Imperial College London

Dr Kleoniki Natalia Petrou

Faculty of Natural SciencesCentre for Environmental Policy

Research Support Assistant



+44 (0)20 7594 7398kleoniki.petrou12 CV




30116 Prince's GardensSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

7 results found

Halkos G, Petrou KN, 2020, The relationship between MSW and education: WKC evidence from 25 OECD countries, Waste Management, Vol: 114, Pages: 240-252, ISSN: 0956-053X

Journal article

Halkos G, Petrou KN, 2019, Analysing the energy efficiency of EU member states: The potential of energy recovery from waste in the circular economy, Energies, Vol: 12, Pages: 3718-3718, ISSN: 1996-1073

This paper examines energy efficiency across 28 selected European Union (EU) Member States and reviews the potential for energy recovery from waste according to the efficiency scores obtained. The efficiencies are assessed through data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the following variables are used, inputs: final energy consumption, labour, capital, population density and outputs: gross domestic product (GDP), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the years 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016. Results show that most countries maintain their efficiency scores with only a few marginally improving theirs and at the same time, it is noticed that most are decreasing after 2012. Based on these efficiency scores, this paper recommends moving towards waste-to-energy with two main objectives, namely sufficient and sustainable energy production and effective treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). This option would enhance the circular economy, whereas prioritization needs to be given to prevention, preparation for reuse, recycling and energy recovery through to disposal. Together with the EU Commission’s competition strategy, these options would ensure reliable energy supplies at rational prices and with the least environmental impacts. Moreover the efficiency scores need to be examined along the financial crisis which has been affecting the EU since 2008, showing a decrease in those efficiency scores after 2012 under a more imminent crisis.

Journal article

Halkos G, Petrou KN, 2019, Treating undesirable outputs in DEA: A critical review, Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol: 62, Pages: 97-104, ISSN: 0313-5926

Journal article

Halkos G, Petrou KN, 2019, Evaluating 22 EU member states’ ‘waste culture’ using Hofstede’s and Schwartz’s cultural dimensions, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, Vol: 26, Pages: 313-328, ISSN: 1350-4509

Journal article

Halkos G, Petrou KN, 2019, Assessing 28 EU member states' environmental efficiency in national waste generation with DEA, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 208, Pages: 509-521, ISSN: 0959-6526

This paper deals with the efficiency of the 28 European Union (EU) Member States for the years 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 by employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and directional distance function to tackle undesirable outputs. Eight parameters are used, namely municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, employment rate, capital formation, gross domestic product (GDP), population density and for the first time sulphur oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from the waste sector for the relevant countries. The innovation of this paper lies in the fact that both new parameters are taken into account and that diverse modelling techniques have been employed in terms of the outputs and inputs used. The empirical results obtained were bias corrected in order to get the correct efficiency scores for each country studied. Overall the most efficient countries were shown to be Germany, Ireland and the UK. These results were then reviewed against the recycling rate of each country for the examined time periods. The recycling rate actually depicts the DEA results, namely more efficient countries seem to have a higher recycling rate too. Moreover the DEA efficiency results were contrasted to the overall treatment options used in the countries under consideration. Overall it is noticed that countries employing all four treatment options with high use of more sustainable ones and decrease in the use of landfill are the ones that also proved to be efficient according to DEA. These results resemble the image of a financial crisis hit Europe which tried to take advantage of the more sustainable treatment options in order to achieve a transition to a circular economy, whereas the value of products, materials and resources needs to be maintained in the economy for as long as possible and the generation of waste minimised. This can be a valuable lesson for policy makers in the design and application of national and EU legislations and directives in order t

Journal article

Halkos G, Petrou KN, 2018, Assessing waste generation efficiency in EU regions towards sustainable environmental policies, Sustainable Development, Vol: 26, Pages: 281-301, ISSN: 0968-0802

This paper employs data envelopment analysis (DEA) to consider waste generation at a regional level in the European Union (EU). By doing so both good and bad outputs are taken into account and different frameworks are designed. Five parameters (waste generation, employment rate, capital formation, GDP and population density) are used for 172 EU regions and for the years 2009, 2011 and 2013. In this way four frameworks have been designed, each with different inputs and outputs. The results show the most efficient EU regions according to each framework, but it should be noted that results from different frameworks should not be compared with each other. Overall results suggest that the highest performers are regions in Belgium, Italy, Portugal and the UK. Finally, the efficiency results from DEA were reviewed against the treatment options employed in the relevant regions to assess overall sustainability of the regions examined. Findings show that, although a country might be efficient according to DEA and by taking various factors into consideration, this does not necessarily mean that regions within a country use sustainable waste treatment options, as it is essential to account for trade and shipment of waste between regions and countries as well. These findings may prove valuable for the planning of environmental policies, especially on an EU regional level. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment

Journal article

Halkos G, Petrou N, 2016, Moving Towards a Circular Economy: Rethinking Waste Management Practices, Journal of Economic and Social Thought

Journal article

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