillon G, Graham A, Patel KHK, Dhinoja M, Earley MJ, Hunter RJ, Lowe M, Rowland E, Segal OR, Calabrese V, Ricciardi D, Lambiase PD, Schilling RJ, Providência Ret al., 2019, Catheter ablation for fascicular ventricular tachycardia: A systematic review., Int J Cardiol, Vol: 276, Pages: 136-148

INTRODUCTION: Catheter ablation has been evaluated as treatment for fascicular ventricular tachycardia (FVT) in several single-centre cohort studies, with variable results regarding efficacy and outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search was performed on PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane database (from inception to November 2017) that included studies on FVT catheter ablation. RESULTS: Thirty-eight observational non-controlled case series comprising 953 patients with FVT undergoing catheter ablation were identified. Three studies were prospective and only 5 were multi-centre. Eight-hundred and eighty-four patients (94.2%) had left posterior FVT, 25 (3.4%) left anterior FVT and 30 (2.4%) other forms. In 331 patients (41%), ablation was performed in sinus rhythm (SR). The mean follow-up period was 41.4 ± 10.7 months. Relapse of FVT occurred in 100 patients (10.7%). Among the 79 patients (8.3%) requiring a further procedure after the index ablation, 19 (2%) had further FVT relapses. Studies in which ablation was performed in FVT had similar success rate after multiple procedures compared to ablation in SR only (95.1%, CI95% 92.2-97%, I2 = 0% versus 94.8%, CI95% 87.6-97.9%, I2 = 0%, respectively). Success rate was numerically lower in paediatric-only series compared to non-paediatric cases (90.0%, CI95% 82.1-94.6%, I2 = 0% versus 94.3%, CI95% 92.2-95.9%, I2 = 0%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Data derived from observational non-controlled case series, with low-methodological quality, suggest that catheter ablation is a safe and effective treatment for FVT, with a 93.5% success rate after multiple procedures. Ablation during FVT represents the first-line and most commonly used approach; however, a strategy of mapping and ablation during SR displayed comparable procedural results to actively mapping patients in FVT and should therefore be considered in selected cases where FVT is not inducible.

Journal article

Creta A, Chow AW, Sporton S, Finlay M, Papageorgiou N, Honarbakhsh S, Dhillon G, Graham A, Patel KH, Dhinoja M, Earley MJ, Hunter RJ, Lowe M, Rowland E, Segal OR, Calabrese V, Ricciardi D, Lambiase PD, Schilling RJ, Providência Ret al., 2018, Procedural and quality assessment data on catheter ablation for fascicular ventricular tachycardia., Data Brief, Vol: 21, Pages: 2376-2378

Data presented in this article are supplementary materials to our article entitled "Catheter Ablation for Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia: A Systematic review" (Creta et al., 2018). The current article provides additional procedural data regarding the catheter ablation for fascicular ventricular tachycardia (FVT) performed in the patients enrolled in our analysis. Furthermore, we provide data regarding the quality assessment of the studies included in our systematic review.

Journal article

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